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The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 
as the " Philosophical Society of Australasia" ; after an intend 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; and finally, in 1866, by the 
sanction of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed 
its present title. 


I.— List of Officers, Rules, and List of Members 

II.— -Anniversary Address, by Charles Moore, F.L.S., 

Vice-President. (Diagram) 

III.— On the Longitude of the Sydney Observatory. By 

John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

IV.— On the Opposition and Magnitudes of Uranus and 

Jupiter. By John Tebbutt, F.R. AS 

V.— Some new Double Stars, with remarks upon several 
Binaries. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. (Two dia- 

VI.— The Orbit Elements of Comet I, 1880 (Great Southern 

Comet). By John Tebbutt, F.R. A. S 

VII. — A new method of printing Barometer and other 

Curves. By H. C. Russell, B.A, F.R.A.S 

VIII.— Sliding Scale for correcting Barometer Readings. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. (Diagram) 

IX.— On Thunder and Hail Storms. By H. C. Russell, 

B.A, F.R.A.S. 
X.— On some recent changes on the surface of Jupiter. 

By H. C. Russell, B. A, F.R. A S. ( Two diagram,) 

XI.— Remarks on the Colours of Jupiter's Belts, and some 

changes observed thereon during the Opposition of 1880. 

XII.— A Catalogue of Plants collected during Mr. Alexr. 
Forrest's Geographical Exploration of North-west Austra- 
lia in 1879. By Baron Ferdinand von Miiellr-r. K.C. M.< r., 
M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. (Map) 

XIII.— On Ringbarking and its Effects. By W. E. Abbott 

XIV.— "Notes on the Fossil Flora of Eastern Australia and 
Tasmania. By Dr. Ottaker Feistmantel 

XV.— On the Acids of the Native Currant. By E. H. 
Rennie, M.A., B.Sc 

XVI. —On Piturie. By Professor Liversidge - 

XVII.— On Salt bush and Native Fodder Plants. By YY . 

A. Dixon, F.C.S 

XVIII.— Water from a Hot Spring, New Britain. By 

Professor Liversidge 

XIX.— "Water from a Hot Spring, Fiji Islands. By Professor 


XX. — The composition of Cast-iron acted upon by Sea- 
water. By Professor Liversidge 

XXL— On the Composition of some Wood enclosed in 

Basalt. By Professor Liversidge 

, XXIL— TheCompositionofCoralLimestone. ByProfessor 


, XXIII. —The Inorganic Constituents of the Coals of New 

South Wales. By W. A. Dixon, F.C.S 

XXIV.— On the Composition of some New South Wales 

Coals. By Professor Liversidge 

XXV.— On some New South Wales Minerals. By 

Professor Liversidge 

XXVI.-Notes on some Minerals from New Caledonia. 

ByProfessor Liversidge 

XXVII.— Notes on aCollectionof Fossils from the Palaeozoic 

Rocks of New South Wah-s. Jly It. Ktli.-ri.lgo, junr., 

F.G.S. (Plate) 

, XXVIII. —A Comparison between the Prospect and Kenny 

Hill Schemes of Water Supply for Sydney. By F. B. 


, XXIX.-On Wells in the Liverpool Plains. By T. K. 

Abbott, P.M. (Map) 

XXX.— Proceedings 

XXXI. — Additions to the Library 

XXXn. — List of Presentations made by the Royal 

Society of New South Walks 

ports from the Sections 

Paper read before the Medical Section. 
The Causation and Prevention of Insanity. By F. Norton 

Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Observations at th 

Sydney Observatory. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. . 

Rainfall Map for the year 1880. H. C. Russell, B. A. , F.R. A.S 

List of Publications 




VOL. 3CI"V. 

All Donations presented to the Society are acknowledged 
by letter, and in the printed Proceedings oj the Society. 

The Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A., 
and Messrs. Tnibncr & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, 
have kindly undertaken to receive and forward parcels 
of books and printed matter intended for the Society. 

3 to the Building Fund, 
Original List. 

Abbott, Thomas 

Belfield, A. H. 

Bensusan, S. L. 

Bennett, G. F. 


Bolding, H. I., I 

lie Hon. Alex., 
. W. B., M.A., 

The Hon. L. F., 
iV Sails L. W., jun. 

' . F.C.S. 
. IfStB., M.A. 


Frazer, The Hon. John, M.L.C. 

Gilliatt, H. A 

Graham, The Hon. W., M.L.C. 

Hunt, Robert, F.G.S 

MacDonnell, Willi; 
MicKu 7 c J 1 1 , 

Manning, I'lvdi-rie' 
Martin, Itcv. < leor 

Moore, Charles, F.LJ 
Morehead, R. A. A. 
Mullens, Josiah, F.R. 

Norton, J. ... 

O'Reillv, \W. W. 
, Hugh 

Gopher, C.M.a 
Russell, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S., 

iiliam, M.A. 
Sharp, James B., J.P. 

i. J.',"C.M.(}., M 

Suttor, \V. If., J.P. 

Bassett, W. F., M.R.( 

BroKb' \V U A. ,S (tota: 

Dixson, Di Th. 
Dixon, Yv\ A. (t- 

Evans, George 

total donation, £17 12s.) 
otal donation, £6 6s.) ' 
. (total donation, £4 4s.) 

Latta, G. J. 

Liversidge, Professor' .'.'.' 
-. !».. M.A. 
it Rev. Dr. ... 
. F.L.S. 

. A. A. (total don 
MulHns. .!'. F. L 

Poolnian. F 

D. Placid 
.. B.A. (total do] 

Wilkin^u. (AS., F.G.S. ... 

,. '.V. (total do: 
;. A., M.R.C.S. 

total donation, £21) 

Griffiths, F.C 

Hirst, G. D 

Hum, Eolurtitot.ddt r.atmn, £7 W 
Leibius. Dr. u< ;. 

sor (total donation, 

Annual Subscriptions promised. 

Liversidge, Professor 
Moore, Charles, F.L.S. 
Russell, H. C, B.A. 
Smith, The Hon. J., CI 

% § opt fcljr of f efo £<ratj( Wales. 

OEFICEES FOE 1880-81. 


H. a. A. WEIGHT, M.E.C.S., E. 


DTXOV. W. A., E.C.S. j M05TEFI0RE, E. L. 




I Collections... 
as to the Society 
Corresponding Members 
Council, Election of 
„ Members of 

Governor, Honorary Presidem 
Meetings, Ordinary General 

Members, Honorary 
Object of the Society 

Property of the Society 

Rules, Alteration of 
Scrutineers, Appointme 
Sections, Membership c 


(Revised October 1st, 1879.) 

Object of the Society. 

I. The object of the Society is to receive at its stated meetings 
original papers on Science, Art, Literature, and Philosophy, and 
especially on such subjects as tend to develop the resources of 
Australia, and to illustrate its Natural History and Productions. 

Honorary President. 

II. The Governor of New' South Wales shall be ex officio 
Honorary President of the Society. 

Other Officers. 

III. The other Officers of the Society shall consist of a 
President, who shall hold office for one year only, but shall be 
eligible for re-election after the lapse of one year ; two Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, and one or more Secretaries, who, with 
six other Members, shall constitute a Council for the management 
of the affairs of the Society. 

Election of Officers and Council. 

IT. The President, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, Treasurer, 
and the six other Members of Council, shall be elected annually 
by ballot at the General Meeting in the month of May. 

V. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare I 
list containing the names of members whom they recommend for 
election to the respective offices of President, Vice-Presidents, 
Hon. Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names 
of six other members whom they recommend for election as 
ordinary members of Council. 

The names thus recommended shall be proposed at one meeting 
of the Council, and agreed to at a subsequent meeting. 

Such list skill be suspended in the Society's Rooms, and a copy- 
shall be sent to each ordinary member not less than fourteen days 
before the day appointed for the Annual General Meeting. 

VI. Each member present at the Annual General Meeting 
shall have the power to alter the list of names recommended by 
the Council, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and removing from it an equivalent 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 

The name of each member voting shall be entered into a book, 
kept for that purpose, by two Scrutineers elected by the members 

No ballot for the election of Members of Council, or of New 
Members, shall be valid unles3 twenty members at least shall 
record their votes. 

Vacancies during the year. 

VII. Any vacancies occurring in the Council of Management 
during the year may be filled up by the Council. 

Candidates for admission. 

VIII. Candidates must be at least twenty-one years of age. 
Every candidate for admission as an ordinary member of the 

Society shall be recommended according to a prescribed form of 
certificate by not less than three members, to two of whom the 
candidate must be personally known. 

Such certificate must set forth the names, place of residence, 
and qualifications of the candidate. 

The certificate shall be read at the three Ordinary General 
Meetings of the Society next ensuing after its receipt, and 
during the intervals between those three meetings, it shall be 
suspended iu a conspicuous place in one of the rooms of the 

The vote as to admission shall take place by ballot, at the 
Ordinary General Meeting at which the certificate is appointed 
to be read the third time, and immediately after such reading. 

At the ballot the assent of at least four-fifths of the members 
voting shall be requisite for the admission of the candidate. 


IX. The entrance money paid by members on their admission 
shall be Two Guineas ; and the annual subscription shall be 
Two Guineas, payable in advance; but members elected prior to 
December, 1879, shall be required to pay an annual subscription of 
One Guinea only as heretofore. 

The amount of ten annual payments may be paid at any time 
as a life composition for the ordinary annual payment. 

New Members to be informed of their election. 

X. Every new member shall receive due notification of his 
election, and be supplied with a copy of the obligation (No. 3 in 
-Appendix), together with a copy of the Eules of the Society, a 
list of members, and a card of the dates of meeting. 

Members shall sign Rules— Formal admission. 

XI. Every member who has complied with the preceding 
Eules shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which he 
shall be present sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation in a 
book to be kept for that purpose, after which he shall be presented 
by some member to the Chairman, who, addressing him by name, 
shall say :— " I u the name of the Eoyal Society of New South 
Wales I admit you a member thereof." 

Annual subscriptions, when due. 

XII. Annual subscriptions shall become due on the 1st of 
May for the year then commencing. The entrance fee and first 
year's subscription of a new member shall become due on the 
day of his election. 

/ no privileges. 

XIII. An elected member shall not be entitled to attend the 
meetings or to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall his 
name be printed in the list of the Society, nntil he shall have 
paid his admission fee and first annual subscription, and have 
returned to the Secretaries the obligation signed by himself. 
Subscriptions in arrears. 

XIY. Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 
current year, on or before the 31st of May, shall be informed of 
the fact by the Hon. Treasurer. 

No member shall be entitled to vote or hold office while his 
subscription for the previous year remains unpaid. 

The name of any member who shall be two years in arrears 
with his subscriptions shall be erased from the list of members, 
but such member may be re-admitted on giving a satisfactory 
explai ation to tin C< m eu\ i ad on payment of arrears. 

At the meeting held in July, and at all subsequent meetings 

for the year, a list of the names of all those members who are in 

arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 

Eooms of the Society. Members shall in such eases be informed 

B been thus posted. 

Resignation of Members. 

XY. Members who wish to resign their membership of the 

Society are requested to give notice in writing to the Honorary 

Secretaries, and are required to return all books or other property 

belonging to the Society. 

Expulsion of Members. 
XVI. A majority of members present at any ordinary meet- 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member from the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after the meeting at which such resolution 
has been brought forward. 

Honorary Members. 

XVII. The Honorary Members of the Society shall be persons 
who have been eminent benefactors to this or some other of 
the Australian Colonies, ami oa and promoters 
of the objects of the Society, Every person proposed as an 
Honorary Member must be recommended by the Council and 
elected by the Society. Honorary Members shall be exempted 
from payment of fees and contributions : they may attend the 
meetings of the Society, and they shall be furnished with copies 
of the publications of the Society, but they shall have no right 
to hold office, to vote, or otherwise interfere in the business of 
the Society. 

The number of Honorary Members shall not at any one time 
exceed twenty, and not more than two Honorary Members shall 
be elected in any one year. 

Corresponding Members. 

XVIII. Corresponding Members shall be persons, not resident 
in New South "Wales, of eminent scientific attainments, who may 
have furnished papers or otherwise promoted the objects of the 

Corresponding Members shall be recommended by the Council, 
and be balloted for in the same manner as ordinary Members. 

Corresponding Members shall possess the same privileges only 
as Honorary Members. 

The number of Corresponding Members shall not exceed 
twenty-five, and not more than three shall be elected in any one 

Ordinary General Meetings. 

XIX. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Royal 

be convened by public advertisement, shall lake place 

on the first "Wednesday in every month, during the 

months of the year ; subject to alteration by the Cc 

Order of Business. 

XX. At the Ordinary General Meetings the business shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1 — Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

2 — New Members to enrol their names and be introduced. 

3 — Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4 — Candidates for membership to be proposed. 

5 — Business arising out of Minutes. 

G — Communications from the Council. 

7 — Communications from the Sections. 

8— Donations to be laid on the Table and acknowledged. 

9 — Correspondence to be read. 
10— Motions from last Meeting. 

11— Notices of Motion for the next Meeting to be given in. 
12— Papers to be read. 
13— Discussion. 
14— Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 

Annual General lie eti $.— Annual Reports. 

XXI. A General Meeting of the Society shall be held annually 
in May, to receive a Eeport from the Council on the state of 

the Society 

j, and to elect Officers for the ensui 

Dg yc 

>ar. The 

Treasurer i 

mall also at this meetin 

g present the a 


■ ;, • .','! 


Admission of 


XXII. Every ordinary membei 

• shall have tl 

he P r: 

ivilege of 


r two friends as visit. 

3 rs to an Ord 



Meeting o 

f the Society or its Sections, on the 


ring con- 

ditions : — 

1. Th; 

\t the name and residence of the vh 




ith the name of the i 

nicred in a book at the 

nember introdv. 


them, be 

2. That they shall not h* 

re attended ti 



leetings of the Society c 

,rof any of its 

Sections in the 

The Coi 

mcil Bhall have power tc 

> introduce visit 


of the abo 

ve restrictions. 

Council Meetings. 

XXIII. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take 
place on the last "Wednesday in every month, and on such other 
days as the Council may determine. 

Absence f ft , ''. — Quorum. 

XXIV. Any member of the Council absenting himself from 
three consecutive meetings of the Council, without giving a satis- 
factory explanation in writing, shall be considered to have vacated 
his office. No business shall be transacted at any meeting of 
the Council unless three members at least are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 

XXV. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties ■— 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to lake minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commei cement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 
& At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 
the presents made to the Society since their lust meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Society, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors, 
and the letters addressed to it. 

4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

6. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

&c, in tlie Library Catalogue, and of all presentation* 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the tame and return of books, 

&c, borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

printed copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in the 
Appendix), together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Kules, and a card of the dates of meeting ; and 
to acknowledge all donations made to the Society, by 
Form Xo. G. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 

Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 

Council at the Council Meetings and at the ordinary 
General Meetings, in order that the same may be laid 
before the Society at the Annual General Meeting held 
in the month of May. 
The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, divide 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 

Contributions to the Society. 
XXVI. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character, 
must be sent to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 
Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promulgation and discussion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such eommunicat pose, as well as 

to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society. 

Management of Funds. 

XXVII. The funds of the Society shall be lodged at a Bank 
named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 
Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid by the 

All cheques shall be countersigned by a member of the Council. 

Money Grants. 

XXVIII. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society — to Sections or to members— shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 
may be re-voted. 

XXIX. Such grants of money to Committees and individual 
rn< n 1 1 11 not be used to defray any personal expenses which 
a member may incur. 

Audit of Accounts. 

XXX. Tw Auditors shall be appointed 

annually, at J 

miliary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's 

Mounts as audited to be laid before the Am 

mal Meeting 

Property of the Society to le vested in the President, Sfc. 

XXXI. All property whatever belonging to the Society shall 
be vested in the President, Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and 
Hon. Secretaries for the time being, in trust for the use of the 
Society ; but the Council shall have control over the disburse- 
ments of the funds and the management of the property of the 


XXXII. To allow those members of the Society who devote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 

restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society, — Sections or Committees may he estahlished in 
the following hranches of science : — 

Section A. — Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Mathematics, 

and Mechanics. 
Section B. — Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 

to the Arts and Agriculture. 
Section 0. — Geology and Palaeontology. 
Section D. — Biology, i.e., Botany and Zoology, including 

Section JE. — Microscopical Science. 
Section F. — Geography and Ethnology. 
Section G. — Literature and the Fine Arts, including 

Section H.— Medical. 
Section I. — Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Section Committees — Card of Meetings. 
XXXIII. The first meeting of each Section shall he appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman, Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
■ ition amongst the members of the Society. 

JInnhersMp of Sections. 

XXXIY. Only members of the Society shall hare the privilege 
of joining any of the Sections. 

Reports from Sections. 

XXX Y. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Soeiety, on or before the 7th of December in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to the 


XXXVI. It shall be the duty of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Honorary Secretaries to annually examine into and report to 
the Council upon the state of— 

1. The Society's house and effects. 

2. The keeping of the official hooks and correspondence. 

3. The library, including maps and drawings. 

4. The Society's cabinets and collections. 

Cabinets and Collections. 

XXXVII. The keepers of the Society's cabinets and collec- 
tions shall give a list of the contents, and report upon the 
condition of the same to the Council annually. 


XXXVIII. The Honorary Secretaries and Honorary Treasurer 
shall see that all documents relating to the Society's property, 
the obligations given by members, the policies „f insurance, and 
other securities shall be lodged in the Society's iron chest, the 
contents of which shall be inspected by the Council once in every 
year; a list of such contents shall be kept, and such list shall be 
signed by the President or one of the Vice-Presidents at the 


Branch Societies. 
XXXIX. The Society shall have power to form Branch So- 
cieties in other parts of the Colonv. 

XL. The members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 
regulations as the Council may think necessary. 

Alteration of Rules. 

XII. No alteration of, or addition to, the Eules of the Society 

shall be made unless carried at two successive G-eneral Meetings, 

at each of which, twenty-five members at least must be present. 


1. During the Session, the Library shall be open for consul- 
tation and for the issue and return of books between 4 and 
p.m. on the afternoon of each Wednesday, and between 7 and 10 
p.m. on the evenings of Monday, "Wednesday, and Friday, and 
during the recess (January to end of April) on Wednesdays, 
from 4 to 6 and 7 to 10 p.m. 

2. No book shall be issued without being signed for in the 
Library Book. 

3. Members are not allowed to have more than two volumes 
at a time from the Library, without special permission from one 
of the Honorary Secretaries, nor to retain a book for a longer 
period than fourteen days ; but when a book is returned by a 
member it may be borrowed by him again, provided it has not 
been bespoken by any other member. Books which have been 
bespoken shall circulate in rotation, according to priority of 

4. Scientific Periodicals and Journals will not be lent until 
the volumes are completed and bound. 

5. Members retaining books longer than the time specified 
shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for each volume. 

6. The books which have been issued shall be called in by the 
Secretaries twice a year ; and in the event of any book not being 
returned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 
shall be answerable for it, and shall be required to defray the 
cost of replacing the same. 

Form No. 1. 

Eotal Society of New Soutii Wales. 
Certificate of a Candidate for Election. 

nto the Royal Society of New South Wales, w« 
the undersigned members of the Society, propose and recommend him as i 
proper person to become a member thereof. 

Dated tins day of 18 • 

Feom Peesonal Knowledge. I From General Knowledge. 

f the Royal Society of New South Wales and I beg to forward to 
7 of the Rules of the Society, a printed copy of an obligation, a list 
rs, and a card announcing the dates of meeting daring the present 

of two guineas for the current year, before admis 
to sign and return the enclosed form of obligation 

Form No. 3. 

Royal Society of New So 

I, the undersigned, <!,, hereby ni „, 1( , r ,i,. lt 

Form No. 4. 

Eotai, Society os New South Wales. 

The Society's House, 

Sydney, 18 , 

Le honour to inform you that your annual subscription of 
mrrent year became due to the Koyal Society of New Soi 
>t of May last. 

d that payment may be made by cheque or Post Office on 
[■ of the Hon. Treasurer. 

If. !!. T;v !-;]'•> r. 

Form No. 5. 


ry op New South Waxes. 

The Society's House, 


Sydney, 18 . 

I am desired by the Eo; 

nil Society of New South Wales to forward 

you a copy of its Journal for 1 

he year 18 , as a donation to the library i 

your Society. 

I am further requested to 

receive such of the very valu; 

ible publ c t el bv your Society as 

■ied to send. 

Form No. 6. 

EotaIi Society of New Sorra Waxes. 

The Society's House, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

On behalf of the Eoyal Society of New South Wales, I beg to aeknow 
ledge the receipt of and I am directed to convey to you th 

best thanks of the - i ible donation. 

Tour most obedient servant, 

Form No. 7. 

ing List for the Election of the Officers and Cox 
Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 

BAIXOTTN& List for the election of the Officers and Com 


N„,e,pr„po»ca„Me»b,„o lt h.»™C-l 



Hon. Treasurer. 


M^„ t <W, 



Members are particularly requested to communicate any chanj; 
of address to the Hon, Secretaries, for which purpose this slip i 


$ opl Samtg 01 leto South 

Abbott, Thomas Kingsmill, P.M., Gunnedah. 

A1.ii tt. V, . !!.. Glengarry, Whiten. 

Adams, P. F., Surveyor General, Kirrilulli LViut, 
Alexander, George ML, 43, Margaret-street. 
Al-er, John, Maequarie-street, 
Allen, The Hon. Sir George Wigram, M.P., _S] 

Allerding, H. E., Hunter-s 

Allwood, Rev. Canon, B.A. 

of Sydney, Woollahra. 

'>., Vice-Chan ■■ 
B. Edin., Mast. Surg. Edin., 455, Pitt- 
iental Bank, Sydney. 

tvher. \\. !i , F.I. A.. Australian Club. 
r ill. . :., K. If.. Royal Mint, Sydney. 

Backhouse, B,. ?h Bay. 

Mining Deparlmt 
Balfour, James. Cmon Club. 

Junes, Lie. K. Col. Phys. Lond., M.R.C.S 

Barker, Francis Lindsay, 130, Pitt-street. 

Barraclough, William, 2, Yurong-street. 

Bartels, W. 0. W., Union Club. 

Bassett, W. F., M.R.C.S., -En?., Bathurst. 

: : ' . 

Beattie, Josh. A., Lie. K. & Q. Coll. Phys., Ire!., Lie. B. ColL 

J3. Eng., Staff Surgeon. 
Heilhv. K. T., Bitt-*treet. 

Belgraye, Thomas B., M.D. Ed t M.Il< - /' 153 Eliza- 
Belfield, Algernon H., Eyersleigh, Armidale. 
Belisario, John, M.D., Lyons' Terrace. 
Benbow, Clement A., 24, College-street. 
Bensusan, S. L., Exchange, Pitt-street. 
Bennett, George F., C.M.Z.S., Toowoomba, Queensland. 
Berney, Augustus, H. M. Customs, Sydney. , , 

15, m..-'. Ivluin 11,-nn, L.R.l'S., /,-/., 1. K.C.P., Edin., Arthiin- 

Black, Reginald James, Bank of N - 
Black, MorrioeA., K.I. A., Actuary, Mtatu I 
Bliickmiinn, C. IL E., 267, George-street. 

;-. William iUnrv stiv.-t, Ultimo. 

I |» M.. \,wr^tl,.';,M.| Union Club. 

tBond, Albert, Bell's Chamber., Pitt -,tn<-t. 

Bowen, George M. C, k'e-ton, kirrihilli I'oint, North Sue-re. 

Brady, \ndr< * John, Li K. & Q. Coll. Phys. IreL, Lie *• 

0. ) 11. Sur.IreL, Lyons' Terrace. „ , . 

Brazier, John, C.M.Z^S., Corr. M.I! S .. IV - 
Brereton, John Le Gay, M.D. St. Andrew's, L.R.C.S. iw*» 

- V ..,, , l;i Cottage, Bourse-street, Redfern. 
Brodribb, W. A., M.L.A., F.R.G.S, Double Bay. 
Bi ,L r — j.l KRi!< H ,,,o Bank, Nelson-st., Woollahra. 
Brown, Henry Joseph, Newcastle. 

Bn.wn. John Studd, Dubbo. , 

Brown, Thomas, Eskbank, Bowenfels, and Australian OluD. 

Burn, James' Henrr. !i:$. Palm.-r-.t.vrt. Woolloomooloo. 
Burton, Edmund, Land Titles Oiliee, Elizabeth-street Hortn. 
Burnell, Arthur, Suryey Office. 
Bu B l.v, The lion. William M.L.U.. " Redleaf," South U«»* 

Road, Woollahra. 
Bush, Thomas James, Gas Works, Sydney. 


M.L.C., Chines, S 

. -I .,,'pSi, I!.- 1 

Ii Kingston. 

' Kli/abetb Hay. 

R.c's', L.S.A., &( 

)rn Lod S e, '" 

. Paul's Col., North Shore 

,,M.D. $yrf.,M.R.C.S. /."</, 

Lie. K.C. Phvs., J 
Collie, ReTd. Robert, 
Colquhoun, George, I 
Colyer, Henry Cox, M 

ColVer. John U,- 

Lic. R.C. Phys., L. ; 

on-street, Newtown, 
iters' Bay. 


Tames, Northfield, Kim-a^nt: 11. ight.«. 
der, Wm, Surrey Office, Sydney. 
10, Win. Alfred, Sprinrj-street. 
, The Hon. George Henry, 1T.L.C, Hud 

Cunningham, Andrew, Lanyon, Queanbeyan. 

Dansey, George Frederic 

Deck, John Field, 
Deffell, George H 

[.L.C., Cuppercumbalong, 

tDixon, W. A., F.C.S., Fellow and Member ]n-t. <>i Chemistry 
of Grt. Britain and Irel., Lecturer on Chemistry, School 
of Arts ; Chemical Laboratory, School of Art-, Sydney. 
Dixson, Craig, M.B., CM., Edin., M.R.C.S., Eng., 2, Clarendon 


Drake. Willmm lledlev, Fi-lW of the Inst, of Bankers, Lond., 

Colonial Bank of New Zealand, Nelson, N.Z. 
Du Faur, Eccleston, F.K.G.S., Lands, Dili,-,-. 


1, C. Louis, care of Dr. J. J. Hill, Lambton. 

B«T. Andrew, M.A., Rensdale, Pjrniont 

•nsey, Rev. C. P., Christ Church Parsonage, Sydney. 
Grarran, Andrew, LL.D., Sydney Morniiu 

;ld Office, Hunter- 

' Lands Office, 
ustralian Joint Stock Bank, Sydney. 
, W. O., Greenknowes, Potts's Point, 
lenry Alfred, Australian Club. 

■ace, Wynyard 

Gipps, F. B., 134, Pitt-sti 
Goddard, William C, Th< 
Goodlet, John H., George 
Goode, George, M.A., M. 
House, Camden. 

GhreaTM, W. A. B., Armidale. 

Gurney, T. T., MA. Cantab., 

losophy, University of Sydney. 

Haege, Hermann, 127, Pitt-st: 

Hale, Thomas, Gresham-stree! 

I T., care of W. . 

New Pitt-street. 

Trin. Coll., Bub., Enfiel 

s College, 

. Cyril, 15 Bridge-street. 

ay, The Hon/ Sir John, K.C.M.G-., M.L.C., A.M. Aberdeen. 

President of the Legislative Council, Rose Bay, Woollahra. 
eaton, J. H, Toicn and Country Office, Pitt-street, 
elsham, Douglass, Heaton, Homebush. 

Herborn, E. W. L. 

Herborn, Eugene, "Flinton." 

Hern, Charles E., " Ellora," Queen-street, 

Heron, Henry, solicitor, 49, Hunter-street. 

Point Road. 
>int Road. 

II svtf Tli, 1,1, ,1 1 , < 

II- egi », R. Q, Clifford, Potts's 

Hill, Jno. James, J.P., L.K.C 

' 'Iigham, MR. Lni 

.P.E., L.F.P., and S.G.L.M., 

K: ■ ,; 


Hitchins, Edwd. Lvtt. n, LTorcn.T, Vietoria-strt 
ITindsun, Lawrence, Exchange Buildings, Pitt- 
fHirst, Geo. D., 379, George-street. 
Hodgson, Key. E. G, M.A. Oxon., S.C.L , 

, Wilfred^ 

e Hon. Thomas, M.L.C" Sydney 
Holroyd, Arther Todd. Id 

Hi on, Kev. Thomas, Tna Terra,,., Woollalira. 
ouison, Andrew, I; A., .M.Ii.C.M., 12* I' 
nme, J. k\. Dooms Cottage, Ya». 

unt, Kobert, F.G.S.. A-soeiate of the I: 
London, Dcpul v Master of the Royal Mint, Sydney. 

Icely, Thos. E., Carcoar. 
George L., Knt., Darlinghui 
Iredale, Lancelot, A.F., Q o 

130, Phillip-street, 
ickson Kobert, 89, Pitt-street North. , rU , r 

irria, Kev. A. 1 ' '<- *"" ts Ul 

Jefferis, Eev. James, LL.B., "The Retreat/' >.;.U.-,w.. 
Jenkins, Eichard Lewis, M.E.C.S., Nepean Towers, Doug 
^""p, P. A., Sir, K.C.M.G., Edgecliffe Koad, TVoolIah* 

jam! ; Ai 'nh ;'„'!' i'.'.-ri'V.' rhV.: V;,".' £* th - str 

Jones, John Trcro: 

, Thos. "Win.. Harbours and Rivers Departm.-i 

Iv .'].. John. Mm lu'it-n, Leiclihardt, 

■ Rev. Thomas, St. Mark", Parsonic. Darlin £ 
, Hugh, B.A. Oxoh. Registrar of the Sydnc 

Kinsr.'l'hilip G., William-street, Double Bar. 

K::i-.-. Saml. J.. M.R, Newcastle. 

Kopsch, G., Telegrs 

Fiona," Double Bar. 

lann, Joseph ; eai'v «.t Mr. M, --. Hunt, i 
Kyngdon, F. B., 221, Parlintrhu 
Kyngdon, Fred " " 

\erdeen; L.S.A.,Z. ; M.E.C.S., E. ; 

! ■ • 

hn L, M.B.C.M 


Terra Bella 

' Pynnont 





•g, F.C.S. ; 

Fel. Inst. 




1K-! :'V A'!:' 

+Livorsidg<>. Aiv'h 


1. In 

. L:a: 

1. : F.G.S.: 

F.R.G-S.: A-oc 

Roy. >Vh. 

■ : 


. Sv. Lt.n 



-« 1.' 



Tas. ; Cor. 


S- 1! k, ! In . _' 

nnat. Maurit 






F. : 



Min. Soc. of France 


Living, John, Marsaloo, North Shore. 
Alfred, F.R.G.S., " Sco 
Loftus, His Excellency The Right Hon. L 

, \ 
Lord, G-eorgc Lee, Exkel 
Low, Hamilton, H.M. Customs. 

M C',,11,,,.1,. V. 

JMacPherson, Rev. Peter, M 

Y. M.i: <\s..' , 

r. IV V.- Priest 

t, E. Marin de la, Surveyor General's Office. 
M, If,, AIirlKu-1. llruk'—treet. 
Milford, F.. MJ). Heidelberg, M.R.C.S. Eng., 
Terrace, Hvde Park. 
:illard, Rev. Henry Shaw, Newcastle Grammar £ 
:oir, James, Margaret-street, 
[ontefiore, E. L., Macleay-street. 
Montefiore, Octavius L., Bel 
i fMoore, Charles, F.L.S. 

of the 


Moore, Fred. II., Ex.-hanco IJiiil.lin^. 

Morehead, R. A. A., 30, O'Connell-street. 

Morgan, Cosby William, M.D. Brussels, L.R.C.P. Lond., New- 

Lie. Mid. Lie. R. Coll. 

, L.R.C.S. Edin., M.K. & 

PllTS. i'" ' 

Morgan, T. 

M,, ' . c.i \.. C.E., Pitt-stre 
.Yilliani.F.F.P.S. Gh<* 
i, Sydney. 

?,I -,-', l>a\i 


I. ■■'::''. i".I 

:i <-■.. fit 

Q. Coll. Phys. Ireland, 

& F.R.M.S.L., 5, Carlton Terrace, 

jrest Lodge, 
•vevor, Town Hall. 
L, Maequarie-street. 

James, Hon., M.L.C., soli 

homas, M.D. Aberdeen, 1 


, John, Union Club and Y 

(MEM, Arthur W., M.I 

- Chiswick," Ocean-sti 

O'ConDor, Dr. Maurice, 2 

Ogilvy, James L.,Oriental 

L.R.C.r., L.IU'.S, EA'i, 

unnay. Edward, F.L.S., Curator 



, Richard, M 

in.' F: , Mini, Ucl. nt .So. L >» '. 
\ J". IX, Surveyor General's Offic< 
, George H., M.L.A., Barrister, I 
Kenwiek. Arthur, M.D. Edin.,B.A. Syt 
iddell, C. E., Union Club. 
>l..erts, J., George-street. 


?.R.C.S. lf,M.I.A., 

and Bot. Soc. 

Rome, Robert, Uni 
Rose, W., Union C 

Sahl, Charles L., German Consul, Consulate of tl 
Empire, Wynyard Square. 
\L, Glebe. 
,muel, The Hon. Saul, C.M.G , iLL.C, Gre-ham-s< 
ndy, James, " Rothgael," Croydon Road, Ashfield 
hu'ette. Rudolf. M.D., Univ. <?«* 

10, College-st 
:ott, Rev. Willi 

Apoth. Zonrf., 
Nfofc, Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc. Tic, 

nor, Charles Robert, Berlin Cottage, Fotheringham-street, 

vi< k, Wb. Gillett, M.R.C.S., . 

Sol to. Xornian. C.E.. M.I.C.E.. K<h 

Sharp, James Burleigh. J.P.. Clift, 

Sharp, Revd. W. Hey, 

College, University. 
Shepard, A.D., Adelong. 

Oxon., Warden of St. 

Slattery, Thomas, Pre: 

L ~Y ' , 

r, Fredk. Evans, 360, Liverpool-street. 

i he Hon., C.M.G., M.D., LL.D.,^ 
F.C.S., Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc. Vic, Professoi 
Chemistry in the University i " " 1 

L, Glanville-s 
Smith, Root, M.A. .W.. solicitor, Spring-street. 
Smith, John M'Garvie, Hunter-street. 
Smith, R. S., Surveyor General's Office. 
~ nith, E. E., Fevereaux, Roslyn-street, Upper 
>uthey, H. E., Oaklands, Mittagong. 
Dry, James Monsell, Union Club. 
Stephen, George Milner, B.A., F.G.S., Mem. Ge< 
many ; Cor. Mem. Nat. Hist. Soc, Dresdei 

-. South Kingston. 
I". II., Pyrmont Bridge Road 

Darlinghurst Boad. 

r, Wm. Henry, M.L.A., Cangoura, Bi 

;ii ,";,- 

~ \, Eng., Par 
, College-stri 
F.K.C.S., Lonfh, 2 Li K Pit 
John, F.R.A.S., Obser* 
, E. G., M R.C.S 

H. 0., Australian General 
., Telegraph Office, 

Ward, ft D.. M.R.C.S. Eng., North Sh 
Warren, Will: 


>hn Leo, B.A. Cantab., 

M.R.C.S., 281, Elizabeth 
121, Elizabeth- 

Webster, A. S., Union Club. 

of«ln> Sydney Grammar School, College-s 

Head Master 
Morning Herald Office, Pitt-street. 

Lewi?, BA. (Svdnev Univ.). Grammar School. 
r James S., M.A., LL.D., Syd., Gowrie, Singleton. 
n James M.L.C.. " Cranbrook," Double Bay. 

. A.M., LL.D., T.C.D., 1, Lawrening 
, Elizabeth-street. 
-. [{.. P.M.. Berrima. 
A. A., Alfred-street, St. Leonards. 

, Gorernment Geologist, Department of 

I my Toller, Department of M 
- '- ■ 

:. - . 
i Wilshire, James Thompson, C.P.S., Scone. 
| Williams, Percy Edward, Treasury. 


Wood, Hurrir. I'.kKt S.rnhiry for Mines. Department of Mines. 
Woodhouse, E. I?.. Mount (iiinnl, Ciunpbflltown. 
W n,l s 'I \ I.- - • I"- i P -t iv,. (.Sydney. 
Woolrv, ],. F B. W., WilBon-street, Newtown. 

.Vynyaul Square, Eon. 

Edwin H., St. Stephen's, Bourke. 


:homburgh, Dr., 

'■■'< ■ 

Waterhouse, P. G wof the Museum, 

ith Australia. 

Woods, Eev. Julian E. Tenison-, F.G.S., F.L.S., Hon. Mem. Eojr. 

Soc, Victoria, Hon. Mem. Eoy. Soc, Tasmania, Hon. Mem. 

Welu V ,1 Soc, Hon. Mem. Now Z.-.-iI:i I - .t 

Hon. Mem. Linnean Soc, N.S.W., &c, Union Club, Sydney. 

Limited to Twenty -five. 
Clarke, Hyde, V.P. EthnoL- 

:: - 

Miller, F. B., F.C.S., Melbourne Mint. 

Bode, Rev. G. C. 
Freehill, Bernard Austi 
Hill, Edward S., C.M.Z 


Established in memory of 

: Eeyb. W. B. CLAEKE, M.A., F.E.S., F.G 

Vice-F resident from 1866 to 1878. 

878. Professor Richard Owen, C.B., F.E.S., The British Museum. 

Mr. George Bentham, C.M.G..F.E.S., The Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 
Professor Huxley, F.R.S., The Eoyal School of Mines, London. 
Professor F. M'Coy, F.E.S., The University of Melbourne. 


In addressing you this evening, I am happy in being able to 
congratulate my fellow members on the prosperous condition of the 
Society, financially and otherwise, on this its fifty-ninth anni- 
versary, i.e., if we date from the year 1821, when the first Society 
of the kind was established, by the name of the Philosophical 
Society; or the thirtieth annual meeting, if we consider this Society 
established in the year 1850. The Society formed in 1821, as 
most of you have learned from a former address, had but a brief 
duration, arising mainly from disunion among the few members 
who composed it, of whom, it is sad to state, there is now not a 
survivor. Let us earnestly hope that the same cause will not in 
any way affect us, as it is very certain that if any antagonistic 
feelings should again arise among the members, we should soon 
cease to be useful as a body, and ere long, I fear, die out from 
sheer inanition. Since the re-establishment of the Society in 1850, 
although it has undergone many vicissitudes, and changed its name 

the members hitherto have always been animated by a unity of 
spirit and- good fellowship, which I sincerely trust will be con- 
tinued. Of those who joined the Society in 1850, Mr. R. A. 
Morehead and myself are now the only members who have not 
severed our connection with it. As will be readily imagined, the 
Society since its establishment has not always been in a flourishing 
condition — it has had its seasons of success and times of depres- 
sion. Until within the last few years its greatest prosperity was 


from 1856 to about 1863. The income was then so much greater 
than the expenditure that the Council were able to invest surplus 
funds in Government debentures to the extent of some hundreds of 
pounds, but a reaction took place for which it was difficult to 
account, and the debentures had to be sold one after the other to 
meet current expenses, and when the last debenture had to be 
realised into cash, it was gravely suggested that the best thing to 
do with the remaining funds was to at once pay off all liabilities 
and bring the affair to an end. Fortunately this suggestion was 
not carried into effect. Better counsels prevailed, and fresh efforts 
were made to attract the attention of the more thoughtful and 
enlightened of our fellow-colonists, and the result has been that 
the Society is now in possession of the fine building in which we 
are assembled, and a library of no mean pretentions, consisting o 
some of the best scientific standard works and scientific periodical 
literature of the day, as well as the transactions of the many 
learned Societies with which we are now in correspondence. 

To what cause are we indebted for this satisfactory state of our 
affairs 1 I state it advisedly that, if not wholly, it is largely due 
to the energy displayed by our indefatigable Honorary Secretaries, 
Professor Liversidge and Dr. Leibius, both of whom have devo 
a greater amount of time and labour in organising and working ou 
the details of the Society than is generally understood. The ex- 
tensive correspondence now carried on is sufficient to occupy 
time of one person, but when, in addition to this, these g elltle ^ 
have to attend general meetings of the Society and Council, to t^« 
minutes of the proceedings of such meetings, and o 
abstracts of the papers read at the ordinary general meeting^ 
and to be in attendance here in the afternoon of each We ^ 
during the session, as well as the multitudinous matters wto ^ 
they have to attend to in connection with the sectional «* 
monthly meetings, a fair idea may be gained of the obliga i 
are under to them. 

It is to be regretted that so few papers were read atj*« 
general meetings during the last session, but let us 

that more vitality will be evinced in that which is now com- 
mencing. The papers read were :is follows: — June 4 : On the 
"Gem Cluster in Argo," by H. C. Russell, B.A., ERAS., &c. 
June 4 : "The International Geological <',>ngre-,s at Paris," by 
Professor Liversidge, F.G.S., Av. s-pt.-mb.-r 3 : Lecture on "The 
Geology of New Zealand," by \h\ Ileetor. C.M.G., F.R.S., &c. 
October 1 : "On the Languages of Australia in their connection 
with those of Mozambique and the South of Africa." by Hyde 
Clarke, Esq., V.R, Ethnological Institution. November ."> : On 
" Photography in its relation to Popular Education,'' by L. W. 
Hart, Esq. November 5 : On " Description of Fossil Leaf (Ottilia 
pHBterUa)," by Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.K.S.. fce. De- 
cember 3 : On " A Catalogue of Latitude Stars," by IL8. Hawkins, 
M.A. December 3 : Resume of Paper on '• Some remarkable 
Boulders in the Hawkesbury Beds," by C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S. 
December 3 : " Remarks upon the Went worth Hurricane in 
January," by H. C. Russell, B.A., ERAS. Several papers were 
also read at the meetings of the Sections. In some of the Sections 
there was an act i _ the members which is most 

creditable to them. The work done, particularly in that on litera- 
ture and fine arts, and in that on astronomical and microscopical 
matters, appears from the r. -cords to have been considerable; but 
very important subjects were also brought under consideration and 
well discussed in the chemical and other Sections ; and I venture to 
hope that in all these, during the ensuing session, there will be an 
equal interest taken by the members as that shown by them 
previously. I will make one suggestion, viz., that the work of the 
several Sections should be confined as much as possible to practical 
details and conversational discussion, and that papers on any 
subject, excepting medical science, should be read at the monthly 
meetings, so that the members of the Society generally may have 
the opportunity of discussing their merits. 

I cannot allow this occasion to pass without referring to 
the conversazione which was held in the hall of the University. 
It will, I think, be admitted by those who were fortunate 
enough to be present, that it was one of the most successful 

which has yet taken place. The magnificent hall, then beauti- 
fully decorated, was filled to overflowing by a brilliant 
assemblage of over 800, most of whom appeared to be deeply 
interested in the numerous objects exhibited, and gratified hy 
the explanations given by those in charge of the different 
exhibits, winch appeared to impart much valuable information. 
The interest of that evening was greatly enhanced by an exhibition 
of photographs of New Zealand scenery, given by Dr. Hector, 
C.M.G., F.R.S. These were largely magnified by the lime-light, 
and the remarks which that gentleman made as the photographs 
were presented to view were listened to with great attention and 
interest,and were evidently much appreciated. These .-onversazionh 
while they give great pleasure to the lady friends and relatives of 
members, are nevertheless a heavy tax upon our resources, as the 

would hope that so long as they do not trench too deeply on our 
funds that they will be continued. 

Since the close of our last session the great International 
Exhibition has taken place, and is now a thing of the pa^ 
It is scarcely within the province of this address to refer 
particularly to the multitudinous natural and artificial productions 
which were sent to the Exhibition, but as some of the T0 
and manufactured vegetable products may hereafter beeofl* 
of great commercial importance to this Colony as exports, 
may be pardoned for drawing attention to a few of the* 
In the Court of Ceylon there were very many most interest? 
exhibits of this kind. It is said that on no former occaso* 
was that wonderful plant, the cocoa-nut so well represented as^ 

requirement for man's sustenance, luxury, and domestic 
Curiously enough, althon n l" m * s , 

joining the eastern and north. -ni parts of this continent, l 
never yet, I believe, been found growing on any portion o^ 
excepting where it had been placed by man's agency. ^ t . 
planted extensively in Northern Queensland. In this ^^^ 
in that of Madras, there were some fine specimens of the bar 


various kinds of Chinchonas, the genus from which the quinine 
alkaloid is obtained. The Chinchonas are nearly all natives of 
Peru, but are cultivated at such elevations, both in Ceylon and 
Madras, as to justify the expectation that some of the most valu- 
able kinds may yet be grown with success in the warmer parts of 
this country. In these Courts the variety of teas formed a most 
remarkable feature. From the many kinds of these exhibited it 
might have been supposed that they were the produce of so many 
different species, instead of all being obtained from one species and 
its varieties. Although a comparatively new industry in Ceylon, 
the adaptability of the climate for the growth of the tea plant is 
now well established. The cultivation of this plant in India, in 
which country there are at least three distinct varieties, was com- 
menced in 1837, by plants introduced from China ; but the native 
kinds are now largely planted and are known as the "Assam.' the 
"Cachar," and the "Moinpaar," named after the districts in which 
they are found in a wild state. These, with the China and two or 
three hybrids, obtained by crossing with each other, furnished all 
the splendid exhibits of this kind at the Exhibition. The pecu- 
liarities of these teas as contrasted with those of China are their 
much greater strength and stronger aroma. In both Ceylon and 
India the tea plantations are at heights varying from five to seven 
thousand feet above sea level, where the maximum temperature is 
about 69° and the minimum temperature about 49°, the rainfall 
being about 49 inches. As these conditions are exactly similar to 
those which may be found on our Northern Coast ranges, it may 
be reasonably expected that at no distant period plantations of the 
tea plant will occupy a great extent of the slopes of these mountain 
ranges, and that tea will then become one of our best products for 
home use and one of the most valuable for export. There were 
other exhibits of this description, which it would be most advan- 
tageous to this country to procure. The most noticeable of these 
were — the indigo, the yield of I>< pith, a cellular 

substance obtained from the stem of jEschynomene aspera, and so 
much used in the manufacture of sun or pith hats; tapa cloth, 
which is the prepared inner bark of Broussonetia papyri/era; and, 

in the Japan Court, a fine collection of the seeds of plants employed 
in that country for agricultural and culinary purposes. This col- 
lection has been secured by me, and their merits will be tested 
during the ensuing season. 

I would now speak of what has been done in more scientific 
matters:— At the Congress of geologists, held at Paris last 
year, Professor Liversidge was appointed Vice-President for 
Australasia. On that occasion certain propositions were agreed 
to, bearing on important geological matters to be discussed in 
the various countries of which there were representatives pre- 
sent, and the result of these discussions to be reported to a 
meeting of geologists to be held at Bologna in 1881. Professor 
Liversidge, as convener for Australia, endeavoured to arrange for 
a meeting of geologists in Sydney during the late International 
Exhibition, to discuss these propositions, but failed, as it tf* 3 
found impossible for the geologists of each colony to meet together 
at that time. Under the auspices of the Paris Congress a guide 
to the geological and mineralogical collections was published. M. 
Zeiller contributed the notes on the geological collections from 
New South Wales, sent by the Department of Mines. M. 
Zeiller, judging from the plant fossils, affirms the inesozoic 
age of our coal-beds, notwithstanding the occurrence of Glossop- 
teris and Phyllotheca in the carboniferous beds, as exhibited in 
specimen 96, which he supposes came from the upper coal measure, 
but Mr. Wilkinson, F.G.S., our Geological Surveyor, informs & 
that he himself obtained this specimen from the Anvil Creek coal 

association of these plants with palaeozoic 


fossils in this locality has also been most clearly demonstrated by 
late Rev. W. B. Clarke in his fourth edition of "Remarks on the Sedi- 
mentary Formations," which valuable work was specially dedica 
to this congress of geologists ; also, in the magnificent collect 011 
exhibited at the recent Exhibition by the Department of Mm* 
Other specimens of Glossopteris from the Greta pit were sho 
which were obtained by the late Mr. Clarke. From this evident 
it is somewhat surprising that M. Zeiller should have calle 
question the palaeozoic age of the Glossopteris and Phyllotheca. 

s of gold in some serpentine rocks, which also con- 
tain veins of asbestos, near Gundagai, was communicated to the 
Society at one of the monthly meetings last session by Mr. Wilkin- 
son, who attaches much importance to the discovery as being likely 
to lead to the finding of workable -old deposits in other localities 
where the auriferous drifts have evidently been derived from the 
disintegration of serpentine rocks. Mr. Wilkinson also brought 
under the notice of the Society the occurrence of some remarkable 
boulders of shale in the Hawkesbury formation. These boulders, 
from their angular shape ; nd the singular manner in which they 
have been embedded in irregular and scattered heaps in the sand- 
stone, suggest that their mode of disposition has been partly due to 
glacial action. Mr. W. J. Stephen, M.A., recently communicated 
to the Limuean Society of this ( '-1-nv the result of similar obser- 
vations made by him when examining the Hawkesbury rocks in the 
southern district, thus supporting Mr. Wilkinson's views. I may 
add that the fossil plaata which occur in the shale beds are in an 
exceptionally good state of preservation. It is also gratifying to 
me to be able to state that the late Rev. W. B. Clarke's valuable 
geological map will be shortly published by the Department of 

In astronomical matters the year now closed has not been 
marked by any great or startling event ; but steady work has been 
done in the Colony by our astronomer, Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., 
F.R.A.S.. and by Mr. J. Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., in determining star 
places nu tsurmg double stars, and observations of the planets and 
the two comets which have appeared ; the last one, of unusual 
brilliance, was almost concealed by clouds, and its great tail, some 
forty degrees long, excited a lively curiosity, winch could not be 
gratified because of the impossibility of seeing the nucleus. One 
event has tran- 'h astronomy since last we 

met which takes us back to the birth of our Society, for the Parra- 
matta Observatory was founded at the same time, and there can, 
I think, be little doubt that it was the presence amongst the 
founders of a Governor known to be a friend of science which in- 
duced them to found the Society. Sir Thomas Macdougall Brisbane 

had brought out with him an astronomer (Mr. Charles Kumker), 
and assistant (Mr. James Dunlop), together with a complete 
equipment for an Observatory ; and very soon after landing, in 
November, 1821, he had the building commenced close to his own 
residence, so that he might superintend and actually take a share 
in the Observatory work. The building was 27 feet on each side, 
and only one story high, and had a flat roof, sometimes used for a 
place from which to observe. There were two domes, 12 feet in 
diameter ; and the instruments consisted of a 5|-feet transit instru- 
ment, by Troughton ; a 2-feet mural circle, by the same maker; 
a 16-inch repeating circle, by Reichenbach ; a 46-inch achromatic 
telescope, on equatorial stand, by Banks ; a clock by Hardy, and 
another by Bregnet. All these were carefully placed, and a great 
many observations taken, which formed the basis of a catalogued 
7,000 stars, and several papers published in the "PhilosophicalTran- 
saction," 1828 and 1829. Mr. Rumker left the Colony in 1829, 
and Mr. Dunlop was appointed in bis place, a position which he 
held until the Observatory was dismantled, in about 1841. After 
the instruments were removed the building was allowed to fan 
into decay, and at one time there was a prospect that even i& 
site would be lost. In 1875, however, Mr. Farnell, M.L.A., had 
£150 placed on the Estimates and voted, for the purpose of 
erecting a monument to mark the site of the old Observatory, and 
during the past year the obelisk, a handsome grained white marbl« 
one, has been completed under the direction of the trustees ap- 
pointed, viz., Messrs. J. S. Farnell, M.L. A., James Barnet, Colonial 
Architect, and H. C. Russell, Government Astronomer. *&* 
inscription on it reads:— "An Astronomical Observatory* 8 * 
founded here May 2, 1822, by Sir Thomas Macdougall Brisbane, 
K.C.B., Governor of New South Wales. This obelisk was eroded 
in 1880 to mark the site of the transit instrument in tk* 

meteorology the field 


a sketch of what has been done generally. Suffice it to rem*** 
that in our own Colony a steady advance has been made; tb« 
number of observing stations is steadily increased, and no 

amounts to 152, and the great majority of I 
are found in the interior, so filling up space which has been a 
complete blank to the meteorologist ; and the statistics now 
collected are of the utmost value for the present and future inves- 
tigation of our climate. The rain map for 1879 has added to it a 

that the effect of the rains can be traced in the rivers. 1 must not 
forget to mention that, owing to Mr. Russell's exertions, a meteoro- 
logical conference was called together by the Government, and 
met at the Observatory. The report has been published, and con- 
tains important suggestions and arrangements for the study of the 
meteorology of Australia generally. Amongst minor matters 
should be mentioned the completion at the Observatory of a new 
recording in-trument, which writes on a small sheet of paper, 19 
inches by 8 inches, a complete record of every change in the ther- 
mometer, the barometer, the direction and force of wind, and the 
rain, in fact it is a complete meteorological observatory in itself. 

To my excellent and most learned friend, Baron von Mueller, 
K.C.M.G., great praise is due for his indefatigable labours in 
working out the botany of this continent. In addition to the large 
share which he had in the publication of the "Flora A 
a work which in itself is a monument of patient industry and pre- 
eminent ability, he has lately pul'Iidc! a valuaUe atlas of the 
genus Eucalyptus, of which six deca<les have been received l.y me. 

plates contain figures of the leaves, flowers, and fruits of the 
species which have been referred to. The sections given of the 
flower and fruit, and the descriptive letter-press, are such as to 
enable any one with slight botanical knowledge to determine with 
ease the particular species described The Baron has also accumu- 
lated con>i -<-rial for a continuance or supple- 
ment of the flora. Much of this has been attained by the collec- 
tions made by Mr Alexander Forrest, during his last exploring 
expedition through North-west Australia, and by Mr. John Forrest, 
during that gentleman's triangulation of the back country of Nichol 
Bay. From this last collection we learn the astonishing fact 

that out of upwards of 400 fca ins there is not a 

single orchid amongst them. The Baron's report of the forest re- 
sources of Western Australia, of which there is a copy in the litany 
of this Society, is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the 
vegetable economical resources of that Colony, and as a labour of love 
that gentleman has published, at his own expense, an index to the 
first edition of the " Species Plantarum " of Linnaeus. This work 
was published in 1703, and is exceedingly rare, and the index will 
be the more valuable as it is from the second edition of that pub- 
lished in 1762 and 1763 that quotations are made in the more 
recent descriptive works on botany. I would also refer to the 
botanical researches of Mr. Bailey, F.L.S., of Brisbane, who has 
done much, under considerable difficulties, in investigating the 
botanical resources of Queensland. His works on the grasses and 
ferns of that colony are most creditable and highly interesting pro- 
ductions ; and in an address recently delivered by that distin- 

guished geologist and naturalist, the 


F.G.S., F.L.S., we learn that Mr. Bailey is now engaged in work- 
ing up the lower order of the Australian flora. I must also advert 
to and award my tribute of praise to the ability and research dis- 
played by Mr. R D. Fitzgerald, our Deputy Surveyor General, m 
the publication of his work on Australian orchids. When it is 
considered that this gentleman, during the time unoccupied by his 
public duties, has furnished with his own hand carefully and 
accurately drawn figures of the complete plant, and sections of all 
parts of the flower, and has given an excellent diagnosis of all the 
species which he has so beautifully illustrated, some faint idea 
may be formed of the industry required in carrying out so far this 
very valuable work. 

While making this brief and very imperfect reference ^ 

I may be pardoned in drawing attention to the very g*** 
necessity which now and has Ion-; exited of ascertaining the uses 
and economic value of the Australian Bora. The knowledge M9 
we possess of the properties of the greater number of theplan t9 
the Colony imperfect. How little, for instance, isknown 

the value of what are termed the salt busies of this country. It is 
believed, and with good reason, that this class of plants possesses 
a medicinal property of great advantage to sheep, which not only 
relish but fatten on this f.nnl, particularly in seasons of drought. 
It has not been determined which are the most valuable of these 
plants, a list of which is herewith appended. It is generally con- 
sidered that of these Atriplex haUmodes and Atri/'l-x ir-siotria 
are the best, but these are only found in certain localities— those 
called cotton bushes, Kochia aphylla and Kochia villusa and also 
Chenopodium nitrariaccum as well as others, afford excellent pas- 
turage, but this is all that is really known of these most interest- 
ing and useful plants. The same remarks which have been made 
respecting these plants may be applied to the grasses of this 
country. Although the names and affinities of these have been 
determined, we have yet very much to learn as regards 
the comparative nutritive value which these individually possess. 
An attempt has been made by Baron von Mueller to fix accurately 
the percentage of albumen, gluten, starch, gum, sugar, and fibre 
of the best of these, as compared with the best kinds of English 
grasses ; but this attempt has not been brought to a satisfactory 
conclusion, as the different kinds experimented on have not yet 
been obtained at different stages of development and from various 
soils, so that the mean of different analyses may be taken. This is 
a most praiseworthy effort on the part of the Baron, and it is well 
worth imitating by some of our practical chemists ; but however 
valuable the information derived in this v. ay may be, we must look 
to the occupants or owners of our slurp and cattle runs to practi- 
cally learn tin." real value of these plants. Observations of this kind 
should be based upon some intellig. nt pi inciple. and it should be 
carefully noticed the kind of situation, whether low or high, dry OX 
damp, and the nature of the soil in which the different species suc- 
ceed best, whether early or late in flowering, and the kind of stock that 
fatten best by feeding upon them. In very many parts of the Colony, 
particularly on the sheep runs, a good number of the best grasses 
have been entirely destroyed by being too closely eaten down, for 


originally the most generally distributed and most valuable native 
grass, almost wholly disappears on sheep runs, while on country 
stocked with cattle it thickens and improves in quality. During 
the past season I have had collections of grasses sent to me from 
the Darling and other partially or wholly unstocked parts of the 
country. Many of the most luxuriant and nutritive of these were 
general in former times in the more settled parts of the southern 
and western districts, but which, from the causes alluded to, are 
now rarely to be found. It is the native grasses that we must* I 
think, depend on to form our permanent pastures, as hitherto, with 
very few exceptions, the introduced plants of this class have failed, 
or only partially succeeded. Of these, so far as I am aware, the 
only permanent kinds :u-e bullhlo th s, Sf> imfuphrum glavt^ 
the couch of colonists, CynndtM <1«rhjh,v, and perhaps the Ameri- 

of the Colony, while the two former will only flourish within the 
coast range. I would also urge on our stock-owners the import- 
ance of making careful observations relative to the value wmc 
may be attached to other kinds of fodder plants, so that on well- 
founded grounds the growth of the more durable and fattening 
kinds may be encouraged and those of poorer character allowed 

For some years back various species of Eucalyptus, growing 

thickly over extensive areas extending from Camden sou * 
wards, have been dying off, and in a manner so regular as to 
appear to have been caused by human agency. From the repea 
examinations which I have made of localities where this «Hj ® 
phenomenon has occurred, the only hypothesis which I can am 
at is, that the trees have been destroyed by fungus at the roo 
In this conclusion I am borne out by the fact that the trees do ** 
die over any large m, nmatiweowiy, bat become affected in ^ e 
first instance on one particular spot, and gradually die off, usu 
in a direction from north to south, and in belts of more or 
width, leaving those powiag on either sides of such belts en 
unaffected, for which no reason has yet been satisfactorily assign 
If it be a fungus which thus destroys these trees, the quests 


arises why it does not spread laterally instead of proceeding in one 
direction ; and to this I have no answer to give. It is certain that 
on the roots of the dead trees a minute fundus of a whitish colour 
lias bMB observed, but a similar fungus growth is common on the 
roots of other dead trees which have perished by decay. The 
■ : on of this subject is one to be commended to every man 
of intelligence who may have the opportunity of inquiring into it. 
My attention has of late been frequently drawn to another strange 
occurrence, very different from the last, but almost as difficult to 
explain. Over many parts of the country lying between the 
Lachlan and the Murray River a species of Frenela, Mirb., locally 
called pine, is spreading so rapidly and so thickly as to seriously 
affect the grazing capabilities of station property generally. This 
tree bears cones, having small seeds, somewhat angular in shape 
and hard in substance, but not at all likely to be carried about by 
the agency of birds or animals of any kind. The country over 
which it is spreading so fast and in such profusion has long been 
occupied as sin - p and » at tie - r itions, but until the last few years 
no great increase of the tree had been noticed. As this new growth 
cannot have had a spontaneous existence, it can only be supposed 
that the seeds have been lying in the ground for a long and indefi- 
nite period. This is the only explanation which I can offer for 
the very extraordinary manner in which this tree is spreading. It 
is not one, I must admit, quite satisfactory to myself, as, unlike 
seeds of certain Acacias, those of Callitris readily vegetate when 
placed in the earth, nor does it appear that the ground has under- 
gone any unusual change to cause the seeds to germinate. 

As yet absolutely nothing has been done in this Colony towards 
re-foresting any part of this country, and it is no easy matter to 
suggest a practicable plan by which this most desirable object could 
be accomplished. Valuable reserves have been made, however, in 
many well-timbered parts of the country, under the care and super- 
vision of public officials. These reserves will preserve many excel- 
lent kinds of trees from being recklessly wasted, and most useful 
hereafter as a means of supplying seeds and plants of our best 

kinds of trees for the purpose of planting out future forests in the 
adjoining or other dist lets iu situations where they may be 
expected to succeed. It is much to he regretted that reserves of 
this description were not made at an earlier period, for, had this 
been done, we should not have had to lament the loss and destruc- 
tion of a class of vegetation as rich in numbers of species and as 
luxuriant in growth as can be found in any part of the world : I 
refer to the coast ding from Shoalhaven in the 

south to the northern extremities of the Colony, which for the 
most part has been cleared. A quarter of a century ago the 
beautiful district of Illawarra, which is about 40 miles south of 
Sydney, was clothed with a dense mass of trees, shrubs, &c, with 
a foliage as rich and varied in appearance as could be found in 
any tropical country ; and now, alas ! with one especial exception 
of about 40 acres, nearly the whole of this magnificent vegetation 
has been destroyed, and the country turned into grazing paddocks. 
This especial exception U the property of a coal company, which 
fortunately has preserved the surface in its primitive condition, 
and on which can still be seen gorgeous masses of two different 
kinds of palms, called, locally, the bangalow and cabbage-tree 
palms; known botanically as Seqforthia ekgans, and Corypha 
Austral is. These, with three or four kinds of tree-ferns, viz. :— 
Alsophila Cooperii, Ahophila Australia, Ahophila Jlacarthurii, 
and Diclsoaia Antarctica, and many climbing plants, and a dense 
undergrowth overtopped by species of Ficus, Eucalypts, and other 
tall trees, the trunks and branches of which are often clothed with 
an abundance of stag's-horn fern ( Platy cerium Alcicorne) and 
bird's-nest ferns (As^lrniam aidas) and other similar plants, pre- 
sent to the eye a scene of beauty perhaps unequalled beyond the 
tropics. To the owners of this beautiful property the thanks oi 
the community are due for preserving from destruction this no* 
nearly the only remaining portion of the glorious natural veget* 

timl.rred land of this country lias heend. 
tion. Looking at this fact from the poi 
changes are largely affected by adding to 
siderable extent the forests of a coun 
expected that ere this time a very consid 
rainfall would have been experienced, hi 
has not been the case, as statistics rather 

In support of this statement, I rece 
Astronomer the accompanying diagram : 

herewith diagram showing by i 

rainfall for each year. For mstanee. the rainfall of 1840 was -48 

inches, so on for each year. The straight horizontal line shows 
the mean of 40 years, and the short red lines show the means in 
periods of 5 years. You will at once see that the rainfall of the 
first 20 years was less than the second 20 years, for in the first 
20 three of the red lines are below the mean, and one above : 
while in the second 20 three red lines are above the mean, and 
one below. I have thought of several ways of showing what you 
want, hut this seems to be the best. Actual amounts in figures 
are also given. Lake George furnishes a good index of our 
seasons: when found, in 1820, it was very full ; then it dried up, 
and now it has more water than ever before. If you look at page 
182 of my book on the Climate of Xew South Wales, a copv of 
which I think you have (if not I will send one), you will find 
some notes about Lake George, which will interest you, re changes 

Our late lamented Vice-President,, the R,v. \V. B. Clarke, read a 
most able paper on this subject shortly before his death, tending 
to show the good results as regard- u -w <;,-,-> and temperature 
which had arisen from planting trees in various countries. I am 
not now about to dispute the conclusions arrived at in that paper, 
but as a rule in discussing this matter too little consideration is 
given to the eti'e' There cannot be a doubt 

that the climate, rainfall, and vegetation of a country are all more 
or less influenced by geographical position. For instance, the 
average thermometer range of Western Australia is very similar 


indeed to that of this Colony ■ yet how veiy different is the vege- 
tation. Here, within our coast ranges, moist, densely-wooded 
jungle forests prevail, in which a great profusion of ferns and 
several kinds of palms abound ; there, for the most part, very 
little is to be seen but an apparently parched-up small-growing 
description of scrub, in which there is but very little trace of ferns, 
This remarkable difference in the coast flora of these two countries 
is wholly due to position and climate, for although the tempera- 
ture of both places is almost identical, the rainfall is double in tie 
former to what it is in the latter. The jungle forests, as I under- 
stand the term jungle to mean trees, shrubs, and climbing plants, 
and undergrowth intermingled into a dense mass, could not exist 
in so dry a country as Western Australia. It follows that there 
are natural laws which govern the rainfall of a country, and to 
alter these to any very appreciable extent is beyond the power of 
man. This opinion I know is a debatable one, and I shall be very 
pleased if any fellow member will take the subject up andjen- 
deavour to prove that I am in error. If the inference which I 
have drawn be correct, the partial destruction of our forests, 
present or future, will not alter to any great degree the rainfall or 

i must now trespass>n your patience for some minutes while 1 
say a few words relative to certain views advocated by the 
illustrious Darwin in his work on « Insectivorous Plants." ^e 
opinions held by this author on this subject, and so powerfully 
enforced in the work referred to, have been accepted by very 
many of the most distinguished naturalists of the present day, 
and it may seem somewhat presumptuous in me to question 
some of the conclusions arrived at ; but when any man, however 

great, ascends i 

i realm of uncertainty for arguments i 

port of his theory, he cannot be astonished at any effort which m»J 
be made to controvert them. I am in the unhappy position of 
being unable to acquiesce in the doctrine that the plants termed 
• those that are said to derive their nourishment 
tter, captured through the agency of their leaves, 

RESS. 17 

were intended by nature to depend on, or benefit by, any such 
means for their support. Darwin does not claim to have origi- 
nated this idea— it is, in fact, a very old one. In some of the early 
illustrated botanic works figures are given representing insects 
caught by the leaves of some of these plants. In the Bo tan ical Maga- 
zine of 1804 there is an illustration of Dioncea muscijnda, — the 
Venus fly-trap — showing a fly compressed between the lobes of its 
leaf, and of this there is a sketch on the table. That the leaves of 
this plant are sensitive, and the lobes will close upon each other by 
irritating the glandular hairs on the inner surface, is beyond doubt. 
In early days it was a favourite amusement of mine to test the irri- 
tability of these leaves, and to place flies upon them for nourishment; 
but the invariable effect of this was, if often repeated, to destroy 
the leaf and injure the plant, and of the many similar experiments 
which I have seen reported in the press as tried by practical culti- 
vators, I cannot recollect an instance which had resulted in suc- 
cess. Then as regards the Droseras or sundews, several species of 
which are to be found growing around Sydney, there is no sufficient 
evidence adduced here or elsewhere to show that these plants de- 
rive any benefit from nitrogenous or animal matter under natural 
conditions. It is true that insects are often found caught by the 
tentacles or glandular hairs with which the leaves of these plants 
are clothed, but I have for many years past sought for proof of 
their animal-devouring properties, by examining them under all 
kinds of circumstances and in every possible situation, but all my 
investigations have failed to afford me the slightest grounds for 
believing that they absorb and assimilate nitrogenous matter as 
food. These plants seldom grow far apart, but are usually associ- 
ated in masses, the smaller species on moist banks, and the com- 
paratively large one, Drosera dichotoma, in marshy places ; the last 
may be seen in profusion in the water reserve, and some of the 
former kinds on the North Shore, so that those who are curious 
about this subject have ample opportunities of judging for them- 
selves ; and if any unprejudiced observer will examine these plants, 
he will find, particularly among the smaller species, some with in- 
sects attached, but the great majority without a vestige of animal 


life about theni ; but in either case I can with confidence predict 
that he will not detect any difference in growth. This may seem 
a very summary way of disposing of this question, which has been 
so ably worked out by Darwin, who has shown that the glands of 
both the Dioncea and the Droseras have the power of secreting a 
viscid fluid, v.' limals, has strong 

digestive properties capable of dissolving raw meat, and that they 
can absorb soluble nitrogenous matter, which is in itself a power- 
ful argument in favour of the view that these plants prey upon 
insects. It is a plausible theory, but I am convinced a mistaken 
one. I have been induced to mention this last subject, as it was 
one not long since debated at one of the sectional meetings of this 
Society, on which occasion very contradictory opinions were ex- 
pressed in regard to the views of Darwin. 



1 | i I I s I i i » 



eaeh S 7tar* 

On the Longitude of the Sydney Observatory. 
By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 

[Read before the Moyal Society of U.S. W., 2 June, 1880.] 

Ik June, 1878, I had the pleasure of reading before a General 
Meeting of the Royal Society of KS.W. a paper on a proposed correc- 
tion to the adopted longitude of the Sydney Observatory, and a few- 
days subsequently I contributed to the Astronomical Section a sup 
plementary paper The correction to the longi 

tude, 10h. 4m. 45 "74s. E., was based on the longitude of my own 
Observatory, derived from ten lunar occupations of stars and the 
difference of longitude of the two Observatories obtained from 
telegraphic signals. The assumed longitude of my Observatory 
was lOh. 3m. 15 -70s. E., its correction from the ten occultations 
+ 684s., the telegraphic difference of longitude + lm. 28 - 83s., 
and the concluded longitude of the Sydney Observatory lOh. 4m. 
51 -37s. E. East longitude is here supposed to be positive. The 
occultations were all disappearances at the moon's dark limb, and 
the corrections of the moon's places were derived from the pub- 
lished observations at Greenwich alone. Since 1878 I have been 
enabled to extend my investigation to thirteen additional occulta- 
tions, so that it now comprises altogether twenty-three occultation- 
phases, of which nineteen are disappearances at the dark, and four 
arc reappearances at the bright, limb. For the occultations down 
to the close of 1875 the corrections of the Nautical Almanac 
places of the moon are obtained from the published observations 
at Greenwich, 11, ..ton, and for those in 1876 

from MS. data kindly furnished to me by the Astronomer Royal 
and the Superintendent of the Washington Observatory. The 
moon's apparent n have, in each 

case, been interpolated with second differences from the hourly 
ephemeris of the Nautical Almanac and the corrections applied. 
The moon's horizontal parallax and her semi-diameter have like- 
wise been interpolated with second diffei'ences, but no correction 
has been applied to the values so obtained. In the discussion 
I have adopted the geographical latitude of my Observatory as 
—33° 36' 28-9" and Bessel's ratio of the earth's semi-axes. 
—33° 25' 53-0" and 9-9995576 will, therefore, represent respectively 
the corresponding geocentric latitude and the log. earth-radius. In 
the subjoined table will be found certain data employed in the 



I I 

£ - S ~ - r, - : : 3 3 22 



Note on the Opposition-Magnitudes of Uranus and 


By John Tebbutt, F.RA.S. 

[Head before the Royal Society of N.S. W., 2 June, 1SS0.] 

In a note which I communicated to the Astronomical Section in 
May, 1878, I pointed out the gradual increase in the brightness of 
Uranus at each successive opposition, which increase will go on 
till the opposition of 1882, after which the planet's brightness will 
diminish. On the evening of 24th April, 1878, or sixty-seven 
days after the opposition, I found the planet to be of the 5^ mag- 
nitude, the comparison being made by means of a small telescope 
with Nu (v) Leonis. The star and planet were seen in the same 
field of view, and were estimated to be equal. On 18th March 
last, or twenty-one days after opposition, I compared the planet 
with B.A.O. 3621 and 3622. The comparison, which was made 
by means of the naked eye and also a small telescope, showed the 
planet to be about equal to the former but superior to the latter. 
The B. A. Catalogue gives 5| and 6 respectively as the magni- 
tudes of the stars, so that Uranus may, at the recent opposition, be 
safely recorded as a star of the 5 J magnitude. Some idea may be 
formed of its conspicuous chai ted that I deter- 

mined pretty accurately its distance from Regulus and y Leonis 
by means of an ordinary sextant. I may here draw attention to 
the circumstance that Jupiter will, at its opposition in October 

perihelion, which occurs every twelve years, it rivals Venus in 
brilliancy, and may be seen distinctly without a telescope in full 
.sunlight. It was a splendid object in September and October, 

Observatory, Windsor, 

April 27th, 1880. 

Some New Double Stars and Southern Binaries. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government Astronomei 

[Read be/on the Royal Sori ty of X.s. ||". 
have for t 

I the double s 

Cape Observations. While doing this work I have frequently 
found double stars that he had overlooked ; and I have occasion- 
ally devoted a fine evening to the search for close double stars, 
generally with some results in the form of interesting double stars. 
The number thus recorded has gradually increased until now it 
stands at 252. Of this list many are close doubles, probably too 
difficult for the < <ir John Hersehel had at his 

command, and which therefore escaped his search. 

Excepting in the case of two or three, I have not published the 
positions of any of these stars, but they are now arranged in a cata- 
logue to be sent to the Royal Astronomical Society for publication. 
There are, however, amongst them some that are favourably situated 
for observation just now, and I determined to place a list of these 
before you, in the hope that it may prove interesting to some 
of the members. In preparing the list I have been guided by the 
requirements of those who have telescopes of moderate power, so 
that some of the doubles are easy, and others very difficult, in fact, 
such as may be u amenta of higher power. It 

seems highly probable that at least one of these is a binary, and it 
will be interesting to watch the changes going on in this close 
double star. I would like to say, however, that the observer must 
not be too sanguine, otherwise he may be disappointed in finding 
relative motion in stars so rare. Yet, here and there, amidst 
the great mass of double stars, one will be found manifestly subject 
to the great law of gravitation, which is the ruling power in our solar 
system. In a study of this kind the greatest care is necessary to 
avoid being misled by errors of observation or of accident. I could 
refer to a published list of southern double stars in which several 
are set down as binaries, or probably in motion, the change in 
which is not real, but due t" **- 


both 8, the distance between them 3", and the angle of position 
126° 1'. Two years later he examined the same star, and fouud 
the magnitudes the same, but the distance was then 6", and the 
angle of position 128° 7'. Here seemed unmistakable evidence of 
motion, and when I turned the telescope to examine the star in 
1870, by accidentally misplacing the telescope, only the diameter 
of the field of view, I found another star of the same general 
character, and which seemed to be Herschel's star, but the angle 
proved to be 192°, and the distance 23". "When examined, the*e 
three positions fi 1 1 ce for probable errors) so nicely 

into an elliptical orbit that I felt sure here was a new binary. The 
distance seems large, but it has been proved that there may he » 
distance of 22" between two stars in an orbital system, and here 
was but one second more. ,' i right iim WiM 

and declination did not attract much attention, because it is not 
uncommon to find such errors in the Cape catalogue. Subsequent 
observation, however, revealed no change in my star, and on 
(searching more carefully I found Herschel's star, of which the 
distance proves to be 5"2, and the position angle 125° 38', nearly* 
mean between Herschel's distances, and about the same angle, 
proving that no appreciable change has taken place in it since his 

Of the new double stars which I propose to put before you to- 
night, 22 are in the coiihtt II aim, ( ui'\. ;. - shown in this m* 
which you will see has in some directions extended the limits o 
the constellation. For the purpose of showing you their relative 
positions with regard to ot! n-tellation, I have 

had this diagram prepared. he positions of the 

catalogued stars ; second, Sir John Herschel's 25 doubles ; and, 
thirdly, my own with a black circle round each. The first of these 
in R. A. llh. 40m, dec. 57° 20', is a very pretty double, of wto* 
the distance is 5", both of the 9th magnitude, and yellow : at lis. 
59m, and dec. 61° 12'S. is a very pretty double star, both being oi 
8th magnitude, and distant 61° 12' 9". At 13h. 0m. is another 
double, very close indeed, of which the distance is probably »<* 
more than 0%5". There are some twenty others in Crucis, wni£ 
may be found in the list or map. I have been thus particular "j 
giving the new doubles in Crucis, because I am anxious to «*^?.£ 
the objects of interest which this beautiful constellation exhibit 

The other list containing stars has been extracted f rom ■ 
general list of 252 new ones, each having some peculiarity t» 
would make it specially useful or interesting to the observer. u» 
of these at lOh. 45m, dec. 58° 38', when first found in 1B74 *» 
a very difficult double star, of which the distance was less tw» 
I a second. Perhaps an idea of the difficulty of seeing »» 
measuring such a pair may be best conveyed to the non-observ 
by saying that in a large telescope (7£ inches) the two images 

..:-,• : . _. , 

dimensions; l.ut two su : 

gravity, which, if the stars are equal, would be a point midway 


between them, so that this seems to be a well marked instance of 
this curious phenomenon, viz. , two immense bodies revolving about 
a point in space, i.e., about nothing ; but this implies more, for while 
one star appears to us to be going round the other, both would, if we 
could refer their position to some fixed point, be found to have 
changed their places in proportion to their motion in their orbits. It 
so happens that these stars are now favourably situated for detecting 
such a change with the transit instrument, and they will be regularly 
observed for that purpose. But from i 
and Madras catalogue it seems evidenl 

fixed one is actually in motion. But the question may be viewed 
in another way ; unless stars are connected in binary systems, the 
only test we have of their magnitude is the amount of light they 
send to us. Now, here we have two stars equal in light and there- 
fore theoretically equal in size, and, as we have seen before, such 
an orbital pair will revolve about a common centre of gravity, and 
such a motion would appear to us as if one star went round the 
other in a circle, or, if the orbit were oblique to the line of sight, 
in an ellipse of which one star always occupied the focus. Now, 
all the observations go to show that if this is a hi nary the apparent 
orbit is an ellipse of which one star does not occupy the centre, 
and therefore, though equal in brilliance, one must be larger than 
the other. 

It was my intention to have placed before you facts relating 
to several other southern binary stars, but the pressure of other 
engagements has rendered this impossible now, but I hope at no 
distant date to place before you some of the results of my observa- 
tions of Sir John Herschel's doubles, and I may then include the 
information I am now obliged to defer. I may say, however, that 
the number of those which give certain evidence of being binary 
is small; perhaps, however, not smaller than might hare been 
expected from previous experience, for it has been found that out 
of 11,000 double stars which were examined only 518 gave certain 
evidence of binary motion. 

if II it! 


1 I 

•S— ■ 2 S== = - Zl-2f« 

1111 1 Hill 

o!!| g sip! Jpl'l? 

9g i 111 41 SE 

!!!;«! Hi! 
i in Of j 

' ; i : 

. occ cc . %„ : * oo .000 

V 1 S I I If I 111 

I -a i t 3 m t p p-i 

i»-l 1 I I 111 1 sw lirf 

* HM : : : SSS M SS 252" 

-. .JSg iij 2 = 2; 2 22 222S 

1 — «,«, «, r-00 »s=2 

l the components to be equal, i 
e arisen in regard to the direction of the lin 
, or in other words the angle of position. ] 
the south following quadrant, while Jacob, 
ad placed it in the preceding quadrants ; mi 


following side 


are not - 


- however, reasons 


supposing that the more 

to H.-rschel and Dunlop' 

at Madras, in 

1840, who 

would be nearl 

illel of lati 

tilde, > 

lothat bisecting the in 


would not 

U The obs< 

,t the 1 

those at Madrc 

>n had become aboul 

: •") | show when compared a 

is that on< 

moved ."?•! seconds of 

while the othei 

r seemed to be fixed. 

, and these observations prove 

that the chang 

9 is in the 

pnv ■din-- 

and therefore the ang] 


position should 

have been taken c 

■11 the 

preceding side; for 


purpose of the 



was merely to show 


motion, this is not material. Mr. Russell said he would 1 
attention to one possibility which the diagram reveals, viz., that 
this may not be a binary star at all, but merely one star passing 
another by reason of its proper motion. It will be seen that, 
excepting Herschel and Dunlop's observations, a straight line will 
satisfy the other observation better than any ellipse or curve that 
may be tried. Now Dunlop's distance was not the result of 
m< e— t is merely an estimate made with most inadequate 
optical means, and the telescope, a small equatorial used by Sir 
John Herschel, was by no means, equal to those used by more 
recent observers ; and a small error in distance, if it exists, the 
possibility of which no one would have more readily admitted than 
Herschel himself, would at once place this star out of the list of 
binaries ; already the orbit computed by Jacob has proved too small 
to include the observations, and the period requires to be increased 
as we have seen to 144 years, and the uncertainty attending the 
early observations lends force to the supposition that we have here 
onlv the effect of proper motion. 


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diagram 1. MtRuateUh paper en Double Stars. 




On the Orbit-Elements of Comet I., 1880 ( 
Southern Comet). 
By J. Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 
[Bead before the Royal Society of N.S. W., 7 July, 1SS0.] 

The comet which forms the subject of the present paper was one 
of the grandest of modern times, and if we consider its probable 
identity with the great southern comet of 1843, we shall under- 

stand how interesting an object it must be 
Owing to the low altitude of the comet during the first days of 
its visibility, and the persistently cloudy state of the horkon, it 
almost escaped unobserved in our Australian colonies. I myself 
saw the tail on several occasions, but only on one evening could I 
get a sight of the head, and then for a few seconds merely, be- 
tween clouds. Fortunately the weather was more favourable at 
the Melbourne Observatory, and Mr. Ellery, and his valued assist- 
ant, Mr. White, succeeded in obtaining observations on the even- 
ings of February 9th, 10th, 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th, and these 
Mr. Ellery has very kindly communicated to me. On May 21st 
the Observatory/ for April 1st came to hand, from which I learned 
that communications had reached England from Mr. Gill, of the 
Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, and also from 
some private observers, respecting the comet. The observations 
sent, however, were very rough, and of no value for an accurate 
determination of the comet's orbit. In a paragraph of the same 
number of the Observatory it was also stated that Dr. Gould, of 
the Argentine National Observatory at Cordoba, had observed the 
comet. The following elements communicated by Mr. Hind had 
been computed respectively by Mr. Finlay, Chief Assistant at the 
Cape of Good Hope Observatory, and by Mr. Hind, from an 
observation by Dr. Gould on February 4th, and from rough places 
for February 10th and 15th, sent to England by Mr. GUI. These 
elements, placed in juxtaposition with those computed by Hub- 
bard, for the great comet of 1843, appeared in the Observatory as 
follows :— 

Mr. Hind, in a letter to the Astronomer Royal, draws attention 
at comet of 1843, 
and says — "Can it be possil ich a comet in the 

system almost gi ace in perihelion, and revolr- 

ing in less than thirty-seven years 1 I confess I feel a difficulty 
in admitting it. I .''.--'.ordinary resem- 

blance of orbits." It was also stated in the Observatory that, from 
rough places on February 10th, 13th, and 15th, Mr. Hind had 
previously found elements s from those which 

he communicated. Both sets di !>n ! at t,,to from Mr. Finlay's. 
The members of the Royal Society of N.S.W. will not fail to 
perceive the ut: ween the results 

given by Mr. Hind and Mr. Finlay, but this is not all, for now the 
> hand, bringing more 
ch from one 
ready referred to. The 
following approximate determinations have appeared in that 
; to April Sib, the latest date received: — 

The elements given by M. Liais, Director of the Observatory 
at Rio Janeiro, somewhat resemble those arrived at by Mr. 
Finlay, but they are confessedly derived from ver> r< ugh <^ , » l 
tions of the positions of the comet's Ik ad. I on iderfng m& 
the very conflicting results v Lieh ha\e readied us, I have thought 
that a determination of the orbit in Australia would not be 
without interest to our Society. In the Herald of the 26th May 
last, I announced that there was between the orbit given by m*> 
Hind and the Melbourne observations a sufficient *&*****& 
to enable me to employ the former as a foundation for 
" of the latter *f r ; j,, ,.,,,. ;. „ -,■,{ ;,■ 

"Ui'l investigate an orbit im;n the observations so corrects 
present it to the Society. This promise I i 

sem. For the br . , , . ! ■ I 

ovations of February Hth." | (th. n.,d 17th. 1 



comparison only with cr Sculptoris. This circums 

be seen, is an unfortunate one. The three adopted apparent 

positions of the comet are as follows :— 

Melbourne Mean Time. R. A. N. P. D. 

Feb. 9 9 9 305 23 41 6 73 123° 43' 43" 

„ 14 9 59 267 1 2 562 122 21 8 

„ 17 8 57 298 1 41 951 120 21 43 

Correcting these times and positions for aberration and parallax, 
and adopting the ecliptic as the fundamental plane, we get the 
following co-ordinates referred to the mean equinox of the be- 
ginning of the year : — 

Feb. 8 -97500d. Greenwich M. T. \ =341° 5' 34-1" j8= -28° 49' 39-5" 
I „ 1400948 „ A'=359 36 56 /8'=-35 31 01 

„ 16-96621 „ *"= 9 57 70 /3"=-37 37 18-1 

The places of the sun have been taken from the British Nautical 
Almanac, have been duly corrected for aberration and reduced to 
the same equinox. The logarithms of the earth's radius vector 
have been taken from the same source. Assuming now the 
proportionality of the rectilinear instead of the parabolic sectors 
described by the comet to the times of description, I arrived at a 
value of the ratio of the curtate distances of the comet from the 
earth for the first and third observations, which, when Lambert's 
theorem was satisfied, gave a system of elements differing but 
little from that communicated by Mr. Hind. On correcting the 
assumption from which the ratio was derived I obtained another 
system differing considerably from the other. By a comparison 
of the residuals in longitude and latitude for the middle observa- 
tion, as derived from these two systems, I deduced a corrected 
value of the ratio, which gave finally the following system of 

Perihelion passage 18S0, January 27 56330d G.M.T. 

Longitude of the perihelion 277° 22" 53"'4 \ 

Longitude of the ascending node 358 22 4S "6 { M - E< l uin °x, 1880-0 

Inclination of the orbit 36 41 41 '9 

Perihelion distance 0-0067243 

Heliocentric motion Retrograde 

On recalculating the geocentric places from these elements, I 
obtained the following residuals, in the sense of calculation mmu 
observation : — 

Feb. 8. AX cos $ = - 5" '2 A0 = + 0"-5 


It will be seen that the first and third positions are not perfectly 
satisfied by the elements, but I may state that owing to the small 
perihelion distance of the comet, the exceedingly small arc de- 
scribed by the comet between the extreme observations, and the 
very large anomaly in that arc, the calculation of the orbit is 
attended with great difficulty. I do not wonder at the conflicting 
sets of orbit-elements assigned to this body by the different com- 
puters whose results have reached the colony. My calculations 
have been effected by means of logarithms of seven decimal places, 
whereas, to do justice to the problem, logarithms of ten decimal 
places are absolutely necessary. The circumstances of the case are 
such that very small errors in the various stages of the computa- 
tions become magnified in the final results. It appears from the 
figures given above that the residuals for the middle place are very 
large, and their ratio is such as to require a further slight correc- 
tion of the adopted ratio of the curtate distances. Any attempt 
however, to correct this ratio will not furnish residuals within the 
limits of probable errors of observation. It would seem, there- 




: v of comparing tli'-ni 
duced for the late comet. I have roughly com 
for the precession of the equinoxes since 1843. 


|ji"l- * 3 B i s i - 

I '11 

I g i - » i * : 8 6 1 » ! ■ 

3 1 Ii 

£ i S s a g 

2 I 

1 s ,. s s | 

* 4 "a gs § s 

2 5 °S S S5 ? * 

1 j 

If S - s l - 

1 I 

1 g i i * 1 rf 



1 1 I : 5 1 - 


1 1 1 1 1 j 

j-fjj | 

30MET I., l88o. 

On looking down the list one cannot fail to recognize the close 
resemblance between the elements which I present to the Society 
and the third orbit calculated by Laugier and Mauvais. But I 
wish also to draw the attention of the Society to the fact that 
these computers assign a period of thirty-five years in their orbit 
which so closely resembles mine, and this period it will be observed 
differs only two years from the interval between the appearance of 
the comet of 1843 and that of 1880. To their second orbit they 
assign a period of 175 years, and this it will be seen is commensu- 
rate with that of thirty-five years. Mr. Hind, in his Treatise on the 
Comets, edition of 1852, says : — " Several comets have been men- 
tioned as probably identical with the great one of 1843, and in 
particular those of 1668 and 1689, which exhibited tails of unusual 
length. If it were one and the same comet that appeared in 1668, 
1689, and 1843, the period of revolution could differ but little from 
twenty-two years. But independet.tlv of the primd facie improba- 
bility of this short period, the evidence afforded by the history of 
comets in past ages is decidedly against it ; neither is the P e "°J™ 
thirty-five years, suggested by 1 

comet of 1843, since historians agree in stating that it was ob- 
served for some time in the northern heavens, a cir 
fectly irreconcilable' with tlic.-bineiilsc, fih- 1..' .-r body, wl <.-h« ■- 
only remain about three hours north of the ecliptic. Calculation 
shows that the paths of the comets of 1668 and 1689 might* 
tolerably well represented by the orbit of the comet of 1843, M 
equally well, in the former case, and much nearer in the latter, J 
numbers altogether different, so that we can come to no deum { 
conclusion on the subject." Sir John Herschel, in his 0utUne V 
Astronomy, edition, 1851, has the following among other r ® m 
respecting the comet of 1843 .-—"Although some of the observa- 
tions of this comet were vague and inaccurate, yet there s 
good grounds for believing that its whole course cannot be re 
ciled with a parabolic orbit, and that : 

Previous to any calculation it was remarked that in the year 
the tail of an immense comet was seen in Lisbon, at Bologna,^ 
Brazil, and elsewhere, occupying nearly the same situation am ^ 
the stars, and at the same season of the year, viz., on the g 
March and the following days. Its brightness was such tfl *^ 
reflected trace was easily distinguished on the sea. Ihe lT 
when it at length came in sight, was comparatively faint and scare^. 
discernible. No precise observai ions v. ere made of this con^ , ^ 

OMET I., l88o. 39 

certainty by a careful examination of what is recorded of the older 
comet. Locating on a celestial chart the situation of the head, 
concluded from the direction and appearance of the tail, when only 
that was seen, and its visible place, when mentioned, according to 
the descriptions given, it has been found practicable to derive a 
rough orbit from the course thus laid down ; and this agrees in all 
its features so well with that of the modern comet as nearly to 
remove all doubt on the subject, 
to have been seen in a.d. 268, 44 
which may have been returns of this, since the period above men- 
tioned would bring round its appearance to the years 26$, 443, 
618, 793, 968, 1143 1318, and 1493, and a certain latitude must 
always be allowed for unknown perturbations. But this is not the 
only comet on record whose identity with the comet of 1843 has 
been maintained. In 1689 a comet bearing a considerable resem- 
blance to it was observed from the 8th to the 23rd of December, 
and from the few and rudely observed places recorded, its elements 
had been calculated by Pingre,* one of the most diligent inquirers 
into this part of astronomy. From these it appears that the 
perihelion distance of that comet was very remarkably small, and a 
sufficient though indeed rough coincidence in the places of the 
perihelion and node tended to corroborate the suspicion. But the 
inclination (69°) assigned to it by Pingre appeared conclusive 
against it. On recomputing the elements, however, from his 
data, Professor Pierce has assigned to that comet an inclination 
widely differing from Pingre's, viz., 30°4', and quite within reason- 
able limits of resemblance. But how does this agree with the 
longer period of 175 years before assigned 1 To reconcile this we 
must suppose that these 175 years comprise at least eight returns 
of the comet, and that in effect a mean period of 21-875 years 
must be allowed for its return. Now it is worth remarking that 
this period calculated backwards from 1843-156 will bring us upon 
a series of years remarkable for the appearance of great comets, 
many of which, as well as the imperfect descriptions we have of 
their appearance and situation in the heavens, offer at least no 
obvious contradiction to the supposition of their identity with this. 
Besides those already mentioned as indicated by the period of 1 < 5 
years, we may specify as probable or possible intermediate returns, 
those of the comets of 1733(1), 1689 above mentioned, 1559(1), 
1208, 1098, 1056, 1034, 1012, 990, 925(1), 858(1), 684, 552, 530, 421, 
245 or 247, 180, 158. Should this view of the subject be the true 
one, we may expect its return about the end of 1864 or beginning 
of 1865, in which event it will be observable in the southern 

hemisphere both before and after its perihelion passage." I have 
made these rather lengthy extracts in order to show the members 
what interest attaches to the comet of 1 843. In connection with the 
closing remarks of Sir J. Herschel, I may say that a very fine 
comet did appear in the beginning of 1865, which was observed 
only in the southern hemisphere. It was at first generally sup- 
posed by the colonists to be the comet of which Sir J. Herschel 
speaks, but a determination of the orbit which I published at the 
time proved that the comet, although one of very small perihelion 
distance, was moving in an orbit quite different from that of the 
great comet of 1843. The ; tgation of the orbit 

of the great southern comet of 1865, which are generally regarded 

the closest approximation yet obtained, y 
be found in the S;/d,u')j Monona Herald of May 6th, 1865, 
and likewise in the principal astronomical journals of Europe. 
From what I have stated, it is probable that the recorded observa- 
tions of the comet of 1843 and of others which are supposed to 
be identical with it will again be ransacked in order to obtain, if 
possible, further evidence of identity. I am extremely anxiousto 
refer to Pingre's Cvmatographv; Carl's /,*, »,,, rlor'u* m der Cometeu- 
Astronomie and Cooper's Cometic Orbits, which invaluable works 
unfortunately I do not possess, nor do I think they are to be found 
in the library of the Sydney Observatory. And here I would take 
the opportunity of respectfully suggesting to those in authority 
the absolute importance of furnishing that young institution witi 
copies of certain astronomical works in English, French, and 
German, without which no Observatory library can be said to be 
complete. A copious library for reference is as necessary to the 
practical astronomer as are his transit instrument, clock, and equa- 
torial. I will now take leave of the more technical part of my 
subject, with an expression of the hope that the orbit-elements 
have now presented to the Society may be found to be much more 
accurate than any which have yet reached the colony. A* *" 
events I believe they will be found sufficiently accurate to serve 
provisional elements for the reduction of all the southern obae n 
tions when they come to hand, and for the formation from them 
normal places for a definitive determination of the orbit. j _ 
I shall now bring this paper to a close by offering a h**^ 
esting particulars respecting the movements of the c° m f™ ^ 
parabolic orbit which I have calculated. For the l^ear dtfWi 
of the comet from the sun and earth I have adopted i^pm^ 
value of the mean equatorial borstal parallax of the <m 
rived from the British observations of th lat- Tratwt -i . „ 
viz., 8"-8455, in the determination of which our ^jj 
observations played so important a part. I have also a ^^. $ 
equatorial semi-diameter of the earth as -)V 
" Treatise on the Figure of the Earth, Encyclopedia Metropou 

1849," viz., 20,923,700 English feet o 
miles. It appears now that towards the 
comet was rapidly approaching the sun fi 
south of the ecliptic. It proceeded, of co 
velocity towards that luminary, and at thir 
o'clock on the morning of the 27th (Sydn< 
twenty-four hours before perihelion, it arriv< 
miles from the sun's centre. At twenty-s 
o'clock a.m. on the 28th it crossed the plane 
a distance of 1,074,600 miles from the sai 
now lay on the north side of the ecliptic, ai 
later it arrived in perihelion or that point < 
the sun. The distance between the sun's ce 
gravity of the comet at this moment accordh 
621,380 miles. The semi-diameter of the si 
distance, resulting from twelve years' observ 
at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, is 16 
this value and execute the necessary ealculal 

which the comet was subjected at this point of its path in space 
must have been something beyond human conception, and the solar 
orb itself subtended an angle of 88°, or 165 times greater than its 
apparent diameter as seen from the earth. Sir John Herschel says 
that "the comet of 1680, whose perihelion distance was 0-0062, and 
!.in one-third part 
of his radius (more than double the distance of the comet of 1843) 
was computed by Newton to have been subjected to an intensity 
of heat two thousand times that of red hot iron, — a term of com- 
parison indeed of a very vague description, and which modern 

radiant heat. " After leaving perihelion the angular velocity of our 
comet gradually decreased, though its distance from the sun 
rapidly increased. At twenty-seven minutes past 1 o'clock in the 
afternoon of the 28th the comet passed from the north to the south 
side of the ecliptic, at a distance of 1,473,300 miles from the sun's 
centre. It thus appears that the comet was only three hours on 
the north side of the plane of the earth's orbit, and in this brief 
' \ of course described an arc of 180°, or just one-half 


its apparent path in the heavens as seen from the 

between March 1st 
October loth, there 


hemisphere. On the evening of the 9th it was accurately observed 
at the Melbourne Observatory, but it had then receded to a dis- 
tance of 53,885,000 miles from the sun, its corresponding distance 
from our planet being 62,205,000 miles. On the evening of the 
17th the Melbourne observers obtained their last position, the 
comet having then increased its distance from the sun and earth 
to 75,293,000 and 69,508,000 miles respectively. This evening, 
July 7th, while I am reading this paper to the Society, it has 
attained to a distance of 301,000,000 of miles from the central 
luminary, and is therefore near the outer limits of the belt of 
minor planets. Assuming that our late visitor is the great comet 
of 1843 with a period of 37 years, it will ultimately reach its 
aphelion at a distance of 2,052 millions of miles or within the 
orbit of the planet Neptune, and will then commence its return 
journey towards the sun, and make its reappearance to the earth's 
inhabitants about the year 1917. 

Having now given you as much information as lies in my power, 
I must take leave of my subject. I trust that in the course of a 
few weeks we shall receive from Europe information more accurate 
and detailed than that of which we are at present in possession. 

The Observatory, Windsor, 
June 26th, 1880. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government 

{Bead be/ore the Royal Society o/N.S. W., 5 August, 1880.] 

The necessity for a convenient and expeditious method of printing 
barometer curves has long been felt by all who have had to publish 
weather maps, and I have therefore no hesitation in publishing 
what to me at least appears to be one method of meeting this 

It is simple enough. The blanks for the curves containing lines 
at 29-4, 29-6, 29-8, 30-0, 30-2, and 304, and these crossed by 
vertical lines giving a column to each station, are cast ready for 
use, and, so soon as the barometers are reduced, the height at each 
station is marked in the column for that station, and a pen line is 
run through these points ; the blank is then put under a fret-saw 
and the saw is run along the marked curve, and into the saw cut 
is placed a ribbon of soft metal, the edge of it marks the curve 
and serves as a printing surface. The whole of this may be done 
in less time than it has taken to describe it. 

The advantages are obvious : — 

In the first place, it gives a block which can be printed with 
ordinary type, and has therefore a great advantage over the litho- 
graph system, in which the curve has to be printed after the map 
is otherwise complete. 

Second : As soon as the barometers are reduced the printing 
block may be completed in from 8 to 10 minutes, and at once put 
into the press and printed at any required speed. 

Third, as to cost : The blanks are only £-inch thick, and when 
used can be melted again as often as may be required, and 5 minutes 
suffices to cut the groove and make it ready for printing. 

In the lithograph method a new surface has to be made on the 
stone each day, and much time is lost in getting the printing 
adjusted on the prepared map, and then it is not applicable for the 
daily press. 

Fourth : By this system the blocks may be placed togethe- £ ~ 


It seems hardly necessary to suggest other uses, but no doubt 
many will be found forth] ing a block from 

which curves may be printed. But I would suggest here that for 
printing isobaric, isothermal and other lines, one engraving of the 
• section to be illustrated being engraved it could be used 
cast any required number, and upon 
i could be placed in this simple way. 


Curve showing state of Barometer. 

Note upon a Sliding-scale for correcting Barometer 

Readings to 3 2° Fah. and Mean Sea Level. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government Astronomer. 

[Head before the Royal Society of N.S. W., 1 September, 1880.'] 

Just eleven years since I had the honour of reading before this 
Society a description of the sliding-scale which I then designed 
and made for the purpose of doing away with the computation 
which had previously been necessary when the humidity of the air 
was required from readings of the dry and wet bulb thermo- 
meters. That sliding-scale has been a useful servant in Sydney 
and other observatories ever since, and has saved an amount of 
time which it would be difficult to estimate ; but it only met one 
of the wants of the meteorological computer, and it seems strange, 
now that the other want of the computer is met by the sliding- 
scale for barometers, that I could not at that time see how to do 
what within the past few days has seemed so easy. I have often 
since then wished to find some convenient method of saving the 
time spent in correcting the readings of the barometers, where 
so many readings have to be corrected every day ; the time was a 
serious item, and long since I completed the design of a machine 
to meet my wants, but it did not promise such a saving of time as 
I desired, and it was therefore never made. Recently it occurred 
to me that it would be possible to construct a table from which 
every possible reading of the barometer could be obtained, cor- 
rected for each degree of temperature ; and I had such a table 
computed, because even that would save a great deal of the time 
lost in correcting baromeh rature. \Vnen 

this was done I saw that, by applying to that table a scale on 
which from a given zero a point was marked for ea. i stat m at 
such a distance from the zero as to be equal to the altitude cor- 
rection, I should get by inspection the reading corrected tor 
temperature and altitude at one inspection. 

The scale was made by taking a strip of paper and at one end 
putting a line marked 0. Any reading of the barometer at ft station 
—say Bathurst, was then taken and corrected for temperature 
and altitude ; the of the scale was then placed on the table so 
that the line was on the given reading and the scale along the 
line of ficmres under the temperature of the shade thermometer 
say 60°; °the figures were then followed down until the corrected 


barometer or the nearest reading to it was found ; opposite this a 
mark "was made on the scale and " Bathurst" written on it. Now, 
whenever the same reading is received, the scale being placed as 
before, the marks opposite Bathurst would show the corrected 
reading 5 and since the readings in the columns increase at the 
rate of O'Ol, any other reading being given with the same tempera- 
ture, the same scale would serve to point out the corrected reading 

The table thus prepared was placed upon a cylinder, so that any 
part of it could be immediately brought up for inspection, and the 
scales (some forty-six — one for each degree of temperature) were pre- 
pared, and promised a very great saving of time ; but in looking 
at the table thus arranged I saw that it was possible to do away 
with all the figures except one column, and substitute a scale upon 
which one oblique line should represent the corrected reading of a 
barometer at a particular stition for every possible temperature 
and variation in the atmospheric pressure. The result is the con- 
venient slidin^-scalo represents! in the annexed photo-lithograph 
I will endeavour to explain to you how this was done. lathe 
first place, a strip of paper, l>:» inehes long, and divided by cross 
Hues one-tenth of an inch apart, was taken, and upon it were 
written all the readings of a barometer scale, from 28 inches to 
30-40 inches, advancing by -01 at a time. It was found necessary 
to begin at 28 inches, in order to reach the high statio Jf" . ,", 
second sheet of paper 22 inches by 8 inches, was then divided 
lengthwise by lines \ of an inch apart ; at one end of them were 
written temperatures from 20° to 90°, and near the left-toj* 
end a fine black zero line was drawn, crossing all of them. W» 
mean barometer reading of a 
taken, and corrected for index 
and for altitude ; the barometer scale on a strip of paper, 
scribed above, was then laid upon the line on the sheet of Vf 
which was marked 40", and the uncorrected barometer reading 
found on the strip of paper and made to coincide with the ze 
line. Looking uh.n- tl..- -.-al-, th- reading corresponding to» 
" corrected" reading as by computation was found, and oppos"* 
on the 40° line, a mark was made. Exactly the 3 
repeated for the temperature 80°, care being in both vn&ta " 
used to apply, not only the temperature correction correspoiwjj 
to these degrees, but U,e akbtnle correction as computed for^ 
same degrees. A line was then drawn through these markS ' 
upon it the eon barometer for any temp 

ture and for anv ,,,uli„^ mav be found by -simply &** 
the scale on the ^,,n t,,nperature in,. A sin 
repeated for each station, and on this seale exhibit^ !l "' Ullt £!jf , r 
eighteen stations are u,:,rke,| without intern ring with one an 
to any troublesome extent The use of this scale has broug 


into prominence one of the little troubles of a meteorological com- 
puter. It is this. Suppose this morning Mount Victoria sends 
in a reading of his barometer 26*742, and air temperature 50°, 
and at Sydney the barometer read 30-021, and air temperature 
was 57°; now the question arises for which of these temperatures, 
or at what other, shall I compute the altitude correction. Theo- 
retically, in computing altitude corrections it is assumed that the 
air is cooler in proportion to the elevation, and therefore the 
mean of the two should be taken ; but in our practice this is found 
to be incorrect, and all the barometers will agree better if they are 
corrected for altitude at the temperature of Sydney, and the 
corrections are always iheret'uiv rnuumted at the Sydney tem- 
perature. You will naturally ask why is theory wrong in this 
instance; probably the answer would be found in the usual con- 
dition of our atmosphere, which is that of having a warm wind 
overhead, and it may be mentioned that the mean temperature of 
Sydney is very near the same as that for the whole Colony when 
determined from seventy stations scattered all over it. Now, in 
using the sliding-scale, we follow the old rule of using the Sydney 
temperature, but when the readings are taken on this line, though 
they are affected by the right altitude correction, they are affected 
by the wrong correction for temperature, for the line is plotted as 
stated before, so that the temperature and altitude correction for 
each temperature are found on the same line ; and since we use 
the Sydney temperature, the reading found is affected by the 
temperature correction for Sydney temperature, and not that of 
the thermometer at the station in question. 

It is found impossible to provide for this difficulty in the sliding- 
scale ; but it is met by adding to the reading found, 2h times the 
difference between the thermometers when the upper thermo- 
meter is lower, and subtracting it when it is higher. It is evident 
that such a slidii, nil i ' erive the readings correct to 

0-001 in., but it will to 0-01, which is more than sufficiently 
accurate for the purpose of daily weather maps ; and if the third 
place of decimals is taken by estimation, the readings are found 
e with the computed readings, 
here that as Kiandra, one of the meteoro- 
logical stations, is at an altitude of 4,640 feet, it would be necessary 
to begin the scale at 25,000 inches, so that the slidin-seale 
would then be 3 feet 6 inches long, and the scale 4 feet. I found, 
however, that this was unnecessary for the purposes of the 
sliding-scale, and that just the same result was obtained if constant 
corrections of 1, 2, or 3 inches were made to the readings of the 
barometers, and the scale plotted accordingly. 


I 1 1111 1 1 1 J J 1 &cLe 1 J —J I j J I J J 1 J 1 " 

Thunder and Hail Storms in New South Wales. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.RA.S. 

[Bead btftm . <. W., 1 December, 1880.] 

Whex the Garden Palace or Exhibition building was in course 
of erection in 1879, the question was raised by a member of the 
Commission whether the risk from hail-storms was sufficient to 
call for some precaution against it in the construction of the build- 
ing, and the question was referred to me for an answer. After a 
careful examiim w rdfi up to the end of 1878, 

I addressed to tl .the substance of which may 

be here quoted :— " After a careful examination of the recorded 
thunder and 1 aiUc rms ! ■ annot trace anvperiod in their recurrence, 
except that they seem to b<* more numerous during the first year 
after a drought, as for instance in 1829-39-50 and 63. In accord- 
ance also with the above, it appears that they are not sever- or 
numerous in wet years. As the present year (1879) may be fairly 
,»f a severe hail-storm is very 
remote, and would not I think justify the outlay n< cessan to pro- 
vide special pro; , the roof of the buihang.'' 

The examination necessary to arrive at the answer involved some 
labour, and the t Lies a <u diagram will be of use in many ways, 
but specially with reference to the question of insurance against 
damage by storms. I have therefore determined to place them on 
record,_ without at present discussing the bearing of the*e -tatistic-. 
There is only one point I would draw your attention to, and that 
is the great number of storms in the early part of November, or 
w-hen the earth is passing through the November meteor stream. 

32ie first tab! at which it occurred, and 

the intensity of ea< h h [-storm : and the page given is the page 
m " Climat e of New Soutia Wales." 

The second table gives the dates and characters of recorded 
storms ; and the last table shows the number in each year. 

The diagram presents the result of this examination in a con- 
venient form. For the hail-storms the severity was estimated 
from the description in a scale to 10, so that a long line shows 
a severe storm. For the thunder-storms the severity of the storm 
could not be estimated except in a few cases. The length of the 
hne used for tiun fore made uniform ; and th« 

number which in the course ui years have occurred od the same 

day of the month, is shown by adding one line to the other ; as for 
instance, for the 10th of February seven storms are on record, the 
line is therefore made over seven spaces in the scale. This, as will 
be seen, is the heaviest record against any day of the year except 
8th December, which has an equal number. The diagram shows 
clearly the preponderance of storms during the summer. 

Table I.— Recorded Hail Storms. 



Hawkesbury and Sydney. 


Richmond Hb 


Bunbury Currar 


Wilberforce .... 



Parramatta and 

BatViurat'." !"'!'.. 


Parramatta and 

Very severe 

Ri Inn.--!!.] 


I • . ': 



v„,| ... 

Thunder. J Hail. Year. Date. 

— ■ 



Oct. 15 .. 


1850 Jan 2 .. 



Nov. 15... 



Dec. 23 ... 


,, 17 . 

Mar. ~1 '.'. 



Jan 10 

,. 12 ... 



I',k Kj ... 




" i i° l - 


Sept. 1 ... 


„ 15 ... 

Th. ... 

April 1 ... 


Oct. 11 ... 


„ 16 ... 


" 15 '.'.'. 

Th". '" 



Nov. 7 ... 


Oct. 20 ... 



Nov. 15 ... 



„ 11... 
Dec. 8 ... 


„ 17 ... 



Bee. 2... 



„ 17... 
„ 22... 



Jan. 3... 


» 28 ... 


„ 15... 


„ 31 ... 


„ 19... 








Date. | Thunder. | HaiL 

Jan. 22 ... 

fV-K 16 '. 

Mar. 3 ... 

9 ... 

„ 10 ... 

", 23 ".' 
„ 25 ... 

„ 27 ... 

April 14 . 

S '.}' f " -2-1 '.','. 
„ ' 11 '.'.'. 

Nov. 1 !" 
„ 2 ... 
„ 10... 

" 20 '.'.'. 
Dec. 8 ... 
„ 21 ... 

',', 27 '.'.' 
„ 30 .. 




Th. ... 








Th. ... 




Th'. '" 






Feb. 7 
April 6 

Nov. 2 

"j 23 
„ 24 

„ 27 

Dec. 3 
',', 20 


Th. .. 





„ 16 

Feb. 17 
„ 25 
„ 29 
m 30 

.. 12 
Sept, 2 


',', 25 

„ 26 










Th. .. 









Feb. 6 ... 

July 3 .. 

s'jpt. 2i . 

„ 27... 
Oct. 7 ... 

„ 8 ... 

m 22 ... 

„ 23 ... 

„ 24 .. 
Dec. 8 ... 








,, 17 

Aug. 23 
Oct. 8 
Nov. 5 
t> 26 

„ 28 


Th.' ... 
Th. ■■ 
Tli. ... 


II — continued. 

*£r| Aurora. 

Thunder. J Rc-n^s. | *£ «* | A ™<* ' |«— ] *— 



Oct. 19 


Oct. 22 


Nov. 7 

Th. . 

Hail also |Nov. 4 
Nov. | 


Nov. 17 

x„v. n 


Nov. 30 


Th. .. 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 8 


Dec. 5 

Dec. 9 


Jan. 2 

Dec. 12 


Dec. 19 


Dec. 27 


Jan. 80 
Jan. 31 

I-\l). 3 




Jan. 18 



Jan. 29 


[Feb. 15 

! Th. 

Jan. 30 

IFeb. 16 

! Th. 

Feb. 23 




\ Hail 


Mar. 2 



Mar. 25 


Aug. 10 


Hailalso-Oct. 22 

1 Th. 


Oct. 31 


Sept. 1 



Sept. 12 


Nov. 17 





n5 21 


Dec. 20 


Dec. 10 

I He. 24 




Jan. 11 



April 16 



April 2S 


Mar. 28 
Jufy 5 

s\ ug t ' 12 

Sept! 8! 




AUr ^ 


- it. :■ 




Oct. 2S 


^.^ Th. 

(Nov. 8 
|Nov. 11 



Nov. 14 



Hail Nov. 19 



Table II — continued. 

Year and 


Jan. 5 


Jan. 8 


Jan. 9 






Feb. 16 


Feb. 25 



Mar. ■>, 


Mar. .'!] 


Ai-ril 17 


July 12 

July 19 


July 25 



S,j, 11 

Oct" 11 


Nov. 6 


\„v. 1!) 


Dec. 1 



Dec. 21 



Jan. 11 

Jan. 27 

) ( 




Fell. Ill 





May 14 


May 28 


n't." 20 

Th. ... 


'Oct. 26 


Nov. 11 

Th. ~ 

Nov. 22 


Table U—eontinued. 

V t ;ra H ,l 






Ke mark3 





i 2.1 



iMar. 9 


Oct. 26 


Th. .. 

Hail also 

Mar. 15 

Nov. 7 


May 2 


Aug. 7 

Th. .. 

Hail also 

Nov. 12 






A i.'. :.ii 

Oct. 4 
Oct. 8 
Oct. 15 


Nov. 23 

Th. ... 


Dec. 7 



Dec. 13 



Dec. 16 

Dec. 19 


Oct. 18 

Dec. 24 




Dec. 31 


Nov. 19 
Nov. 25 
Nov. 27 





Jan. 27 



Feb. 3 









Apr. 5 




Feb. 9 


June 12 



Feb. 10 


Aug. 17 



Sep. 24 


Feb. 22 




Oct. 5 












Apl. 22 
May 10 



Th. ... 



.f,iis- -V> 



Dec. 11 


Dec. 31 





Sept. 9 


Jan. 2 


Jan. 22 


Jan. 26 


Feb. 2 


Nov. 5 


Table II — continued. 

X. v. 11 

Nov. 16 

Feb. 1 
Feb. -22 

Table II— continued. 

'XT | Aurora, j Thunder. | Kemarfcs. 

Ye D a a t a e nd l Aurora. 

"— ; 

Ke ra a rk8 . 






... Hail also 



Feb. 10 



Feb. 11 

Th. .. 




Sept. 23 


Aug. 17 


... Hail also 

OcT 2 ? 

Oct. 21 




Dec. 8 


X .-. L ><; 



Dec. 9 
Dec. 11 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 16 


Dec. 14 


Dec. 18 


Dec. 22 


Table III, showing recorded Hailstorms and Thunderstorms in each year, 

from 1795 to 1878. 





Xu, f er 






h ;:;;.;r 








































Table III— continued. 

Diagram shewing dates and relative intensity qf Hailstorms. 
Diagram shewing relative prevalence of Ttiunderstorm s . 


fiilli l i ii i i ii i i i i In 


I IMtlilJBILlll vmm 

Recent Changes in the Surface of Jupiter. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.RA.S. 

[Read before tl .:'., 1 December, . 

wuie to time to our gaze. 

The Sydney 1 11-inch equatorial is well adapted for such purpose, 
owing to its frc 1 freedom from uncorrected 

colour ; and in May, 1876, I therefore began a series of observa- 
tions, making many drawings and notes. At that time the mark- 
ings were sufficiently remarkable to enlist observers at once, and 
m the changes which have been going on ever since, sufficient 
alteration in form has taken place to keep up the interest and 
make the observ, in the midnight 

sky, so that these change to detail. 

Before proceed] n of my own work, I shall 

perhaps be forgiven if I detain you a few moments by a very short 
account of the most import: : »ve been put for- 

ward in explanation of Jupiter's belts. 

In a paper published by Casstoi, in Paris, in 1691, he says 
that the two equatorial belts of Jupiter were first seen in 1630, 
and he adds that they were remarkably permanent, for he 
watched them for forty years without seeing any change. Other 
observers, however, are of a different opinion, and assert that they 
are not always there. Hevelius says that in 1647 these belts 
were not visible, although he could see clouds upon the surface 
dearly, and Sir W. Herschel saw the planet once in 1793 without 
any sign of belts. In 1834 and 35, the northern belt was invisi- 
ble, and (coming to my own experience) once in 1863 I saw his face 
covered with cloud-like forms from pole to pole, the usual equatorial 
belte being absent. 

Cassini and others, judging of the condition of Jupiter from the 
periods of rotati- rent markings, came to the 

conclusion th it. since tin se times differed, the spots used in deter- 
mining them must have a motion of their own, or that they were 
sunplj clouds. 

Sir "William Herscliel, in 1793, wrote :— "I suppose that the 
bright belts of J I ween the faint belts are zones 

wherein the atmosphere of the planet is most densely filled with 
clouds. The faint belts correspond to the regions in which the 
atmosphere is perfectly serene, and allows the solar rays to reach 
the solid portions of the planet, where according to my opinion the 
reflection is less powerful than from the clouds." 

Mr. Proctor, who has made a careful study of the conditions 
under which Jupiter exists, thinks that since Jupiter, owing to 
his great distance from the sun, only receives ^ part of the light 
and heat which reach the earth, it is impossible that his atmosphere 
should be loaded with clouds as we see it, resulting from sun heat 
alone, and that it is therefore extremely probahle that the giant 
planet is now in the condition which geologists say evidently 
existed at one period of the earth's history, that is, that Jupiter 
is "still a glowing mass, iluid probably throughout, still bubbling 
and seething with the intensity of primeval fires, sending up con- 
tinually enormous masses of clouds to be gathered into bands 
under the influence of the swift rotation of the giant planet." 
Not otherwise, Mr. Proctor thinks, can one understand whence his 

however, for us to bei 
the details upon the surface of Jupiter, owing to his enormous 
distance and the many dilHc ihi-s which the terrestrial atmosphere 
puts in our way. It is only the most patient and trained observ- 
ing, aided by powerful telescopes, that enables us to detect ose 
minute markings on the planet which are all-important in tn 
discussion before us. * 

There are markings, and even changes, which the possessor ot 
small telescope may see ; but, to study Jupiter to advanta^ 
requires the use of large instruments and very close sc f utu !T' j, 
are to arrive at any solution of the question whether tne ^ 
anything permanent on the surface of the planet or no . ^ 
result of my own observation has convinced me that there is, ^ 
I think what follows will show that I have some ground 
thinking so. T ig76 1 

First, with regard to the permanence of the belts. in f 
began to test this point by a careful measure of the posi_ ^ 
all the visible belts, using for the purpose the large ^^j^ by 
a very fine micrometer. At that time the equator was occ F^ 
four red-brown belts, which could be traced all round it , 
them was a fainter red colour, sufficient to make the wn ° J uD i- 


markings, and some of these were subject to frequent changes ; in 
addition to these markings my measures included some fainter 
belts in the temperate zones and the polar caps. 

This year everything to the casual observer seems changed from 
what it was in 1876, and I confess it was with no expectation of 
the result that on the 2nd November last I again applied the 
micrometer to the belts. The two outer ones of the four seemed 
to have disappeared, and the remaining two seem much altered in 
density, colour, and position, especially the northern one, which 
often seemed of a brilliant red. 

I selected a time for the measures when the great red spot 
was visible, so that its latitude might be thereby fixed. I was 
not a little surprised, when I came to compare these measures 
with others taken in 1876, to find that the one set might be sub- 
stituted for the other without much error ; I then compared other 
measures that I had taken, with similar results, and looked to see 
if I could find older measures. So far I have only succeeded in 
finding some made by M. Arago in 1 81 0-1 1 and 1 3. Unfortunately 
they only refer to the edges of what were then known as the/ain« 
belts, for at that time a white equatorial band was the brightest 
part of the planet. M. Arago makes no mention of colour or other 
markings, but the picture given shows markings in the faint belts 
and others nearer the poles ; his measures extended over three 
years, and seem to have been very carefully made. They referred 
to the two extremes of each faint belt, which were no doubt the 
best marked features, and I find that they agree with my 
measures of the four equatorial belts, in fact thev come almost 
exactly the same as the mean of my measures in 1876 and 1880, 
where they refer to what was then, and is still, the best defined 
feature of the planet ; they agree within a tenth of a second of 
arc, and the greatest difference, which is in measures of a very ill- 
defined edge, there is not a difference of 2 seconds of arc. It 
thus appears, that at three dates taken at random in a period of 
seventy years, thefour best marked belts of Jupiter were found in the 
same latitudes, and it is hence a fair inference that they are 
always there. During the four years over which my own work 
has extended, several fainter belts in the temperate zones and the 
polar caps have remained in the same positions. 

Comparing the drawings made June 2, 1876, and November 2, 
1880, photographed copies of which are attached, no one would at 
first sight think that th in ]■■ rtant features were unaltered in 
position, but a closer examination will show that the red spot is in 
the same latitude, and that the main markings of 1880 can be 

mentioned, it would be difficult to decide which parts were clouds 
and which fixed features in the drawing of 1876 ; indeed this is 


one of the real difficulties that is constantly presented to the 
observer to distinguish one from the other, and so far as my 
experience goes, it can only be done by carefully recording the 
position of every feature, and in course of time, those which 
constantly recur in the same place will be recognised as fixed, and 
we shall learn to what extent the clouds change the appearance of 
the planet's markings. In the measures given we recognise the 
division of the planet into zones in a general way corresponding 
to those on the earth ; we have the equatorial belt, and two in the 
temperate zones where the trades end ; ours of course travel in 
latitude with the sun in his course 23£ degrees on each side of the 
equator, but in Jupiter the sun's change of declination is only 
three degrees, so that the belts should seem fixed or nearly so. 

Some of the changings in the markings of Jupiter take place 
with surprising rapidity, as I shall have occasion to tell you pre- 
sently ; and so enormous are the areas over which they are known 
to extend, that reasoning from what we know of terrestrial changes, 
much stress lias been laid by some writers upon the impossibility 
of their occurrence under such atmospheric eoii'litions us exist upcm 
the earth, owing to the physical impossibility of translating the 
clouds, or whatever the markings be, over the enormous distances 
in the given time ; but this ai-umnit, based as it is upon the 
possible velocity of the terrestrial winds, must be received with 
caution; because we know that clouds are not always cau-1 M 
wind, but in some cases seem to form or disappear in a few minutes 
over terrestrial areas so great that it would be impossible for any 
wind to travel fast enough to form them. I have known clouds 
form in five minutes over the whole of a clear sky, 
at other times with similar rapidity. Now the least distance at 
which we can p] bed by such clouds is 40 miles, 

so that the clouds must form over a spot 80 miles in diameter a 
least in five minutes; and for any wind to do this would means 
velocity of 960 miles in an hour, a speed which we know the win 
cannot" attain. When therefore similar changes are seen : upo 
Jupiter, we are not bound to conclude that they are produced m 
way that would be impossible if Jupiter had an at mos jf ^both 
that upon the earth. We must rather acknowl 
planets are subject to influences from without, whi 
to cause great changes in the visible surface of clouds ; ^ 

such causes of change act upon both planets, or even alb tnep ^ 
simultaneously, is an interesting question upon which 1 s 
occasion to make some remarks presently. 

Turning again to the principal belts upon Jupii 
some of the measures I have taken, being those to wmcn 
referred in tb- pr—lin- p m. rks. I wish they had beei 

but [ did not foresee their importance. 

* The letters refer to the same belts in each year. 

It will be seen that these measures F and G refer to the two 
equatorial belts which are situated one on each side of Jupiter's 
equator, in latitude 18° north and south : each is about 4,000 miles 
wide, and very regular in form. In the northern one the air is 
probably clear, and the light that we see it by is very little, as we 
should expect from the dark surface of a planet : in fact, it is 
rendered visible more by the light on each side of it than bv any 
inherent in itself; how very faint it is may be illustrated by the 
fact that it takes a telescope of some considerable size to ne that 
there is any colour at all— or. in other words, anv light, When 
this is collected by a large object-glass it is decidedly red. a colour 
which we might expect it to be when we remember that the light 
has passed twice through Jupiter's atmosphere. Within the past 
two months I have had some splendid views of this belt with the 
large telescope and suitable magnifying power. It has often 
seemed to me so sharply defined as to stand out clear and distinct 
from all other markings, as if it were above them and made up of 
a number of bright red bars laid side by side, forming round the 
planet a magnificent girdle which has a lustre like silk. 

The southern belt is not so striking ; sometimes slightly red, it 
is oftener a warm brown colour, and although nearly as well 
defined as the northern one, it is by no means so striking. 

Going northwards from the equatorial belts, we find in latitude 
36 to 38° another well-defined but usually faint belt, of which I 
have more to say presently; and in the same south latitude another, 
which in 1876 was clear enough, but is now often invisible, 
probably because the south pole of Jupiter is turned away from 

On this belt is the now well-known red spot. Besides 
.11 of 

Many observers have asserted that these belts, more 

especially the equatorial c 

^ge 5 such is howeve: 

steady enough to use the large telescope I see them distinctly 

f*ght up to the limb, somewhat fainter certainly, as they near it, 

but still completing the outline of the planet and showing no gap. 

Next to the great girdles which encircle Jupiter, u the rti 

spot" is certainly the most remarkable feature that has ever been 
detected upon it ; 30,000 miles long, by 8,500 miles wide, it 
eo\ ers ;i surface very much greater than that of the whole of the 
earth, and is easily seen with good telescopes, but in a powerful 
one it is a most striking object, and brighter coloured than any- 

1 the planet ; 

red, and why a different red from any other marking, are questions 

It is generally looked upon as a recent marking, and I have 
been at some trouble to trace its history, and shall I think be able 
to show you that it is much older than many suppose. The first 
published account of it is by Mr. F. < '. Dennett, in the "English 
Mechanic" for 1879, page 277 ; he there asks if any one had seen 
a pink-coloured patch on the south temperate zone of Jupiter, 
which he had many times observed, and saw for the first time on 
July 27, 1878. From a letter in the " Observatory " for January 
1879, it appears that Mr. Pritchctt saw the same marking first 
on July 9th, 1878 : since then there have been many letters on the 
subject, but I have not seen any earlier date mentioned than July wn. 
On referring to my own drawings and notes I find that I first saw it 
separated from the belts on July 8th, 1878 j it was then a taint 
and difficult object to see, but my drawing gives it a form and 
dimensions very naidi like what it has to-day. 1 was not long 
in recognising it as an old friend that I had frequently seen 
1-76, at which urn- it was involved in the equatorial colour band, 
and some what di ax. I have many 

drawings of it , enlarged one to showyoj 

with one made November 2, 1880. The drawings are ^ lc8 *rJS 
made, estimating the size of each marking compared witt™ 
whole planet, so that they may be put on the paper as acGnT T I 
as possible; an : they are c / 

in accord, so much so that I have confidence in the dimensions 

the spot when tir.- uimIuii^I from diem. 1 men tion 

because, when in 1876, 1 made the measures which have alreaay 
referred to, I did not measure the spot itself, but the b <P ^ 
is almost in the same latitude as the north side of it, ami ^ 
knowing the size of the spot, serves to fix its latitude. *» ^ 
south pole of Jupiter to this belt then measured U M* Tj 
the north side of the spot t ■ ^J^he p^ 

-i >yl/tato as proof Uuitit."."- 1 ^;, 

ir in g bhe drawing of June ^ 
-ith others, Ifoid I _ *?%?tS5* 

.. most reeent value of the p t 

i: .-. and t'« und in those published by the Earl of Rosse 
March 187-1 number of R. A. S. Notices, four drawings, which 
show it in the same latitude and longitude as my own observations. 
The colour is there described as reddish and reddish yellow, hut 
no particular remarks are made about it. Looking further hack I 
found a drawing made by the keen-sidited I >a\v,s, m iTtfc 
November, 185 7, in which a similar form is depicted, but without 
colour, its latitude is the same, and the longitude also ; but too 
much weight must not be given to this, for a small dillereuee in 
the period of Jupiter's rotation (a rather uncertain quantity) would 
make all the difference in such a long period between agreement 
, ement. 
These facts amount to very strong evidence, if not to proof, 
that the red spot is a fixed feature of Jupiter, or in other words 
solid ground and not clouds j that it seems to change a little in 
form is no proof to the contrary, where clouds have so much 
influence upon visible outline, and the changes in form are really 
not great. At present both ends are blunt-pointed ; in 1876 the 
preceding end was rott&d atedj and from 

EarlRosse's drawings it appears that the preceding end was pointed 
and the following end rounded; and such changes are not important. 
I confess howc. t 1 my measures, the impres- 

sion produced upon me by observing it was that the dimensions 
did change considerably. This does not however seem to be the 

The colour I I resent the colour 

of the spot is b \ yellow, and when compared 

with a scale of col .. Leh givee six shades between red and 
yellow, it agrees v.-h . ,, ...... v hi, ii i- two shades on the red 

side of yellow. This tint may be said to be uniform and constant, 
though at times lit k reriation&ni parte of i hav< been detected. 
1 _ l.e described as 

a marking : the;. 1 1 1 an of quality. 

It is worth note that the shadow of a spot on this is black : if it 
were self-luminous this would not be the case. 

Measures op the Red Spot. 

In June, 1876, it was 13" -80 long and 4" -60 in width ; on 
September3, 18^0. it \ as i ■:',."» wide, the length was not then 
measured; on - | og and i< '-2 8 in 

width; and on Octol , r _.<, ],-o, it was m< istired again, 15"-00 

Wide writing about the persistent position of this spot, I may 
mention that, on August 6, 1878, at lOh. 10m. p.m., I saw a 
small white spot . much brighter in fact than 

anything else visi as on the northern side of the 

south equatorial belt, and a little in advance of the red spot. At 
the time there was a great development of colour between the 
belts, and this spot presented a clearly defined disc. It was seen 
again wider similar circumstances on October 5, 1878, and thence 
not again until October 11, 1880, when it seemed to have started 
into being more brilliant than I had ever seen it before ; it looked 
like some shining white substance laid on the dark belt, which it 
seemed to cut half in two. With a power of 300 it presented a 
well defined oval shape, the longer axis of which was inclined at 
about 30° to the dark belt, and its north end preceding. So 
unusual was it that at first I refused to believe it had an existence 
on Jupiter, thinking it must b<- in the telescope, but after moving 
one eye-piece aft< i u oil urn IT] 1 tried five, I ^vas com meed 
thatitformedpartof the planet, I was most anxious to seeitagai 
but could not see this part of Jupiter until October 1 
spot was not visible. Ik" 

looked on every available opportunity. 

and carefully examined this place eiuh 

before I f 

-g^m, which was on November 24. It th honeoul w ith st t •' 
brilliance ; and although at first it appeared round, subsequently 
it looked oval. I have seen many of tb 

times before clearly defined, but I .:- . > i'.\ ..t<- u i'h 1 1 •;>■ 
at all equal to this. From the repeated and careful obsen a 
tions which I made of this place between October 11 and ^em- 
ber 24,1 am convinced that the reason it is only some * 
visible is to be found in the clouds of Jupiter, for there awraj 
seems to be some clouds there when the spot is not visible. x* 
time this spot was seen it had the same relative position to xn 
red spot. , beeE 

There are several of these spots on the planet that 1 n j}™ efined 
watching closely for some time past. They are all weu- ^ ^ 
round spots, generally less than a second in diameter, 
an uncommon thing to see their places occupied by wru ^ f^ 
much larger, and probably of clouds ; and once I no e 
striking change: it was on September 14, 1878, and l r its 
seemed to cut the south equatorial band almost in v* > 
situation was in the same longitude as the following 1**% 
red spot. After I had finished my drawing and was *a ^ 
a shower of rain obliged me to cover the telescope tor an 

, i. , .-, 9 -r , , i _ •_ +i,« wliitfi soot baa ^ 

: half ; and then, - 
tracted to c 

and the 

pot baa w- 
he dark *» 

j-fourth of its previous diameter, auu — 

was re-formed. The now little spot did not present , ^ 

disc of the others, and I have never seen it so ; s IV lace 

believe, because I have not looked at the right time, ior ^^ 

has the same cloud peculiarities as others where spots a j ^ 

There are some of these cloud-like markings y n oi the 
further investigation will prove to be permanent featur 


planet, and in some way connected with the white spots, for I 
have observed that in four instances certainly, and I think in 
every one, where a spot is visible, there is always to be found on 
the preceding side of it a cloud-like form, which extends into a 
diagonal, the end near the spot being the preceding end ; in one 
or two instances the existence of a diagonal in a particular place 
lias led me to look for and find the white spot belonging to it. 
This evident connection between the two markings, and their 
fixed positions on the surface suggests the idea that the white 
spots are snow-covered mountains, from which the clouds have for 
a time lifted; and the di b colour to the 

north belt would be clear spaces taking their direction from the 
mountains. The proof is insufficient to convince one, but quite 
enough to make the suggestion, and to lead to the hope that we 
shall know more about it soon. These markings seem much more 
easily seen at some periods than at others, and as an illustration 
of their number I may mention, that at ten minutes past c*> p.m. 
on September 19, 1878, I saw no less than five well-defined 
diagonals extending from the south belt towards the north 
one, and one coming from the north towards the south : at 
this time the red spot was just passing off the planet, and next 
Jfight I examined the part before the spot and found similar 
marks extending at least one-fifth of Jupiter's circumference, so 
that at that time almost the only markings between the belts were 

In connection with these also I will mention one of the most 
striking of the recent changes in Jupiter. On October 28, 7 p.m. 
1880, when I looked at the planet I was astonished to see a large 
spot of decidedly blue colour, situated on the south equatorial belt, 
which it cut half in two j it looked like a mass of cloud, more 
dense in the centre than at the edges, and was of a generally 
rounded form, fully 6,000 miles in diameter. I had frequently, 
and only a few days before, examined this part of Jupiter, and 
was quite sure that what I saw was a sudden and recent develop- 

3 any motion in it or change of form. Two days 1 

failed t 

was the earliest date at which I could" see it again ; it was visible, 
but only as a ghost of its former self, and the blue was scarcely 
discernible ; next day the blue was all gone, and only a brown 
mark remained. From the shape of this, viz., a tendency to form a 
diagonal, I suspected the existence of a white spot, and I 
watched carefully till I saw it, and had thus proof that the great 
cloud had formed over the top of a white spot. I may add that 
J- have never before seen a marking upon Jupiter which was so 
wue in colour or * was. 

, ** , is easy to see the two polar caps, but exceedingly 
aimcult to detect anything there beyond the dark shade. 


When the air is favourable the large telescope reveals a 
series of narrow bands upon which darker markings are sometimes 
seen ; those in the north cap are fleeting, and the same may be 
said of a white spot seen there some time since. On the south cap 
there is a dark marking on the edge which has existed for some 
time ; this is about the same longitude as the red spot, and from 
this point towards the preceding side, the edge of the cap ceases to 
be parallel to the equator, and extends towards it some distance. 
Where it attains its greatest distance from the pole, there is a large 
white patch on Jupiter, much whiter than anything else except the 
white equatorial spots. From many observations of the blue colour 
of these caps I am led to believe that it is an effect due to our 
atmosphere ; I have, in fact, seen it disappear with improving 
definition and the light brown shade take it place. 

In addition to the polar cap, there are in the northern hemi- 
sphere three faint (or usually faint) belts, and in the middle one of 
these I have seen more small black spots than anywhere else on the 
planet. Some of these have reappeared at intervals in the same 
place, and frequently with an enlargement of the belt where they 
are ; at such times the belt for a short distance seems very irregular 
m outline, as if very much disturbed— in fact it presents similar 
features to those which mark a great disturbance in the next belt, 
such as I shall presently describe. In the southern hemisphere 
there is a belt corresponding to this, but different in appearance; 
it has for a long time, if not always, been marked by a dark spot 
half the size of and preceding the'red spot. The nearest faint belt 
to the equator on the north side is a particularly interesting one, 
because of the great changes which take place in it. In 1876 it 
formed one of the four (then) nearly equal equatorial belts, and insize 
and colour it was inferior to none ; in 1878 it had become as fta* 
as it is now, and has so remained until within the past few weeks, 
it has often been quite invisible when the equatorial belts we 
very bright. On the 28th October, at 11 p.m., this year, 1 » 
that a part of it was enlarged, and much darker in colour ww 
usual, and upon examining closely I saw two black spots i nt he g 
larged part, an , ,ti •■ I i..r just ]>n " hu; this the b< ' 
right in two by a band ..; to the I 

surface. The following night I saw that there were three w 
spots, and that all this belt following them for a 
thing like half the circumference of Jupiter was very muclKjJ. 
in colour and fully three times as wide as it had been, an 
enlargement end.. I „d I. :,!v. tl..- rest of the belt being in its nu 
state. With our ideas (for they would be different it ™> ^ 
upon Jupiter) the change above described indicates the e ^ 
of a tremendous force, whatever be the constitution ot en 

for the diameter of the belt had bem increased from six o 
hundred miles to 2,000 miles, for a length of 120,000 miles, » 
short space of a few days. 

For the two following night.-, the air was nut in a good state tor 
observation, and I did not see anything about which I will now 
detain you. I may, however, mention that on November 1st a 
great enlargement, about 20,000 miles long, was seen in the belt 
north of this one. 

On November 2nd I saw that one of the three black spots before 
mentioned had increased in size enormously, and had a black centre 
surrounded with a lighter shading, and looked very much like a 
sun-spot, and the belt was cut in two both befan 
could almost fancy he saw the giant cyclone s\\ • 
round the dark central hole until they covered il. 

On November 10th this belt had become so mn< I 

equatorial belt, and the edge of it was most irregular, the whole 
belt looking as if it were made up of a line of cumulus clouds 
moving in the wildest confusion. On the following night a secon 1 
of the dark spots was enlarged, and the whole belt seemed '-till 
more disturbed. On the 14th, 8h. 15m. p.m., at a spot then in the 
centre of Jupiter, the disturbed belt appeared cut down to its 
original dimensions, and one-half was the old belt and the other 
the new one, if I may so express it. I found that this point of 
contraction was not in the same longitude as the one before men- 
tioned, but about 120 degn '- the appearance 
of this belt has frequently changed, and when I saw it on the 25th 
it seemed to be made up of a series of loops or arches, and was 
more striking than ever. 

I will not long, r d« tain you with notices of any of the many 
other changes I have seen ; but I think you must have noticed. 
in what has been *aid. that these changes seemed intensified in 
November; and the reflection is suggested to me that the earth, 
in the same period, has been changing its app> a- 
observer. With the great storms and earth iu; : k.- 
the northern hemisphere, and in the long sin ■ 
"weather and thundersfc raw which we 
observer would see many and violem 
think I never before saw the record of so many • 
we have in the self-recorded curves during the past month j and, in 
the diagram of storms which accompai 

to-night, you will see that the early part f Number, when the 
earth passes through th . .., time at which 

many thunderstorms reach us. Have these 
other external cause, anything to do with the changes which h.v- • 
keen going on in tl e t\. ■> \ m.-ts \ Win n v c ki o\ that a m« t- . i 
dashing into the sun with a momentary dash stored the magi.-t- 
ism of the earth, and recorded itself on the self-recording magneto- 


meters at Greenwich, it would not be safe to say that there is no 
common cause for the changes we have been considering ; and I 
am sure this suggestion would have come to you with far greater 
force if you could, with me, have watched, between the terrestrial 
clouds, the many changes going on in Jupiter. Much was missed, 
I know, for I saw many things after they were done, in a glimpse 
as it were ; for instance, after a week of clouds here, I saw on 

surface marked by faint belts, to one mass of belts, in which the 
common ones were lost, and a host of strange markings put in 
their place. Answers to the questions — how, and when, and 
why all this took place, were covered up by the clouds that lasted 
here from November 7th to 14th. 

The impression which a close study of Jupiter during the past 
four years has left upon my mind is that we see on the great 
planet very much the same phenomena as an observer placed upon 
Jupiter would see upon the earth ; to him our planet would have 
a very different aspect from that by which we know it. On the 
polar sides of latitude 40° he would see an almost uninterrupted 
belt of clouds, shining white; in the .sunlight, probably almost as 
white as the snow caps ; on the equatorial sides he would see the 
clearer regions of the trade winds, at times marked by persistent 
clouds or haze, which would hide every feature of the earth below, 
at best only visible by light that had passed twice through our 
atmosphere ; and should he be fortunate enough to find the ter- 
restrial air clear at the same time as his own, it would still oe 
next to impossible to distinguish forest-covered earth from ocean , 
he would carefully note certain white points occasionally seen, 
and find they were constant in position ; and if fortune favours 
him, he would look when some terrestrial volcano ^ ot JJj."„ 
ponderous cloud bank, black enough to obliterate ^eryt^ 
beneath it, and perhaps, most conspicuous of all, would be 
brilliant white cloud ring which generally surrounds the equa ' 
smnfiwW. Vn-nV^r. a ^A ir^r^la*. \„ rt «*.1, - Tift fchmiffh it be. " aw \ 

gular in outline tnougu x U «- 
ing these cloud features, he would see them travel north ana s 
with the changing declination of the sun, and wonder whetn 
few bright points could be the only fixed things on the plane . 

Just so, I think it is, that we see Jupiter. Our attention | 
arrested by the belts. We see on the polar sides of . a™" e ; 
almost uninterrupted bright zones, where there is but ^"jU^t: 
but from these latitudes towards the equator the case is ^° to 
at one time we find white zones covering everything tro 
18° on each side of the equator, as we see it at the presen ^ 
at another time all this is changed, and their j)lace is occ ? 
ever-changing light-red-coloured rings as in 1876. On 

at one time we see the brightest cloud zone on the planet, and at 
another a faint red one, which like that between the terrestrial 
trades is ever changing its features. On each side of this are 
situated the darkest rings to be found on the planet, and through 
these probably is our only chance of seeing the true surface, 
excepting those m in tops which parting clouds 

Measures of Mpiters Salts at Sydney 

?.50 jom JvLTl £ 25 ^ 1876. 

Measurements ofJvpiters Belts at Sydney. 


Remarks on the Colours of Jupiter's Belts, and some 
changes observed thereon during the opposition 
of 1880. * ^ 

By Geo. D. Hirst. 

[Read before the Royal Society o/N.S. W„ 1 December, 1880.] 

I AM not able, I am afraid, to add much of interest to the paper 
just read by Mr. Russell. My own observations of Jupiter this 
opposition have not been anything like as complete as I could wish. 
A long spell of cloudy weather when the planet was in its most 
favourable position made a great break just when regular and 
consecutive observations would have had most value; and since 
then, though we have been favoured at intervals with nights on 
which the air has been exceptionably steady, a large proportion 
of the clearest evenings have been unsuitable for good work, 
preventing the satisfactory employment of a large aperture, 
especially during the earlier hours of the night. 

I have, however, the pleasure of laying before you a few 
drawings made by the aid of Mr. Colyer's 10|-in. silvered glass 
reflector by Browning. They may be of some interest to compare 
with what has been done by the Sydney Observatory refractor. 
■«• have made every exertion to secure accuracy of detail, and 
especial attention has been given to the careful reproduction of 
the colours of the belts and polar regions. For this work the 
" 1 ""~ reflector is particularly suitable, on account of its 

1 planet noted during the last three months :- 
North polar shading : — This maintains the fine sea-green tint 
noted by me first in 1876, but the colour is more pronounced _ I 
can see it well with aperture reduced to 4 in. ; it used to require 
at least 7 in., and a steady night. A new white belt has recently 
"Mae i'- appearance here, extending apparently quite round the 
planet, but brighter in some places than others. The southern 
{"nit of the north pole shading has for some years been bordered 
b y a narrow light-brown belt ; this belt has this year darkened 
considerably in colour, on some occasions appearing almost black 
and very ragged ; a large black spot has been noted on it of an ill- 
aenned form ; it seems subject to rapid change, as after an interval 


of two revolutions it has appeared so faint as barely to be visible 
in mid-transit, but I have seen it again on succeeding nights as 
as before. 
South of the north pole shading, and between it and the 
northern equatorial belt, runs a narrow purple streak ; it com- 
pletely circles the planet, and has been a permanent feature for 
several years. This year I noticed that it bad split into two belts, 
but they are so narrow and close together that it requires the 
finest night to separate them. I think there is a genuine change 
here, for I had scrutinised this belt closely on the most favourable 
3 previously without detecting the separation. 

viice of the red, 
brown colour. Two of the 
drawings will demonstrate this. 

Between the north and south equatorial belts lies the portion of 
the planet which appears at the present time to be undergoing a 
series of the most astounding changes, occurring too on an 
immense scale, and with such rapidity that a couple of revolutions 
occuping a little over twenty hours are quite sufficient to render 
the same portion of the disc quite unrecognisable; indeed 
have seen small details change while attempting to draw them, 
and that in a manner not to be accounted for by their altered 
position due to the rotation of the planet. The portion of the 
equatorial belt immediately north of the great red spot is particu- 
larly noticeable for its rapid changes ; I have noted appearances 
resembling cyclonic action here. , ir 

The south equatorial belt is generally of a bluish-grey colour, 
mixed occasionally with a tinge of crimson lake or sometimes 10 
colour. These latter tints are not conspicuous, and can only 
seen on a fine night. The rose or crimson generally runs along 
the southern border of the belt. . . noV 

South of the equatorial band is the great red spot; this w ^ 
of a fairly symmetrical shape, both ends being slightly P **^ 
looks larger to me than it did last year, and the colour ffl i 
undoubtedly brighter ; it appears to be now rather vernuiwn 
red, anyhow its colour is certah ly much brighter than tig** J 
northern equatorial belt. Two faint and narrow belts touo 
have been seen on favourable occasions. narro^ 

Between the great spot and tie • south equatorial belt ^ 
band has lately come into view; I am certain it was ^^ 
prior to opposition: it. is remarkable for its reddisfi Dr , spaC e 
and appears to me to be an indication of the filling W of ** ^ 
between the spot and the equatorial band. ^ son ie 

i past, of a warm grey colour, and no 

appears - -^ nt change " 

been noted there, except the advent of a dusky marking not well 
defined, and iced there last year. 

I have spoken of the polar shadings, and as shadings they appear 
i»n ordinary nights, but 1 have several times suspected that what 
looked as an ili-dehned shading might under especially favourable 
circumstances be resolved into a number of minute belts. On the 
30th September occurred an opportunity seldom to be met with, for 
about 9h. to 9h. 30m. the conditions for observing were absolutely 
perfect with a power of 500, which the mirror bore with ease ; the 
north and south polar shadings were seen to consist of hundreds 
upon hundreds of the minutest belts, but so lino were they and so 
close together thai >t the atmosphere sufficed 

to merge them into each other. I tried the experiment several 
times of placing my warm hand against the outside of the tube, 
and the slight disturl .am ..ft] r i d cans,.,! ly this instantly 
obliterated them. It was n beautiful sight, and a tine testimony to 
the excellence of Mr. With's mirror. 

I have confined these few remarks chiefly to the colours of the 
various features of the planet ; in other observations connected with 
it, abler hands th this opposition to 

good account. 

the pr, 
si-e :iia 

A Catalogue of Plants collected during Mr. Alexander 
Forrest's geographical exploration of North-west 
Australia in 1879. 

By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.RS. 

[Mead be/ore the Royal Society of N.S. W., 7 July, 1880.] 

The following enumeration of plants refers to collections, formed 
during Mr. Alexander Forrest's expedition of last year in the 
country between King's Sound and Port Darwin. It was intended 
to append the complete list of the expedition plants to his official 
report, but this could only be carried out in reference to the 
species gathered between Nickol-Bay and King's Sound, as the 
collections, obtained in the further progress of the journey, were by 
ight miscarried, and thus reached me too late to render 
i list timely available for the exploration report. The 
were partly collected by Mr. Forrest himself, partly by 
ime oi nis companions, Mr. James C. Carey ; and although hardly 
any new species were discovered, it seemed still of sufficient inte- 
rest to give publicity to this index, as the localities for every kind 
of plant were accurately recorded, and thus new data concerning 
the natural spread of many of the rarer species became available. 

The additions, successively made to the already long former lists 
of West Australian plants by the exertions of recent travellers, 
have gradually grown so extensive, that now nearly half of the 
whole vegetation of the Australian continent has been traced to 
within the boundaries of the vast West Australian territory. 
Further searches will doubtless add still much to the phytographic 
records also of the intratropic region, when colonisation in the 
north-west and in the interior will afford collectors of scientific 
material a permanent footing there. 

To this list of names of plants and their localities I have added 
some data from my unpublished diaries of the expedition of 1855 
and 1856, in which I accompanied Mr. Aug. Gregory, as I was 
one of the four, who in the early part of the latter year penetrated 
from the Victoria-River to Sturt's Creek as far as 20° 20' south. 
The collections formed by me in that particular region, now after 
twenty-three years for the first time revisited by Mr. Forrest and 
his party, W ere mostly destroyed on the passage from Timor to 
Sydney, so that many of the localities now given from my journal 
remained ever since unrecorded. 


may also tend to draw additions 
resources of the vast region recently explored in so able a manner 
by Mr. A. Forrest. When we contemplate, that many millions of 
acres of open richly grassed and well watered pastoral country were 
discovered in addition to what was disclosed already by the expedi- 
tion of 1855-1856,— when we consider, that the North-west of 
Australia is blessed by a salubrious clime, mitigated in its heat by 
the prevailing westerly and northerly sea-breezes ; when we recog- 
nise, that the tropical rains keep the pastures verdant also during 
the hot season, and that in the cool season grasses and herbage 
remain also fresh ; when we learn, that only a most sparse and 
unresisting aboriginal population occupies this large territory; 
when we remember, that these fine tracts of country, on which the 
light of geography has so recently been shed, are adjacent to many 
safe and spacious harbours ; and when we reflect, how short a dis- 
tance this new country is separated from India, and how easily 
the products of North-west Australia can be rendered also acces- 
sible through the Suez-Canal not only to the countries on the 
Mediterranean Sea but also to Britain,— then we may point to 
this newly opened part of the fifth continent as one of the most 
promising of any fields for immigration, for the safe and lucrative 
investment of monetary capital, and for the display of skill and 
assiduity of intelligent colonists. 

Tinospara smilacina, Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc. \. supph P - 

Ord River, Margaret River; Hooker's Creek, Termmation 

Lake (P. v. M.). 

Nymphaea stellata, Willd. sp. pL II., 1153, Near Mt ** 

noom (F. v. M.). Dr. Caspary has ascertained that 
A_ *t .. r....7._ r .. 

Capparidre. Rirer _ 

Capparis lasiantha, R, Br. in DC. prodr L, 247. Or 

Found as far south as the Gascoyne River by Mr. uiiv ^ 
Rocperia chomoides, F. v. M. in Hooker's Kew 

Wickham River (P. v. M.). Dr. Eichler (Blwrtb^ 
gramme II., 208 and 211) has shown, that this gei 
be united with Gynandropsis, as P r0 P°^; n b Vickham B*»* 
Cleome tetrandra, Banks in Cand. prodr. L, 240. vv , g}iaIl esy. 
Found as far south as the Comet River by Mr. * ■ ^^ 
- m. I., 69. Wickham Biter, 
aptain Armit. 

Drosera Indica, L. sp. pi. 282. Margaret 

River, Ord River; Stirling's Creek, ' 

Noticed on the Triodia sandhills as far south as the vicinity 

of Fowler's Bay by Mr. Tietkens, who observes that the 

dromedaries delight to feed on this plant. 
Hibiscus paiHluri/vrmig, Burni. Fl. Ind. p., K>1, t.. 17. t'.. 2. P.i.n 

River (south of Connaught Range), near Mount Compton, 

near Depot Pool. 
Hibiscus pentajJn/Um, F. v. M. Fragm. II., 13. Margaret River, 

Humbert River, near Depot Pool, Wickham River. 
Hibiscus Jiculneus, L. sp. pi., 695. Rich Trap country on the 

upper Victoria Piver and Sturt's Creek. Petals towards the 

base beautifully red, but described by Roxburgh (as regards 

his H. sfcrictu | w i are white throughout, 
bossupin,,} o»*tra!t, F. v. M. Fragm. I. 40. Margaret River, Ord 

River, Negri River (east of Connaught Ranges); Termina- 
tion Lake (F. v. M.). 
Sidacorrugata, Lindl. in Mitch, three Exp. II., 13. Margaret 

River, Ord River, 
Mutifon otocarpiim. F. v. M. in Transact. Philos. Soc. Vict. 1855, 

p. 13. Hooker's Creek (F. v. M.). 
Xah;istnon spicatton, Asa Grav in Plant Fendler. 23. Ord 

""oiti.t Gre,;orii, F. v. M. in Hooker's Kev. Miscell. IX., 14. 
Wickham River (F. v. M.). 

Wmli Americana, L. sp. pi., 637. South of Connaught Pan-.-. 
""' ; "" pyraniirjata, L., 674. Sn . 

' / >''■■.■ ,,>„>: ,-',,/• .. }[. Br. in Ib.rsf. Pl.n/ .Tavan rarioi 

234. South of Mt. Compton ; Hookers < free* | F. v. M \ 
"/..,. /.tf.,,, l,r>,, ;/„!„,„. P. P»r. in 11. W PI dav. rar., 234. 

East of Oscar J , -aught Range?. Humbert 

River; Sturt's Creek (F. v. M. >. 

idoides, F. v. M. Fragm. III., 9. East of Connaught 

Trema cannabina, Lour. Fl. Cochin. II., 562. East of Connaught 
Ranges, near Mt. Compton ; Wiekham River (F. v. M.). 

Ficus coronulata, F. v. M. in Journ. Neerl. 1861, 242. East of 
Oscar Ranges, east of Connaught Ranges. 

Cochlospermum heteronemum, F. v. M. in Hooker's Kew Garden 
Miscellany, IX., 15. Ord River, between Connaught and 
Rudolph Ranges ; Stirling's Creek (F. v. M.) ; Glenelg River 
(Martin), Liverpool River (Gulliver). The name of this 
species was derived from the two forms of its filaments. 
Cochlospermum Gillivrayi occurs on the Endeavour River 
and at Cape Sidmouth (Dr. Curdie), C. Gregoryi on the Nor- 
man River (Gulliver). 


Melia Azedarach, L. sp. pi., 384, var. australis. North of Oscar 
Ranges j Victoria River (F. v. M.). 

Dodonaeaplatyptera, F. v. M. Fragm. I., 73. At Stirling's Creek 
and in its vicinity. , 

Dodonaeajjhysocarpa, F. v. M. Fragm. I., 74. South of Rudoipt 

Dodonaea polyzyga,?. v. M. Fragm. I., 74. East of Oscar Ranges, 
Negri River ; Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). u . ,, 

Distickostemon phyllopterus, F. v. M. in Hooker's Kew M*** 
IX., 306. Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F v. M.). 

Cardiospermiim Halicacabum, L. sp. pL, 366. South of Connau i» 
Ranges. .„ q^ 

Atalaya hem{ghuca,¥. v. M. inBenth. Flor. Austr. I, 4W p t 
River, between Connaught and Rudolph Ranges, near F 
Pool; Sturt's and Hooker's Creeks (F. v. lO- Dr. *£** 
(Sitzungs Berichte der Kgl. Bair. Akad. der Wissensch^ , 
1878, p. 326 and 327) distinguishes two more f» l}s 
species, A. coriacea from Lord Howe's Island, and a. a 
from Cape York, both on very slight and probably nm F 


Adriana tomentosa, Cand. in Ann. Scien. Nat. 1 »& ie 

East of Connaught Ranges, near Depot Pool. parV ifolia. 

Excaecaria Agallocha, L. sp. pi. ed. secunda, 1451, var. y 

South of Rudolph Range. , - itfiscell 

Petalostigma quadrilocxdare, F. v. M. in Hookers *e - , g 

IX.f 17. On Hooker's Creek and near the sources of 



Andraehne Decaisnei, Benth. Flora Austr. VI., 88. Near Depot 

Creek (F. v. M.). Probably perennial. 
Euphorbia schizolepis, F. v. M. in Cand. Prodr. XV, part II., 20. 

Near Port Darwin. 
Euphorbia eremophila, All. Cunningham in Mitchell's Tropical 

Austr., 348. Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 


Mollugo GUnus, A. Rich. Flora Abyss. I., 48. East of Connaught 

Ranges; Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 
Mollugo Spergula, L. sp. pi. edit. sec. 131. Near Termination 

Lake (F. v. M.). 

Boerhaavia diffusa, L. sp. pi., 3. Margaret River. 

.WWa Kofi, L. sp. pi., 212. Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks. 

kochia villosa, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr., 91. Ord River. 

lihago.Ua nutans. R. Br. prodr., 408. Near Ord River; Sturt's 
Creek (F. v. M.). 

Dysphttnia Plantagindla, F. v. M. Fragm. I., 61. Between Con- 
naught and Rudolph Ranges ; also at Nickol Bay, Mrs. Crouch 
(spike 6 inches long) ; near Wittenoom Mountains (F. v. M.) 

Gompkrma canescens, R. Br. Prodr., 416. Margaret River. 
O,,o,phrnm ojinis. F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr. V, 254. Sturt's 

Creek (F. v. M.). 
Amamntus intermptus, R. Br. Prodr., 414. Sturt's Creek, F. v. M. 

It may here incidentally be observed, that A. enervis, of 

which A. tennis seems to be a variety, is either identical with 
_ Chrnnpodinni (ttri/,?icin>nn or closely allied to it. 
Ptxhtus alop, run id. «, F. v. M. Fr :1 gm. V I.. 227. Upper Victoria 

River, Sturt's and Hooker's Creeks. 
J t<'»t»* txakaku, Nees in Lehm. pi. Preiss. I., 630. East of 

Oscar Rang - rtfa Creeks (F. v. M.). 

J tdotu* spicatus, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr. V, 243. East of 

Oscar Ranges ; Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). Flowers at first 

often dark red ; quite an ornamental plant. 
Ftilotm distant, Poiret Diction, suppl. IV., 620. Hooker's and 

Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 
Milotus corymbosus, R. Br. 7 

. Prodr., F.Y.M.). 

rtilotus psilotrichoides, F. v. M. fragm. XI., 94. (Psilotrichum 
capitatum fragm. I., 238). Near Negri's River. 
■ ''"-< aspera, L, sp. pi., 205. Ord River, Sturt's Creek 
(F. r. M.). 


Portulaca oleracea, L. sp. pi., 445. Frequent in the 
valuable to travellers as spinage or raw as a 
herb on account of its acidity ; variable in its forms and par- 
ticularly in the size of its flowers. On the Wickhsm Rwi 
and on Sturt's Creek the writer met a variety with beauti- 
fully red petals, as showy as those of P. grandiflora. 

Portulaca najnfbrmis, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr. I, 169. 
Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). The petals never 
" ose of P. oleracea. 


Polygonum plebejum, R. Br. Prodr., 420. Between Connaught 

and Rudolph Ranges. 
Maehl^hu-hla < v .,..,/„„/■■ ,„, /. F. v. M. Fragm. V., 91. Hookers 

and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 

Jacksonia thesioides, A. Cunn. in Ann. Wien. Mus. II., 7i. Near 

Rudolph Range. 
Jacksonia odontoclada, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr. H, w- 

Mirl,:dia 0,-yc/m/a, F. v . .M. Fragm. IV., 12. Near 1 
Lake (F. v. M.). Petals yellow. 

Bossiaea phyUoclada, F. v. M. in Transact. Philos. Inst. Vict. 1U, 
52. Near Mt. Compton. ( „ , 

Crotalaria Cunningham's, R. Br. Appendix to Sturts ten 
Austr., 8. Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). ,, ,i w 

Crotalaria linifolia, L. fil. suppl. pi., 328. Between Mueller 
Range and Ord River. 0r j 

Crotalaria trifoliastrum, Willi sp. pi. DX, 983. Between un 
River and Mueller Range, east of Connaught Ranges, 
Mt. Compton. TT 1-9 

Crotalaria cris } >ata, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr 11., . ' 
Between Margaret River and Oscar Ranges ; between 
River and Mueller Range ; near Termination Lake (*. >« 

Crotalaria retusa,L., 715. Ord River. $*i 

Crotalaria alata, Ham. in D. Don Prodr. Flor. Nep 

Mt. Compton. Specimens, without flower or fruit, ^ 
a closely alii,.! species, hut easily recognisable by u 
decurrent stipules ; the specimens small-leaved. H* s ^ 

I«t»:™ZX:t^n, .:,,.. tab., r,oi v Fit****** 

P.,,l^,all .',,," M M I' N IV ^-^^g^O-k 

.'W-/,. ,,/„ F v M. Fragm IV.. 22. I*P° l 

(F. v. M.). 

(F.v. M.). 
Psoralea balsa mi 'fa, F. v. M. in Transact. Vict. Ii.v. ir- ::• III.. .".">. 

East of Oscar Ranges. 
Psoralen Archeri, F. v. M. Fragm. IV., 21. Ea>t «,f Oscar Ranges, 

Benn River. 
Psoralea paiens, Liwll. in Mitch, throe Lxped. II.. <». Near Mt. 

Krauss, between the Connau-lit ami Rudolph Ranges, near 

Depot Pool; Sturt's Creek and Termination Lake ( F. v. M. >. 
IndigojVra Uni folia, Retzius observ. IV.. L )n . Sturt's Creek. 

Indigo/era monijh ,;!'", OandL prodr. II.. ---• Qrd River. 
Indigo/era trita, L' iil. suppl., 33">. Negri River. Humbert River. 
Indigo/era viscosa, Lam. Diction. III., 247. Retween Mt. Krauss 
and Mueller's Range. 

Creek (F. v. MA 
Ttpkrotia flammed, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr. II., 204 

Near Termination Lake (F. v. M.). 
Tephrosia coriacea, Benth. Flora Austr. II., 201 ; var. velutina 

South of Connaught Ranges. 
Tephrosia uniovulata, F. v. M. Fragm. XL, 70. Margaret River, 

between Mueller's Range and Ord River. 
Tephrosia rosea, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr. II, 211. East of 

Oscar Ranges. 
Tephrosia purpurea, Pers. Synopsis Plant II, 329. Ord River; 

Stirling's Ore -lit Ranges). 

Swainsotm olujopJo/lh, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora Austr. II, 218. 

East of the Oscar Ranges. Nearer the equator than any 

Sesbania aculeata, Pers. syn. pi, 316. Between Connaught and 

Rudolph Ranges, thence towards Mt. Compton. 
Seslauia simplicivsmla, F. v. M. in Benth. LI. Austr. II, 213. 

Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). Stipules .lark-coloured. Upper 

petal with or without dots or red spots. Legumes long, erect. 

Seeds prismatic-oblong, brownish, shining, about 2 lines long. 

Roots beset with small bulbilles. 
Setbrrnia grand! fh r < V -, >. Svn .] < i 1 II, 316. Wickham's River. 
IhyOvrina txtper . Trop. Austr, 218 ; status 

normalis ; Humbert River. Varietas biloba, Ord River. 
Phynehosia minima, Cand. Prodr. II, 380. Between Mueller 

Range and Ord River. 
Canavalia obtusifolia, Cand. Prodr. II, 404. Margaret River. 
fauhinia Leichhardtii. F. v. M. in Transact. Vict. Inst. Ill, 50. 

Margaret River, Ord River, near Mt. Compton and Depot 

Pool; Hookers and Sturt's Creeks and Termination Lake 

(F. v. M.). 

Cassia venusta, F. v. M. Fragm. I, 165. East of Oscar Ranges, 
Humbert River, Hooker's and Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 

Cassia mo.gnifolia, F. v. M. Fragm. I., 166. Between Mueller 
Range and Ord River. 

Cassia desolata, F. v. M. in Linnsea, 1852, p., 389. Margaret 

Cassia mimosoides, L. sp. pi., 379. Between Rudolph Range and 
Mt. Compton. Traced by me southward to the vicinity of 
Termination Lake. 

Acacia Sentis, F. v. M. in Journ. Linn. Soc. III., 128. Near the 
Rudolph Range, Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 

Acacia ,••//.•.,,/.,. F. v. M. IV _ ..... HI.. L^S. Margaret River. 

Acacia Wickhami, Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Rot. I, o<9. 
Margaret River. 

Acacia stipulosa, F. v. M. in Journ. Linn. Soc. III., 119- East of 
the Oscar Ranges, Humbert River. 

Acacia pallida, F. v. M. in Journ. Linn. Hoc. III., 147. Margaret 
River. Noticed on the Ennesleigh River by Captain Armit 
Seeds greyish-brown, not shining, roundish or somewhat 
quadrangular, compressed, 3-4 lines long ; funicle pale brown, 
replicate near the hilum, hut not expanded into a strophiok. 

Acacia Fana^„ n a, Willd. sn. r>l. IV.. 1083. Hooker's and Start s 

Barringtonia acutangida, Gaertn. de fructib. et sem. II, 97, 1 1 01 - 

Humbert River, junction of Wickham and V 
Exigenia eucalyptoides, F. v. M. fragm. IV., 55. East of Rudolpn 

Calycothrix microphylla, A. Cunn. in Bot. Mag., 3323. 

ir Ranges, between Connaught and Ru^ 

i auaafi/oUrr, F. v. M. in Transact. Phi 

Between Connaught and Rudolph Ra: 

i Leucadendron, L. 

Range and Mt. ComptoL. 

3 ... in Trans. Linn. Soc. HI, -"■ 
River, Depot Pool. - j 

Eucalypta* a.y,cra, F. v. M., in Journ. Linn. Soc. Ill, 95. 

of Connaught Ranges. . B e 

Eucalyptus pruimm, Schauer in Walp. Rep. II, 9 - b " 

Sucalyptm terminaUs, F. v. M. in Journ. Linn. Soc. lH-> ' 
Sturt's Creek and Stirling's Creek (F. v. M.). , „ 

■ i. am a XX., 055. Hoo^r 
Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 

Rotala diandra, F. v. M. (Ameletia diandra, F. v. M. Fragm. III., 
108). Margaret River; sources of Sturt's and Hooker's 
Creeks (F. v. M.). 

Dr. Koehne, after an extensive study of the whole order 
of Lythraceae, has shown (Sitzungs-Berichte des botan. 
Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg, 1877, p. 4749), that the 
genus Rotala could well be re-established, as already contended 
by Hiern (in Oliver's Flora of Tropical Africa II., 466 and 
476), the diilerences consisting in the dehiscence of the fruit, 
in which respect Rotala holds about the same position to 
Ammannia as Bergia to Elatine. To the genus Nesaca, in 
the limitation assigned by Koehne, we must now also refer 
Lythrum Arnhrmictim, which I separated as a sub-genus 
under the name of Calopeplis (Fragm. Phytogr. Austr. III., 
109), its affinity to ISTesaea having been pointed out bv my- 
self already in 1862. 

Ammannia Indica, Tain, illu-tr., 1555. Between Connaught 
Ranges and Humbert River. 

Ammannia midtijlora, Roxb. flora IncL L, 426. Margaret River. 


Jussiaea svffruticosa, L. sp. pi., 388. Ord River, sources of 

Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. It). 
Ludtci 9 ia parvifiora, Roxb. flora Ind. I., 419. Sturt's Creek 

(F. v. M.)/ 


Gyrocarpus Jacquini, Roxb. Plant Corom. T, 2 ; t, 1. Negri 
River, Mar-aivt River. Sunt s Creek (F. v. M. ). 

2vrmina/ia p 7„*,, ' . ." . \\ ^ \\. [Yagro. II., 150. Near Hooker's 
and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 


ffaloragis leptotheca, F. v. M. Fragm. III., 32. Fitzgerald Range, 
sources of Hooker', and Siurts Creeks (F. v. M.). 

I have restored the specific name of this plant, because 
Decaisne's drawing in Duperry Voyage, Botanique t., 70, 
represents rather the roundish fruit of //. hlnvjyna than the 
elongated fruit of //. leptotheca, the degree of roughness 
being variable. Brogniart appears not to have published the 
text of II. we are left in uncertainty 

whether it came from an intratropical or extratropical place ; 
but some of the other plants figured in the Atlas next to H. 
acanthocarpa are species obtained in New South Wales. 
With H. tencrioides all may be forms of one species. 

Haloragis ceratophylla, End! Atakt., 16; t., 15. Sturts Creek 
(F. v. M.). 

Stackhousia viminea, Smith in Rees Cyclop., 1819. Fitzgerald 


Umiksia dentata, L. fil. suppl. pi., 127. East of the Oscar Ranges. 

Grevillea striata, R. Br. in Transact. Linn. Soc. X., 177. Ord 
River, near Connaught Ranges, junction of Wickham and 
Victoria Rivers, Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 

Grevillea Chrysodendron, R Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. X., 176. 
Near Mt. Compton. 

Grevillea inhnosoides, R Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. X, 177. Ord 

Grevillea Wickhami, Meissn. in Cand. Prodr. XIV., 380. 

Margaret River ; a variety with the outside of the calyx and 

the style hairy. 
Grevillea leueadendron, A. Cunn. in R Br. Prot. nov., 25. 

Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 
Grevillea refracta, R Br. in Transact. Linn. Soc. X., 176. 

Hooker's Creek (F. v. M.). „ 1Q _ 

Ilakea arborrscens, R. Br. in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 187. 

Sources of Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks. 
Eakea lorea, R. Br. Proteacese nova% 25. Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.> 

Santalwm Unceolatum, R Br. Prodr., 356. North of Nicholson 

Plains ; Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). ; 

Ezocarpw latifoUa, It. Br. Prodr., 356. Sources of Hookers ana 

Sturt's Creeks. 


Gardenia resinosa, F. v. M. Fragm. I., 54. Sources of Hookers 

and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). • 7 v v JL 
Fragm. IV, 37). Stmt's (Vn-k. 

H^yotisfl "' an S 

latter tab ^^ 

'."' the %» *>***( 


Calotis breviseta, Benth. in Hueg. enum., 60. Sturt's Creek, near 

Termination Lake (F. v. MA 
Pterigeron odorus, Benth. Flora Austr. III., 532. Ord River. 
Moonia trichodesmoides, Benth. flora Austr. III., 540. East of 

Oscar Ranges. 
Glossogyne tenuifolia, Cass, in diet. sc. nat IX, 475. Between 

Mueller's Range and Ord River, Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 
Pterocaulon verbascifolius, Benth. in B. and H. gen. plant., 294. 

Humbert River. 
Pterocaidon sphacelous, Benth. in B. and H. gen. plant., 294. 

Eastern branch of Fitzroy River, north of Nicholson Plains. 
Flaveria Australasia, Iloobr in Mitch. Trop. Austr., 118. East 

of Connaught Ranges. 
Eelichrysum apiculatum, Cand. Prodr. VI., 195. Wickham River. 
Criutphalium Indicum, L. sp. pi., 852. A variety -with globular 

mostly terminal flower-clusters ; Depot Pool. 
Onaphallt'.m Ivteo-album, L. sp. pi., 851. Between Connaught 

and Rudolph Ranges. 


Lobelia quadrangularis, R. Br. Prodr., 563. Between Connaught 
Ranges and Humbert Paver. 

Wrightia saligna, F. 

Sources of Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 
Carissa Brouraii, F. v. M. Fragm. IV., 45, var. lanceolata. Ord 

River, between Connaught Ranges and Humbert River; 

Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 

Sarcostemma australe, R. Br. Prodr., 463. Sturt's Creek (F. v. MX 
Cywnchumfloribvndv.m, R, Br. Prodr., 463. Between Mueller's 

Range and Ord River, Depot Creek (F. v. M.). 
Mtcrostemma glabriflorum, F. v. M. Fragm. I., 58. Southern 

sources of the Victoria River, from whence I also recorded 

Secamone ovata in my diary. 


lisne herb. Timor., 55. Ord River. 
Sypoestes Jioribunda, R. Br. Prodr., 474. Ord River, Humbert 


■roJius, L. sp. pi. ed. sec, 391. Ord River. 
J i ° ■■-; •■ h hracea, J acq. collect. I., 124. East of Oscar Ranges ; 
flowers in this case solitary. 


Ipomcea erecta, R. Br. Prodr., 487. Stirling's Creek, near Fitz- 
gerald's Range. 

Ipomcea reptans, Poiret Encycl. Method., suppl. Ill, 460. Start's 
Creek in many places, extending to near Termination Lake, 
also on Hooker's Creek (F. v. M.). As regards the dehiscence 
of its fruit this species holds the same relation to other con- 
geners as Limnanthemum to Villarsia. 

Ipomcea alata, R. Br. Prodr., 484. Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 

Ipomcea hetercphytta, R Br. Prodr. . 487. Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.), 

I porno a (lis* do, VYilld. Phytogr., 5 1. } 2. Near Termination Lake 
(F. v. M.). 

Ipomcea gracilis, R. Br. Prodr., 484. Sturt's Creek, near Termina- 
tion Lake (F. v. M.). 

Ipomcea dentiadata, Ghoisy in Cand. Prodr. IX., 379. Sources of 
the Victoria River (F. v. M.). 

Convolvulus parvijlorus, Vahl. Symbol. III., 29. Sturt's Creek 
<F. v. M.). 

Breweria media, R Br. Prodr., 488. Noticed by me as far south 
as Termination Lake (F. v. M.). 

Breweria linearis, R. Br. Prodromus, 488. Sturt's Creek 
(F. v. 11). . 

i by the writer * fe 


Inima, L. sp. pi., 183. Depot Pool. 
cHnatum, R. Br. Prodr., 417. Neai 

(F. v. M.). 


Cnnfh-ni.i aw/, rr,?lrui, F. v. M. Fragm. L, 118. Hool 

Creek, near Termination Lake (F. v. M.) 
Guodwh. lamprospprmn, F. v. M. Fragm. L, 116. Margaret ; JHT- 
Goodenia heterochila, F. v. M. Fragm. Ill, 142. East ofWj 

Ranges, between the Ord River and Mueller Range. u>™ 

gibbous at the base. Af \ 

Calogyne pilosa, R. Br. Prodr., 579. Dep&t Creek (F. Jig^r, 
LeschnifiHltia agrostophylla, F. v. M. Fragm. VI, 8., t. A 

Near Fitzgerald Range. 

Cressa Cretica, L., sp. pi., 223. Termination Lake (F. v. • 
// 'iut.rojnum ovafifoUum, Forsk. Flora ^gyptiaco-arab., oo. - 

I >< -pot POOI. ix Vgl 

Ehr tia saligna, R Br. Prodr., 49G. East of ConnaugW *- 
on Sturt's <V,.-k far south, not rare (F. v. M.) rf fl 

Tr'vhud,:s»m Zvilauicvni, R. Br. Prodr., !'■ 
Ranges, Margaret River ; in many places 
(F. * M.). Oldest generic name Follichia, of Medicos ( 


Ocimum sanctum, L. mant. plant, 85. Ord River. 

Moschosma polyxtachya, Benth. in Wall. ]>!., Asia 

Near Connaught Ranges ; near Bit Witb DOOl 

Anlxomdes salvifolia, R. Br. Prodr., 503. East 

Mmtha Australia R. Br. Prodr., 505. 

It is this speeies, which I recorded from Stu 
near Hooker's Creek in my itineration journ: 
mens were lost, with a large portion of my oi 
from far inland, on the transit by ship to Sydno; 
entertain any donbt about the exactness of the 
at all events we have no other records of the 
Mints in North-west Australia. 

Teucrinm inteyri folium, F. v. M. in Benth. Flora 1 
Kear Mt. Wittenoon (F. v. M.). 

Utrimlaria chrysantha, R. Br. Prodr., 432. N< 
Range ; found also by Mr. Thos. Gulliver on t 

Ranges and Humbert Ri\ 


Eremophila maculata, F. v. M., in Papers Royal Hoc. Tu-iu. 111., 
207. Margaret River : a yellow-Holered variety on ,_turts 
Creek (F. v. M.). , , _„ 

&emop&«a Latrohei, F. v. M., report on Babbage s pL 17, ^ar. 
filifolia. Ord River. , . .. , 

Myoporum tenuifolivm, G. Forster, Prodr., 44. Depot Creek 
(F. v. M.). 

Cymbidium canaliculatum, R.TnProdr., 331. Benn River (Con- 
naught Ranges). 

PaNDANE.E. „ ■ , 

Pandanus aquaticus, F. v. M., Fragm. V., 40. Q 

(V. v. M.). Fn.itl.-ts quite t,r, :. 7«i T 'l«l, club-shaped 

attenuate.! at the I 

greenish summit : th • 

receptacle roundish-pw /' a ? i X 

This' species occurs in many places of Arnhem's Ian, 

observed already by Dr. Leichhardt. Its stem oi lesser 

height ami- I »« the followmg secies. 

Pandanus odor ■ &*■ > ear Connaught 

Ranges and Mt. Compton; near Stirling's Creek (r, v. .>!.). 


Commelynaivp'o-' ' . V. ■ M . Kr,^i;i VI II., 59. PortDarwin; 
sources of Start's Creek, F. v. M. United by Bentham with 
C. lanceolate, restored as a species by the present monographer 
of the order, C. B. Clarke, Esq., who writes to me : "I find 
the species quite distinct on many grounds, and further be- 
lieve that the Commelynas, which have all the ovary-cells 
uniovulate, never vary so as to exhibit any 2-ovulate cells. 
I have never found a single instance of variation on this 
point." It may here incidentally be remarked, that the Kev. 
Dr. Woolls has recent ! . fcy of Port Jackson 

r-flowered Commelyna, which may prove (af fcer f urthff 
tion of the fruit) reducib' 

Aneilema anthericoides, R. Br. prodr. 

upper part of Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.) 

Cyanotis a.ri/!*ria, Schult. Nyst. Veget. VII, 1150. Hooker's 
Creek (F. v. M.) ; found on the Palmer River by Mr. 

Cyperus vaginatus, R. Br. Prodr., 213. Margaret River ; Start's, 

Hooker's and Depot Creeks (F. v. M.). _, 

Cyperus dijormis, L. amoen. acad. IV., 302. Sturt's Creek (J. 

Cyperus trinervis, R. Br. Prodr., 213. Wickham's River (F. vJty 

Cyperus pulcheUv*. R. Br. Prodr., 213. Wickham's River (* ■ * 

M.) ; found also at Port Darwin by Mr. Holtze, and at ts 

Palmer River by Mr. Wycliffe. Occasionally fully one iw 

• • - - tppend. to Tuck. Congo,** 
Creek and Sturt's Creet 

(F. v. M.). . viva 

Scleria pygmaea, R. Br., Prodr., 240. Upper Victoria W > 

near Depot Creek (F. v. M.). 

Gramine^e. _, M) 

ra-nicum grade, R. Br. Prodr., 190. Sturt's Creek :{*■* ^ 
Pcmicum spinescens, R. Br. Prodr., 193. Upper Vl <T ^w^ 

and Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.); occurs also on tne u 

Lachlan and Murray Rivers. . -,._,_ start's 

Perotis rara, R. Rr. Prodr., 172. U pper Victoria River, 

Creek, Termination Lake (F. v. M.). Wear *^ 

Erianthua articuJatus, F. v. M. Fragm. VIII, H»- 

Fitzgerald Ranges. -tr-„+™i'a Bi rer ' 

Erianlhwfulvu*, Kunth enumer. I., 479. Upper Victor* 

Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks (F. v. M.). 


Erianthus irritans, Kunth enumer., I., 479. Southern sources of 

the Victoria River. 
Andropogon triticeus, R. Br. Prodr., 201. Upper Victoria River, 

on the sandstone tableland. A stately grass, but formidable 

on account of the piercing awns of enormous length. 
Amniliiv -flu Xrpnltasis, Trin. spec. gram, t., 268. Near the 

Fitzgerald Ranges. 
Amphipogon strictits, R. Br. Prodr., 175. Hooker's Creek (F. 

v. M.). 
PitjipnjJion'i)} commune, F. v. M. report on plants of Gregory's 

Exped. in search of Leichh, p. 10. Sturt's Creek. 
Triraphis mollis, R. Br. Prodr., 185. Near Termination Lake, 

where I also noticed a Neurachne, and also a Sporobolus 

allied to X Viryli.irus. 
TrioJia pungent, R. Br. Prodr., 182. On the sandstone table- 
land towards the sources of the Victoria River, also on 

Hooker's ami Start'. I Wk. (F. v. M.). 
Chhris arlcularls, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr., 33. Sturt's 

Creek (F. v. M.). 
Elvninz cruciata, Lam. Encvcl. Method, t.. IS f.g. 2. Termination 

Lake (F. v. M.). 
Ectrosia leporina, R. Br., Prodr., 186. Near Fitzgerald Range; 

Sturt's Creek, where a second species also occurs (F. v. M.). 
Poa ramigera, F. v. M., in Transact. Vict. Inst., 1855, p. 45. 

Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 

Blechnum orientate, L., sp. pi, 1077. 

East of Oscar Ranges. 
Chrihuithts tenui/vUa, Swartz Synop. 61., 129. Hooker's Creek 

and upper part of Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.). 
Ophioglomnn vulgatam L, sp. pi., 1062. Upper Victoria River 

Mr. Flood. 

Positions shown on the Map. 

Fraser River. Margan.-t Ri\ 

Collier Bay. Nicholson's 1 

King Leopold's Ranges. Ord River. 

Mount Humbert. Connaught E 

Mount Anderson. Rudolph Rai 

'a Wains. Humbert Rr 

Mount Tuckfield. Victoria Riv< 

Mount Abbott. Depot Pool. 

- - 


Ringbarking and its Effects. 
By W. E. Abbott, Esq., J.P., Glengarry. 

[Read be/ore the Royal Society of N.S. W., 7 July, 1880.] 

It is now about twenty years since ringbarking, or destroying the 
native forests by cutting a ring of bark off all round each tree, 
began to be practised in the watershed of the Hunter Kiver, and 
about ten years since the practice became general. It was begun, 
I believe, by Mr. Thomas Hungerford, of Bucrami, and immediately 
taken up by the Messrs. White, from whom the new process for 
improving the grazing capacity of the runs spread rapidly in every 
direction, so that at the present time I am inclined to think that 
at least three-fourths of all the purchased land on the Hunter has 
been ringbarked, beside a very considerable area of Crown lands. 
There are a good many opinions about the seasons at which 
ringbarking should be done, and also as to the best method for 
ensuring the destruction of the trees ; but as I wish in this paper 
to deal with it only in reference to its effects, I shall not discuss 
them. The very rapid spread of ringbarking, in spite of the oppo- 
sition of all the lovers of fine scenery and of many scientific men, 
amongst whom the late Vice-President of this Society (the Rev. 
W. B. Clarke) was the most prominent, proves that there must be 
a clear gain to the graziers in getting rid of the timber ; and up to 
the present time no ill effects have been found to follow from it, 
though the prophets of evil have been numerous and their prophecies 
supported by arguments and opinions drawn from all parts of the 

The two principal objections urged against the new method of 
improving the land were : First, that the creeks and rivers would 
dry up owing to the increased evaporation ; and, second, that the 
rainfall would be reduced owing to the removal of the very large 
condensing surface offered by the trees to moisture-laden winds 
passing over the country. 

Now, I will ask, how have these predictions been fulfilled 1 and, 
in reply, will give my own experience, and as far as possible a 
summary of the effects that have followed from ringbarking in the 
watershed of the Hunter Biver. 

In 1869, after having seen the very great increase in the grazing 
capacity of Messrs. White's runs which followed from ringbarking, 

I began on my own run at Glengarry, which is situated on the 
Page River, about 12 miles south-east from Murrurundi, and 
about 1 6 miles from the summit of Liverpool Range. 

The greater part of the land ringbarked is about 1,300 feet above 
sea-level by aneroid barometer measurement, though some of the 
ridges rise to a height of 2,000 feet, and one or two of the highest 
peaks to nearly 3,000. The most of the run and all that which 
has been ringbarked is of volcanic formation, consisting of black 
soil flats and basaltic ridges with white box timber. 

In 1869 and 1870 I ringbarked the greater part of the water- 
shed of two small creeks and the whole of the watershed of a 
third ; each of these creeks being about 2 miles long, and d 

valleys shut ' 
to them in this paper t 
inquiries about them as far back as 1850, and find that from that 
date to 1860 they were dry water-courses only holding water for* 
few days after rain, and in a few places in the winter months, 
always drying up completely in summer and never running as 
permanent streams at any time. 

From my own observations from 1860 to 1870, I know that 
their character had not changed up to the latter date, so that here 
we have three water-courses draining three small valleys and main- 
taining the same character for a period of twenty years. 

No. 1 creek drains about 1,200 acred, of which (as near as I can 
estimate without having the watershed surveyed) 910 acres are 
ringbarked and the remainder covered with growing *" n J er 'T 
growing timber being on the head of the creek. The n ?gf^? 
was done in the beginning of 1870, and as soon as the ^ ber _f* 
dead the creek assumed the character of a permanent stream. i 
of course was a surprise to me, but as I had not kept any *J_ 
records up to that time, nor paid much attention to them, 
buted the change to the two or three wet years that ioUo**i > 
and expected that the creek would soon return to its old sj^ 

So little faith had I in the change, that I went to a coast i 
expense in dividing the land into paddocks to provide a wa = 
place to the river in each paddock, and these watermg-p 
have never had occasion to use since. . , . ^ the 

No. 2 creek contains about 850 acres, and Ls /^f^ber 
same way as No. 1. that is about 300 acres of ff oW ^V 
Lav, l,,,"n l,,f« ,„, ,1,- i.,.,,1 of ,l,e crock. The valley d***^ 
No. L* is narrower ami a!,,u( tin- sin." length as So. h 
running parallel to < . t . 1 ; -. !<•<! from it by a steep rang • ^ 
Mv .-xi,,;. , win, N„ 1 is precisely the same « "f^i 

No. 1. No. :; , ■ , ,. •■ .„„. ,....i.,,M-.ji <^Z^Ki 

but the area drain, d I v i< do. n .t a-l oiu the dra« ^ ^ 
either of the fo TrdS**" 

and seems to be less affected by drought than either 

!;inv,i;ai>ki\-<; . 

under which the -v 

The geological formation of i 
■hied rocks as far j 
All three began to ran in 1871, and have continued "ever i 

i permanent streams, and in the last drought ending here in 

) the third 

I almost 

This creek is merely a dry water-course, and has 
not changed in any particular during the last twenty years, 
although there is nothing to distinguish it from No. 1, except 
that it flows to the west, and the fall of the land on the western 
side of the ridge is about 250 feet more than on the eastern. 

On the 17th of May last I measured the water flowing out of 
each of the three creeks first described, by damming them and 
causing all the water to flow through a spout into a vessel of 
known capacity, and found that the flow of permanent water was 
as given under. I chose the date named because, for the pre- 
vious four months, there had been a very small rainfall (about four 
niches), and I wished, by measuring after a considerable period of 
dry weather, to make sure that I was not over-estimating the per- 
manent annual outflow. 

The average rainfall here since 1875 is just 25 inches, and taking 
the rainfall for the previous five years at Murrurundi, which is 
the nearest station where a rain _'au-«"- ha- b.-. n kept, the average 
tall is still within a few points of 25 niches for the ten years. No 
rain-Maudes were k ept in t j )is part Q f t j ie countrv before 1870. 
^ The water begins to flow in the creeks a short distance below the 
green timber, so that in comparing the outflow with the area drained 
J hav,. only taken into the calculation the area of drainage that is 

>T , Measurements. 

No. 1 creek contains :— 

300 acres green timber. 

910 acres ringbarked. 

Bainfall at 25 for twelve months ... 51 6, 1 40,625 gallons. 

Permanent outflow at 26* gallons per 

minute for a year... " 13,924,800 gallons. 

Or about ^ of annual rainfall, or taking 
at rate of rainfall for previous four 
months, -^ 

300 acres green timber, 

Rainfall for year at 25 inches 311,953,125 g 

Permanent outflow at 11 gallons per 

minute for one year 5,781,600 g 

Or about - 5 \- of annual rainfall, or 
taking at rate of rainfall for pre- 
vious four months, -fa. 
To. 3 creek contains :— 

800 acres ringbarked. 

Rainfall for year at 25 inches 453,750,000 p 

Permanent outflow at 20 gallons per 

minute for one year 10,512,000 & 

Or about -fr of annual rainfall, or 
taking at rate of previous four 
months, - 2 \. 
These calculations do not take into consideration the flood-wate 

but only the permanent flow, and the quantity 
passing away during a heavy fall of rain must b. 
able, as the fall of the ground from the heads of tl 
distance of 2 miles, is about 500 feet. 

of flood-water 

I r egret tMM 
unable to obtain the total outflow for a year, but I do noj ; »* 
bow it could be done, as the rise and fall is so rapid that .it * o^ 
be necessary to attend to it day and night during the whole 
rain was falling. .^ ^ 

My experience in reference to the three creeks described 
been repeated in every instance where I have had ^"Jj 
barked, and, as far as I can learn, in every part of the ^ 
River watershed the result has been the same as in my °ff ^ 
exception has come under my notice, though of course tn 
is more apparent in some cases than in others. t^r 

There can I think be no doubt that, on the Hun«* 
watershed at least, the most noticeable effects of ^ m .Z^e 
been the increased flow of water in the creeks when to ^ 
was dead and the increase in the number of springs, tw> 8 
course the first effect mentioned follows from the secon • ^ 

This has been an unexpected advantage to graziers, as 
object in view at first was to increase the production w 8 ^ 

This increase in the flow of water may be product 
WayS: ~ t c a sort of ^ 

First, the roots of the trees decaying may act as ^ ^. 
soil drainage, leading the water down into the sut>s ^ j 
wards allowing it to drain off slowly into ^T^ttf* * 
this is the only cause, one of the very greatest aa 
ringbarking will be but temporary. 


The other explanation— and the one which seems to me most 
probable— is, that when the timber is dead the lam proportion of 
the rainfall which was formerly taken up by the roots of the 
growing trees and evaporated from their leaves is allowed to find 
its way to the creeks and rivers. The fact that the Eucalyptus is 
perhaps the most vigorous growing tree known, and that it has 
been used successfully to dry up swampy land in other parts of 
the world, would seem to support this explanation. 

Though I have never paid any attention to the sconce of 
botany, and am not competent to give a very decided opinion, it 
seems highly probable that the fact of all or nearly all the 
Eucalyptus species having both surfaces of the leaves similar, and 
so presenting a double evaporating surface to the atmosphere, 
would, with their very energetic growth, account for the country 
on which they grow being dryer than other countries where the 
conditions of rainfall and latitude are the same, and this leads me 
to a possible explanation of the anomaly presented by most of our 
Australian rivers. If we compare such a river as the Thames in 
England Mith the Hunter in New South \Val.->. we shall lind that, 
" drainage is not very unequal, the Hunter having 


proportion larger than that of the Hunter. I have 
not seen any record of the annual outflow of the Thames, and none 
Am been kept of that of the Hunter, but I take the fact that the 
' SMMB u navigable for a great part of its course, even to a height 
or -a0 feet above sea-level, and the Hunter scarcely at all, as 
proof that the former must have very much the larger quantity of 
ater There must be a reason for this, and though an under- 
P mmd outlet might account for some rivers having less than the 
usual outflow in proportion to rainfall, it cannot apply to all. 

I( >" iarire amount of evaporation in our climate will of course 
me a yivat ellVct, hut 1 eannot help t liin k inir. after seeing the 

fr " () ' _' ■»'_!'' or Australia, it this scarcity oi water m proportion 
• ';' ";:'" ''■'• " ta!1 ]*■ as 1 suppose, peculiar to Australia, then in look- 
g ror the cause wemust find one that is also peculiar to Aus- 

Our geological formations are not different from those of other 
Parts of the world, nor is there any reason as far as I know for 
supposing that the evaporation here is greater than in other 
countries situated in the same latitude either north or south of the 

Our forest growth is certainly exceptional, whether the two 

not 1 ? are connected **■ the wa y oi cause and effect or not. I do 

Know that we have sufficient data to determine the question 

either way at present, but if the work which Mr. Russell has 
begun in keeping a record of the outflow of some of our rivers is 
carried on, before the present generation has passed away there 
will be something on which to base an opinion. 

A few years ago it would have been deemed the very acme of 
absurdity for any man to destroy the timber on his land for the 
purpose of producing permanent water, and now it is done every 
day as a matter of course. 

That the destruction of the forests will reduce the rainfall is, I 
think, unlikely. 

The theory that the amount of rainfall in any country depends 
on the area of its forests seems to be very generally received, and 
may have arisen from the fact that where there is a large and 
regular rainfall there is pretty sure to be a heavy forest growth, 
but a little thought will show that the forest is the result of the 
rainfall, not the rainfall of the forest. 

Indeed it is hard to understand how any forest could come into 
existence if the amount of rainfall were influenced mainly by the 
forest growth, as the forest would have to precede the rainM 
and yet could not grow without it. 

In conclusion, I wish to call attention to a report by Mr. 
Draper, Director of the New York Observatory, America, whien 
was published in the Scientific American supplement for January 
3rd, 1880, and which bears on the subject of this paper, » 
question whether deforestation reduces rainfall, or alters cwnaK 
in any way, is the one which Mr. Draper proposes to himseli, an 
the answer after supplying necessary data is that it does not. 

Mr. Draper shows that neither the rainfall nor the temp**? 
of the Atlantic States of America has altered in any apP re ^ 
degree within the last century, and these, I think, are tJ 
in which, within the last century, a larger amount of det< 
has been done than in any other part of the wo 

Not being satisfied with the length of time o 1 
fall records extended in his own country, Mr. Draper toot u^ 
Paris in France, extending over a period of 190 years, ^^ 
on examining them that during that time there had bee ia- 
increase in the rainfall, not steadily but in o 
over long periods. The report from which I quote sap 
about the clearing of forests in France in the 
but I suppose from the increase of population and o 
there must be very much less forest land there now 
was two hundred years ago. 

on the Fossil Flora of Eastern Australia and 

[Read be/ore the Royal E 

lescription. Short noi 

.. ... Wales. 18; 

: ' 

Zittel) in 1878. 

. In 1878 I received another smaller bul 

interesting collection of plants by the late Ito 

subsequently also several specimens by Mr 

Government Geologist. As amongst these plai 

new forms or better specimens of risui 

_ Australian Flora, which attbrdt 

*ith others on tL- h. inn II r;, .., Mr. C. S. Wdkin^n. In the 

review of the whole work. 

-I he flora under consideration belongs to the palaeozoic and 
njesozoic formations, while the few tertiary plants, which were 
also sent, will be described later — perhaps together with some 
more plants with which I may be favoured for description. 

dossil plants from the mentioned straU are known at present 

rom a11 these districts, except the Colony i 


were repra 
described b( 

first the distribution of the plants according to the 
mentioned provinces (beginning from north), from which akn ft 
classification of the strata v. ill l..-t !»■ m-mi. and then to give some 
notes on the flora in systematic order. 

Although these notes will at the same time also correct several 
of the misprints which unavoidably occurred in my above work, 
I yet think it necessary to here draw attention to one especially 
since it must appear misleading. 

In the second list given at my first paper on the Australian 
Flora (1878), on pages 124, 125, the last column, containing the 
sequence of the Australian formations, is totally misprinted, as the 
Wianamatta and Hawkesbury beds should stand opposite to the 
Panchet and Damuda group of India, u hil- tIl- N- w.^tli-l'f* 
and all the other beds below them should have been represent*! 
as below the horizon of the Talchir beds. In my second paper! 
tried to correct this list, but after furtl.-r inl'mman ■ r, '" 
from Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, the correlation will have to he altered 
slightly yet. 


Literature — Daintree: " 

Geol. Soc. London, 1873). xm 

Carruthers. We find them again in Mr. K, Etheridges aoov^ 

mentioned catalogue. 

Daintree describes the following plant-bearing formations :- 

1. Mesozoic coal-beds (Carbonaceous), in the sour! 

Colony, especially at Maryborough, Brisbane, Tivoli 
near Iparwi , the Condamine K^er. 

W. Carruthers has described the following--^^ 
elongata, Carr. ; Pecopteris (TJ 
Morr. (Feistm.); Cyclopteris 

DaintreeA (which appears to differ from Prof. M'CoyB^g 
and Cardiorur, ■-,>:,, A n,t r ,d>- : Carr. Amongst the A ^ 
plants which I had before me there were the to H°™j^fo 
true Tamiopttris />«i„fwi, M'<W ; S<", 
Presh, and an Otozamit, < (romp. Mandeslohi A ^Q^tf 
species are from the Talgai Diggings, and the two 
new for Australia. 

beds are, as we shall see further < 
Sew South Wales, Victoria, and '. 

•»-.<,;,■ nud-Ud.s, with plants and palaeozoic ana n "^ 
s found more in the northern portion of the 


plants the following genera are m< 

.VtVj r.opt, ris, and Pi copteris. (See Cam 

These beds are presumably equivalent wit 

i New South Wales. There were no speci 

. Devonian, on Mt. Wyatt, Broken River, 
W. Carruthers described from these 1 
plant as Lepidodendron notion,,. Ung. 


Of the numerous papers and works dealing with the ecology 
and palaeontology of this province, I mention the following— 

Strzelecki: PI ■ h-al deseripi mi of N. S. Wales and Van 
Diemen's Land, 1 845, with plates. (Fossil Flora described 
by Prof. Morris.) 
M'Coy: On the Fossil Botany and Zoology of the Eocks 
associated with the Coal in Australia, In Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 1847, vol. xx. 1st ser., with plates. 
Dana: United States Exploring Expedition, Geology, 1819. 

With plates. 
Wilkinson, C. S. : Mines and Mineral Statistics, Ac, 1875, 

p. 127, et seq. 
Clarke, W. B., especially : Remarks on the Sedimentary 
Formations of N. S. Wales. 1th edition, 1S78. Boides 
_ this several papers in Qu. Journ. Geol. Society, London. 
Feistmantel, Ottokar : Pakeozoische und men 

desOstliil,. Vusti Pal ■ • _■ phica, 1878-79. 

Also Mr. Etheridge's Catalogue is to be .Rioted again. 
. The stratigraphical relations are best dMeribed by Mr. Clarke 
£ his Remarks, &c; the flora we find in Strzeleckis (Morris), 
f^Coys, and Dana's papers; I myself described also several new 
forms; while Mr. Clarke has especiaUy drawn attention to the 
f certain genera of fossil plants, 
lhe marine fossils were fully tmued on by Prof. De Koninck, in 
his work— Recherches sur les Fossiles palseozoiques de laNouvelle- 
l * al H» du Sud. Bruxelles, 1876-1877. 

I proceed in descending order— 
-?• Mesozoic beds.~Mr. Wilkinson describes in Mines and Mineral 
Statistics, 1875, p. 127, certain beds on the Clarence River 
as " Mesozoic." Amongst the plants sent by Mr. Clarke there 

were also two specimens from this locality, in which I 
recognized Toru'wp^ris Jj<ii,drr>:i, M'Coy, a 
Australis, MM i instance I compared these 

beds with the mesozoic beds in Queensland and with often k 
Victoria (see further on). 
Wianamatta and Hawkesbury beds. — These are certain beds 
above the upper coal measures (Newcastle beds) t 
Wales. In the text of his above-mentioned work (p. 68), the 
Kev. W. B. Clarke discusses these beds, in the cl 
" Mesozoic or Secondary Formations." In the tabular list 
(p. 155) he includes them under the heading " 
iferous"; in both cases they are therefore represented as 
younger than the Newcastle beds, which is in so :'"' « 
importance as, according to information receh 
Wilkinson (in letters dated 30/9 78 and 2 
physical characters tend to correlate the Hawk 
from a palaeontological point of view are not widely separated 
from the Wiannii.atia I..-.U, with ih.» lian-h 
stones in Victoria (see further on), with wl 
correlated from pakeontological evidence the T > 
hnn IkmIs in India, in the former of which si; 
relations have been observed. I shall men 
when speaking of the Bacchus Marsh sandstones. The tosuis 
from these beds hitherto known are- 

Fishes 1 : Palvoniscus gracilis, Eg. ; Chitlirolepis f** 

latus, Eg. 
Plants: Pecopteris (Thinnfeldia) odontopteroichs, M°* 

teris tenuifolb,, M'Cov; UacroUtnioptms »« ■ 

mattas, Feistm. (1878). 

Hawkesbury beds — 

'•ihrolrjds (/mnvlit"*, ^ 
Clarkei,!^., fib./ 77, -W ■ 

sp. (Both 

Fstin.-; Sphennpf»riH .sp., *"» -«- 
tioned by Professor McCoy; 

jcopteris) *^ 
an d 0<fonft** f11 

Geofff 011 (Sir Ph ' J : ° n 8 ° me Ichth y° litea from K ' S ' 
2 Recently (IS7!») .l,s,H1,,,l and illustrate! by . 

:II ,l collected at Mount \«*° 


8. Upper Paleozoic. Under this heading Mr. Clarke comprised 
several groups : — 

a. Upper Coal J/« n S n /-,-.< or Glv,<*<, r tcris h><ls, also "Newcastle 
beds." These beds were by Professor M'Coy considered 
as oolitic; R. Etheridge in his catalogue also quote* the 
fossils from the same in the chapter "Meao«oic," 1 
myself included them in the group ol beds above the 
marine fauna, without assigning to them at 
but considering them as olderthan the Bacchus Mat -h sand- 
stones, and by all means as older than the Indian coal- 
beds (Damuda series). The Rev. W. B. ( larke considered 
them paleozoic, and so dors Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, to whi. h 
there appears now no objection at all (see still further 
on the Bacchus Marsh sandstones), although it can still 
be questioned if they have to be considered as really 
The best known localities where fossils from these bods were 
collected are Bla< k-, -:i^ ^,.on,,>. I'. .-... i ■ I . < ; iiiwamr. Mud-ee, 
Illawarra, Mailuhiniha, Newcastle, Wollongong. 
The fossils hitherto known are- 
Fishes : Uracil < A-sfr.d^. Dana (a heterocercal fish). 

Plants : Phi \ Coy (and two other species 

which I think do not differ from this one): Vertebra ria 
Aa*t,-a7is, M'Coy ; Sph ,w r t< ri* h,hi/,,ll,i. Morr. ; alata, 
Bgt.; alata var. '- ■ ' is. M< rr. : hastata, M'Coy; germana, 

M'Coy: plumosa, M'< «o\ ; ,// >. M'Coy. 

Glossopteris Br, v, i <, D-t.; H ori*, M •< 03 : ampla, Dana; 
retioih'm.Dawa: < vA//.</, Da a: !<r ni<>}, t>-r iJ-s, Feistm. ; 
Wilkinsoni, Feistm. ; parallela, Feistm. 
Gangamnpt<ri^ . --';'" -. M ■< ■;• : '< ' ■' '■'/*'■ ■ '"". Fei-tiu. : 

CVr?'/o ^ ~\s( ■ , AJamsi, Feistm. 
ZfAifjaphijllibis thyoqatim, Morr. : Xo'/>/> rafh iopsis spafhi'hta, 
Dana, sp. (Fstrn.): 3W/. ""'''»'", l*"""- s l>- (Fstrn.) 
Brachyphiflh'm Ai'strab: Fstrn.; scales of conifers. 
& F)>/>er marine beds ; beds with marine animals. 
c. Lower coal measures ; beds with coal seams and flora, below 
and in ass. - als. These 

beds are in so far of interest as in them the three genera 
Phyllothtnt. <;l v.v, , t, ,-i's. and .V. - ' ' ■' ^\ appear to 
take their origin. 
. According to communications received from the late Mr. Clarke, 
it appears that two divisions in these may be distinguished separ- 
ated by the lower marine beds. 

«• A higher group (G' ' '• n), at Anvil 

Creek, Greta, Harper's Hill, and Raymond Terrace, Ac., 
with the following fossj • Gbmqpforit 


Browniana, Bgt., Gl. 

GLprimceva, Fstm., Gl. Clarkei, Fstm., G£ efegww, Fstm., 

^'•'.7.'/' mthiopsis jrrisca, Fstm. 
Amongst the specimens sent by the late Mr. Clarke there were 
also fragments of a plant which I took to be Annularia, and 
which I named Ann. Australia, Fstm. 

b. A lower group with lower carboniferous plants, at the 

localities — Arowa, Port Stephens, and Smith's Creek 

(near Stroud), with the following fossils 1 :— Catamite 

radiatus, Bgt., Sphenophylhuu, 

latera, Gopp., sp., Rh. intermedia, Feistm., Rh. comp. 

Romeri, Feistm., Rh. septentrionalis, Feistm., Arehceptms 

Wilkinsoni, Feistm., Cyclostigma australe, Feistm., Lep%- 

dodendron Velthevmanum, Stbg., Lepid. Yolk \ 

This flora is certainly very interesting, and indicates strongly 
the age of Mountain Limestone (Culm), if notHeer's "Ursastufe.' 
One circumstance must be mentioned specially, which I was not 
well acquainted with when I wrote my first paper on the Australian 
flora. Professor M'Coy described, from Arowa, a GlossopUru 
linearis, together with an Otopteris ovalis, classing consequently 
this locality also with the other localities of Glossopteris beds (or 
Newcastle beds). The late Rev. W. B. Clarke, however, sent two 
small specimens of Professor- M -Coy's Otopteris ovata from Arowa, 
which clearly show that this species is the same as Rhacofto* 
inwquilatera, from Smith's Creek (Stroud), and that the locality, 
Arowa, has indeed to be classed with this group of beds ; and B 
Professor M'Coy's observation of the association of Glossoptml 
linearis, M'Coy, with Rhocopt r<\ i.nnpiihif. r<>, Gopp., ^'". ^ '■ 
correct one, then this Glossopteris is the oldest representative 
the whole genus. . 

c. Marine Beds; lower beds with a marine paleozoic iauna, 

the base of the upper palaeozoic. n 

4. Middle Pah:,,:, u; [|),v.,i ia, i. Beds at Goonoo Goon<X >o 

the Peel River, Back Creek Diggings, on the Barrio,, 
River, with the following fossils : — ^ 

Lepidodendron nothum, TJng., ai 

Lepidodvulm,, i, id-ntnal with the same form desc 

by Mr. W. Cun-ui!..-,-., fr Queensland, and on ac 

of which these beds in Queensland were classed asi>ev ^ 
The same can therefore also be said of these beds m 
South Wales. . „y q J»ve- 

5. Lower Palvozoir (Silurian.) In Profesor De Ko J m ^^ is 

mentioned work, a plant, Sp\r<>}>hijt<>-,i (?) caudap 
quoted from Silurian l.eds, at Duntroon. ^________— — -" 

1 Mostly new forms, and all figured for the first time by me from 


The classification of the plant-Louring bods and the description 
of plants may be found in the following works :— 

M'Coy : Prodromus of the Palaeontology of Victoria. Decades 

i-v, 1874-1877. 
Brough Smyth: Reports of Progress, Geolo?. Survey of 

Victoria, 1876, &c. 
Selwyn : Notes on the Geology of Victoria, 1860 (Qu. T.G.S.) 
The following rocks are distinguished : — 

1. Upper Mesozoie (Bellariue beds). Near Bellarine, at Cape 

Paterson, on the Wanon River (Coleraine), <fcc. The fossils 

are, Phi/Mothera A test ml is, Bgt., Ah thopteris Artslralis, Morr., 

sp., Taniojit-i'is Ih,i„i ,-<• \. M -Cm v. Z>u„ih* (Podozamites) 

Bnrkh/i, M'Cov., Znrn. ,lli t ,th'„s, M'Coy, Zam. /o^/ifolius, 


These beds are to be correlated with the already mentioned mesozoie 

beds in Queensland, and are most likely of Jurassic age; they are 

then also equivalent with the mentioned mesozoie beds in New 

South Wales (Clarence River), and with the mesozoie beds in 

Tasmania, to be described further on. 

2. Lower Mesozoie ; the Bacchus Marsh sandstones or Ganga- 

mopleris beds. Beds of Bacchus Marsh, W. N. W. of Mel- 
bourne, containing plant remains only, representing only 
one genus with thr< e speei< - : (hi, ,,<•,,,<{ f- rh ohliqixt M'Coy, 
Gangam. anynstlfvlii, M'Cov, <■■..-,., tcris spathuhtta, 
These beds are of peculiar interest for correlation of the Indian 
and Australian coal-beds. Certain physical relations appear to 
correlate these beds with the Hawkesbury beds (as mentioned 
before), both con;: re J the same relations, as 

well as theabundanee of tin -enus / ,.,,„. , /. rls, would tend 

to correlate the Indian Tak-hir division v.ithtla-e Bacchus Marsh 
sandstones, consequently also with the Hawkesburv beds. The 
Indian coal-beds overlie the Talchirs, while the Newcastle beds 
underlie the Hawkesbury. This shows the difference bet we, - n the 
tw-o respective . ': expressed in a formula 

w ould appear thus :— 

Dnmwhi *»ries 
(Indian coal-beds.) 

• - 
Talcbr group and Kar- stones. 

narban coal-beds.) 

(Upper coal measui 
UN. S. Wales.) 


3. Carboniferous. Avon Eiver sandstones ; beds on the Avon 
River in Gippsland, with Lepidodradron Anstrah M'Coy, 
which species I believe to be different from L 

k Devonian, Iguana Creek beds, at the Iguana Creek. E. Victoria, 
with Sphi ,-(,/..'.-/■/,-,• / ' v LjvoihiitU, 

M'Coy ; An: . \A< ■ It <Ai *ti < •. 



The position of the plant-bearing bods in Tasmania (Spring 
Hill and Jerusalem basin) is not yet quite clearly made out 
Count Strzelecki, who collected the first plants in Tasmania, 
described it as if the plants came from a bed which at one place 
appeared to dip under 1> ->U w itli /'- ><•;,, id<,„t.»s globosus. Professor 
McCoy on the other hand says 1 that Mr. Selwyn, F.RS., formerly 
Director of the Geological Survey in Victoria, found the beds in 
their natural position, i.e. the Pachydomus beds below the Carbona- 
ceous beds, and M'Coy considers them of course as Mesozoic, This 
view seems confirmed by a recent observation. M. Crepin has, in 
1875, described and figured a few specimens of Pecopteris odonto? 
Uroides, from Tasmania, in the Bulletin de 1 . 
Belgique, 1875 ; he represented them according to the information 
available at that time as coming from the Carboniferous. Hmo^ 
the other hand he observed the important fact, that on the isain 
npns there was with the Pecopteris 

another plant, i.e. Sphenopf* ri ■' <J" f "- [ ' an '" ] *"\ '\ 
it was described by Mr. W. Carruthers from the Carbonaceous d^ 
(Mesozoic- Jurassic) in Queensland; so that there is ht * Ie ~' ie . 
that these beds of the Jerusalem basin, Tasmania, are the P 
sentatives of the mesozoic beds in Queensland, consequently^, 
of those in N. B. Wales (Clarence River), and Bellarme w» 

The fossils from these beds in Tasmania hither! 
Pecopteris (Thinnfeldia) o ™> 7 n 'mtetU 

elongata, Carr. ; Alethopteris Australia, Morr. ; dagt ' ^ 
Tcumanica, Feistm. ; %. -..,,,, r h !f mtns e!ongati(S,Bgt. lney 
the Spring Hill, Jerusalem basin. ^^^ 

. Soc, Victoria, 1 


li II 

I i Mi u fi sfeijifi 



I shall now add a few rei from the plant and 

coal-bearing beds in Australia (exclusively of the marine fossils), 
enumerating them in systematical order. 


tatta beds. 
Cleithrolepis granulatus, I" lies not sufficiently 

distinct. Wianamatta and Hawkesbury beds. 
Myriokpis ChrrM, Eg. Hawkesbury beds. (The tail of this species 

Urosthenes Australis, Dan. : a heterocercal fish from the Newcastle 

B. Plants. 1 
1. Equisetacece. 
PhyUotheea Australis, Bgt. (pis. vi, fig. 3 ; vii, 1, 2 ; xv, 1, 2). 
This species has in A i . . i n'bni i« m from the lowercoal 

beds of Queensland ami Victoria, in Europe and Siberia M 
genus occurs in Jurassic beds only ; in India we know it from 
the upper portion of the Damuda series. 

Vertebraria Australis, M'Coy. (pi. vi, 1, 2). Systematic position 
not settled with certain t v, but most probably egwuetatemif 
here known from the upper coal measures (Newcastle bed* 
In India it occurs in the Lower Gondwanas (Talchir ana 
Damuda di vi s i o n ). F 

Catamites radiatus, Bgt. (pi. vi a, fig. 1 ; vii a, figs. 3, V- *™ 
beds at Smith's Creek, Stroud. " , , . __j 

Annularia Austmli*, F. .,n .. (| ,1 vii „, tigs. 5, 6); the fin* » 
hitherto only species described from Australia. From 
coal measures at Greta, N. S. Wales. ^ 

Sphenophyllum, Sp. ('pi. ii. Jig. 1). Fragmentary. ^ owe 

N. S. Wa 

Jerusalem basin. 

[escribed (bjH'Cor 

nana Creek, Victon^ 
ilby Mr. Carruthers 
ieensland, and *■* 

1 To those species which have l»-m fi-ur-d iti my I 
he respective plates and figures will he added; » n "f*° the first, I *» 
latesoi the second memoir on the Australian flora from ^ ^ 
dd to the Iloman | ■'. " ,l memoir 


Iguaneiisis, M'Coy.— Devonian. 

Iguana Creek, Vic 

eris Howitti, M'Coy.— Devonian. 

Locality the sam 


ris \\"tlkii,*o,ri, Feixtm. (pi. vi 

«, figs. 3, 4 ; vii a 

er coal measures, Smith's Creek (Stroud), X. S. Wal 

eris, Sp. (pi. iv a, fig. 4).— From 
•is in&quilatera, Gopp. (pi. ii, fig. 

the mum locality. 

iiia, iva, 2,3,6; v«, 4, 5 ; ti 


erous. To judge from specimens 
4, 5), Prof. M'Coy's Otopteris 
es. Localities— Port Stephens, 

Arowa, aU N. S. Wales. 

from An.wals.,.,,1 


is intermediated, (pi. ii, f. 2) 

— PonSL-ph.-ns;] 

Oroides, Fstm.( Mow. sp.) (pk 
ix a, x a, and xi a).— Prof. Mor 
ove-mentioned work, a fossil 
n, as Pecopteris odordnptsroid- -. 
r able to justify this determ 

quotes it from Queensland aga: 
, and gave two figures. M 
ral specimens from Tasmania, 

\r b rr; 


w"th u v* a 


/ , \." ■."."' ''V 

ibt aLout t!ie 

'ompare speci- 




X,'wS , 
n that in the specimen 
rs a dichotomy of the 
ms Thiim/'-ldin, that th. 
and that also the shape 

dso from the 
h Wales. The 
from all the 
frond pretty 

)f the leaflets 


he traced to a common form. All the 

om the genus 


r ]' 


>est be classed 

with Th 

• MM I have d 

escribed it in 

■ i'.-d 

memoirs ; for the support 

quote its 

iinervis, Gein., 

from the 



of the Argentine Republ 

1C. 1 


AsregarcLstli ttctlypoint out that, 

as far as known at present, this plant has not been met with below 
the Hawkesbury beds ; it therefore c 
beds. The quotation of it in 
Flora as being also known from the Newcastle beds, was caused by a 
mistake with regard to the locality Clark's Hill, which I thought 
to be in the Newcastle beds while it is in the Wianamatta beds. 

In the mentioned memoir I also quoted it as coming doubtfully 
from the lower coal measures, which referred to the occurrence of 
this species in Tasmania ; this was before I had sufficient informa- 
tion about the position of these Tasmanian beds. 

We know therefore this plant from the following horizons and 
localities : — 

a. Upper Mesozoic beds. Ipswich (figures in my first memoir 

pi. xv, figs. 3, 5, 6), and Tivoli Mines, Queensland 
(Mr. W. Carruther's figures, I.e.); Jerusalem basin, 
Tasmania (figures in my first memoir, pi. xv, tigs. 4. i ; 
Morris' original figures, 1845, and the figures in SL 
Crepin's paper, 1875). „ , 

b. Wianamatta beds. Clark's Hill, near Cobbity, NewSoutn 

.., ... N. S. Wales, kind}; 
by Mr. C. S. Wilkinson (figured n 

£y! Wia^matta beds, Clark's Hill 
wrongly quoted from the Newcastu 

Cychpteris cimeata, Carr. Upper mesozoic beds, Tivoli Mines, 
Queensland. -pr _»,. 

Alethopteris A ustralis, Mott. sp. (plate xiv, figs. 1, H L.PP 
' ', of Victoria, New S. Wah.s <• 

x; is not known from the Xw^o ^ \ 
nir flonlitfiillv rmoted from lower coal m ea \. , 

the former in s0 j 
->!}, was doubted- * 

ith M'Coy's onT" 

Gui.du.m., ^wm (and here in the D; 


lpiir group 

Glussoj'f rl< 11, u-t.'ouoi, Bj.t. (pis. viii, figs. 

3, 4 ; x, fi 

beds), at various localities. Lower c< 

N. S. Wales. 

Ghssopteris th<,am, Feistm. (pi. viii a, fij 

j. 2, 2a.) 

WossoptrrU jirima-at, Feistm. (pi. v. fig. 3. 

) Lower c 

at Greta. 

C-'W /;/.,•;« Chrrkel, Feistm. (pi. v, fig. 4.) 

Lower ec 

Rix's Creek, N. S. Wales. 

fig. 4). 

Prof. M'Coy, from Arowa. in a 

ina-quilatcra, Gopp., sp. {Qbq>t>:ri* omia. ^Coy), which would 

Ghssopterisc ' . 01. reticulum, 

Dan., GL tt,„..j •/„. \hw... ;r-A *.'•. <•■■,■■'.■■'■. Dan. Upper coal 

measures (Newcastle beds), N. S. Wales. 
( > oisopf rl, I!';/;;, SfJtlit Feistm. (pi. xiii, fig. 1). A very peculiar 

form from the coal measures at BowentVL-. 
W M ru la L ix, fig. 1), and 01 paralhla 

Feistm. (pi ix, fig. 2). Newcastle beds, N. S. AS ales. 


Genus Gangamopteris, M'Coy. Can shortly be described as a 

Glossopf I midrib. 

Gangamopteris Clarkeana, Feistm. (pi. xv, fig. 9). Upper coal 

measures (Newcastle beds), K S. Wales j rare. 
Gangamopteris angusti/olia, M'Coy. Upper coal measures, K EL 

Wales, and the Bacchi . Victoria; in the 

latter numerous. In the Indian Talchir group and Karharbiri 

Gangamopteris obliqua, M'Coy, and Gang, spathulata, M'Cot. 

Bacchus Marsh sandstones, Victoria. Both have close repre- 
sentatives in the Indian Talchir division. 
Sagenopteris rhoifolia, Presl. (pi. xii a, figs. 1-4, 7). New for 

Australia. Upper mesozoic beds, Q ueensland, Talgai Diggings 

on the Condamine River. 
Sagenopteris (?) Tasmanica, Feistm. (pi. xv, fig. 10.) Jerusalem 

basin, Tasmania. 

3. Lycopodi 
i nothum, 

n, Ung. (Carruthers emend.) ; (plaj, ¥ 
2. ) Queensland (described by Mr. W. 0* 
. Wal.-s (.l,-,rril,.-d and figured by myself 

Lepidodendron dichotomum, 

urn, Stbg. (pi. via, fig. t)if**3i 
Stbg. (pi. viia, fig. 2, and probably pi- *<h Jg*- 
" -olkmannianum, Stby. _(pL ™,% ; >j 

3), and Lepid. Volkmannianum, Stby. 

figured for the first time by myself. Lower 

beds at Smith's Creek, Stroud. To Lepid. T 

Stbg., is, I think, to be placed the Lepidod. rimo™<"> — ■ 

mentioned by Mr. W. B. Clarke. 1 vvtoria. 

Lepid. Australe, M'Coy. Carboniferous, Avon River, vie 
I think it different from Lepid. nothum, Carr. . M L ) 

Cyclostigma Australe, Feistm. (pis. iv, fig. 3; v, 

Lower carboniferous, Smith's Creek (Stroud), j-f & 
appeared to me to indicate Prof. Heer's "Ursastuie. 

Cyclostigma, sp. (pi. i, fig. 6). Another form, occurring » ^ 
with Lepidodendron nothum, Ung., in Devonian ^ 
Queensland and N. S. Wales. The one specimen v B ^ 
me is not sufficient to decide whether it is identical 
former species or not. 

4. Cycadeacem. ^^ 

Zamites (Podozanrites) Barkleyi, M'Coy, Zam. (f*^ ^ 
M'Coy, and Zam. longi/olius, M'Coy. ^ om 
mesozoic beds, Bellarine beds, Victoria. ___— — -T 


Otozamites comp. Mandeslohi, Kurr. (pi. xii a, fig. G). This is the 
first Otozamites identified from Australia. From upper meso- 
zoic beds, Queensland, Talgai Diggings, appears very close to 
Otoz. Mandeslohi, a Liassic species, to which 1 refer it for 
the present. 

Z. ugophyUites elongahis, Morr. (copy, pi. xiii, fig. «' 

at first from the Jerusalem basin, Tasmania ; later, from the 
Newcastle beds. It whs, by some authors, compared with 
Schizoneura, also with Xoggerathia, but from both it is 
equally distinguished. 

Genus Xbggerathiopsis, Feistm. (pi. xvi, figs. 2-1. as Xi)gg> nit hut, 
and pi. viiia, fig. 3, as Xbggerathiopsis, Feistm). Certain 
leaves were described by Prof. Dana as l>elonging to the 
genus Xoggerathia ; they came from the Newcastle beds, and 
this genus was tin n quoted np. at. dlv from Australia. Also 

quoted as Xoggerathia.. Similar leaves were besides these 
known from certain coal deposits in the Altai Mountains 
(Kusnezk basin), and also classed with Xoggerathia. 
I classed the Indian leaves in the beginning also with Xogger- 
athia, but later when writing my memoir on the Talehir-Karharbari 
flora, for which purpose I had to examine these leaves closer, I 

the Australian leaves also, which in my first memoir (1878) i 
still quoted as Xoggerathia, while in the second I classed them 
Further comparison has shown that these Indian and Australian 
haves (Xbgg n U relation to those leaves from 

the Kusnezk basin in the Altai; these were also recently recognized 
by Prof. Schmalhausen not to be Xoggerathia, and were placed 
with a new genus called 2 . in the class 

Cycadeacece. These two genera are certainly very closely related. 
The flora of the E I wsa recently recognized to 

be a Jurassic flora, and lihiptozamit>--si^x\n' Jurassic representative 
of Xbggerathiopsis, which begins in palaeozoic rocks in Australia, and 
is also numerous in the Indian lower Gondwanas. I have already 
mentioned that . t to be confounded with 

^"goj,hg!/it, s nor with &-hizo,n ara. The species are :— 

■froggerathiopsis media, Dana, and Xbgg. spathulata, Dana. 
From the Newcastle beds, New S. Wales. To one of 
these may belong the leaves figured by me in the first 
Memoir, pL xvi, figs. 2-4. 
Xbggerathiopsis prisca, Feistm. (pL viii a, fig. 3). Lower 
coal measures at Greta, N. S. Wales. 
I -.-'••<.'. i A Oralis, M'Coy. Devonian beds at the Iguana Creek, 


6. Coniferce. 
Brachyphyllum Australe, Feistm. (pi. xvii) ; several specimens of 
a conifer, belonging apparently to the genus Brachg '<<,'' 
were found in the Newcastle beds at Bowenfels, N. IS Wale* 

with in mesozoic beds, occur in Australia already in beds which 
are below marine beds with a palaeozoic fauna. These are :— 
Phyllotheca, Bgt., begins in the lower coal measures of Australia 
(N. S. Wales), is very numerous in the upper coal measures 
(Newcastle beds), and is also found in the upper mesozoic beds 
at Cape Paterson, Victoria. The genus also occurs in the 
upper portion of the Indian coal-beds (Kamthi-Eaniganj 
group) ; numerous species are known from the Jurassic beds 
of Siberia (Altai Mountains, K. Silx-ria and Amur countries), 
amongst which one specie-, \<-rv < ].,-, m /'/'////. A»straUs. In 
Europe it is known from the Italian Oolite. It is also quoted 
from the Karoo beds in Africa. 
Glossopteris, Bgt. Known from lower carboniferous beds (Arowa) 
in N. S. Wales; lower coal measures, N. S. Wales and 
Queensland; very numerous in the upper coal measures 
(Newcastle beds),"N. S. Wales; numerous in the lower portion 
of the Indiai found in the upper 

portion. Also in the Russian Jura (Prof. Trautschold). Also 
common in the Karoo beds. 
Mggerathiopsis, Feistm. Begins in the lower coal measures m 
N. S. Wales ; becomes more numerous in the upper coal 
measures (Newcastle beds), New S. Wales. It is numerous 
in the Talchir and Damuda divisions of the lower Gondwana 

and on the Tunguska River, Yenissei). 

About the correlation of the Australian and Indian floras, the 
necessary remarks were already made on a preceding page. 

In conclusion, I beg leave to express my greatest indebtedness 
to the late Bev. W. B. Clarke, for having kindly placed the fossils 
and much valuable information at my disposal, and to Mr. L. T* 
Wilkinson, Government Q for having com- 

municated to me the nice a i 

from Mt. Victoria (Hawkesbury beds), and other information w 
his letters to me. I only hope that also in future I may 
favoured with his confidence. 

On the Acids of the Native Currant (Leptomeria acida). 

By Edward H. Rennie, M.A. (Sydney), B. Sc. (London), 
Demonstrator of Chemistry in the Medical School, St. Mary's 
Hospital, London. Communicated by Prof. Liversidge. 

[Mead before the Royal Society of N.S. W., 2 June, 1SS0.] 

The intensely acid taste of the Native Currant (Leptomeria acida) 
must be familiar to most Australians. Since, however, so far as 
I have been able to ascertain, no account of any chemical exami- 
nation of the acid in question has been published, it occurred to 
me that it might be worth while to investigate the matter. For 
this purpose a preparation of the currants was made by my 
brother, Mr. C. E. Rennie, and forwarded tome at London. The 
following was his method uf ; roe dure :— The currants were boiled 
with water for some time, and the skin, Ac, strained off; to the 
solution excess of I the whole eva- 

porated to dryness on the water bath. 

A qualitative examination of the residue thus obtained was first 
made in order to ,,r acids were present. The 

substance was dissolved in water, acidified with acetic acid, and 
lead acetate added in excess. The precipitate was filtered off, 
well washed, suspended in water, and decomposed by sulphuretted 
hydrogen. This was found to be the most satisfactory method of 
getting rid of colouring matter, &c, which very much interfered, 
and ^ f act almosl The acid liquid was then 

concentrated, divided into several portions, and examined as fol- 

«. To one portion lime water in excess was added in the cold. 
■^slight gelatin*. ••ly. This pre- 

] pitate, when washed and heated in a test tube with a drop or 
wo of dilute ammonia and a crystal of silver nitrate, cave the 

>■■ To 

i, crystal of silver 
r characteristic of tartaric acid. 

» Jl" 4. , a second portion, highly concentrated by evaporation, 
acetate of potassium and acetic acid were added. On Bgttti &m for 
ome time a white crystalline precipitate separated, 
tart -/ eactl0Ils indicate the presence of a small quantity of tar- 

calcium had been previously boiled with the ammonia and the pre- 
cipitate of carbonate filtered off), the whole allowed to stand for 
some time, filtered, and then evaporated to a very small bulk. A 
mere trace of precipitate separated, indicating probably a smaU 
quantity of citric acid. 

d. To the solution from (c), after filtration, a large bulk of 
strong alcohol was added, when a very bulky precipitate was im- 
mediately formed, indicating probably malic 

Portion 1 was suspended in water, decomposed by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and th ness on the water 

bath. The residue, when slowly heated in a test tube, gave the 
crystalline sublimate characteristic of malic acid. 

Portion 2 was dried at 100° ; and here it may be stated that 
the wet mass when taken from the filter-paper and placed in the 
water oven, became partly liquid, and the solid portion melted 
under the liquid to a resinous mass, a reaction said to be exhibited 
by lead malate. There being some doubt as to the amount ot 
water retained by this compound, the mass dried at 100° was fur- 
ther heated at 200° till constant in weight, so that, if lead malate 
it were, it might be converted into fumarate. A weighed portion 
was then converted into lead sulphate with the following result :— 
Weight taken. Found. Calculated for PbC 4 HA. 

rively that the greater part of I 
i to malic acid. 

In order to estimate approximately its quantity, 5 grammes o 
the substance were dissolved in water, acidified with acetic ac , 
precipitated by lead acetate, and then, without flU 
etted hydrogen passed through the liquid. It was found tnat 
this way most of the colouring matter, &c, was carried down ^ 
the lead sulphide. The latter was filtered off, the citric ana ^ 
taric acids separated as described above (c), and to the sowj 
large bulk of alcohol added. The calcic malate was then ni* 
off, washed with alcohol, dried, and ignited to convert it inc 
bonate. The residue was treated with a dilute solution ^ 
amnionic carbonate in order to dissolve out any rema , min f. r ^ r ee 
chloride, again filtered, ignited, and then treated two ° ^^ 
times with ammonic carbonate in the ordinary way till no 

increase of weight was produced. In this way 5 grammes of sub- 
stance yielded 1-153 CaCo 3 = 1-983 calcic malate = 1-544 malic 
acid = 31 per cent, nearly. As the original substance gave off 
nearly 12 per cent, of water at 100°, and was found to contain on 
' 13 per cent, of lSs^Co 3 (added in excess), the 

above numl 
the quantity of malic aci 
g the juice 

ncreased considerably ; s 
d in the solid residue produced by just 
:th carbonate of soda and evaporating to 
dryness, to be over 4U per cent. This is, of course, a very rough 
estimation, and probably below the truth, inasmuch as it is impos- 
sible to precipitate the whole of the calcic malate by the above 
Bfetbod : still it serves to show that the juice of the Native Currant 
: vielding a very large percentage of malic acid. 
The filtrate after the precipitation of the calcic malate was not 
very carefully examined, but appeared to contain, little else but 
unprecipitated calcic malate and some organic colouring matter ; 
and it is evident that since the sodic malate, water, excess of sodic 
carbonate, sodic tartrate, ash, &c., will make a total of somewhere 
near 70 per cent, of the whole, the residue, after subtracting the 
extractive matter, such as gum, colouring matter, &c, must be 
very small, and therefore it was not thought worth while to 
attempt any further examination. 

The ash formed on ignition contained a mere trace of carbonate 
of lime, showing that very little of the acids could have been pre- 
sent as calcium salts. Very considerable quantities of potassium 
■ ere however found. 

The Alkaloid from Pit 
By Professor Liversidge, Assoc. R. i 

[Bead lefore the Royal S oc ;,'^ of X.S 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. de Renzie Wilson, of Bangate 
fetation and the Retreat, Barcoo River, for the supply of piturie, 
upon which this investigation was conducted, also to other friends 
who placed some smaller quantities at my disposal. Mr. Wilson had 
considerable difficulty in procuring a sufficient supply for my pur- 
pose; he states that the blacks prize it very highly ; so much do 
they value it that it can only be obtained from them in very small" 
quantities at a time, hence 'it involves the expenditure of much 
tme and trouble to collect together a few pounds weight of the 
substance The blacks in his district on the Barcoo obtain it 
trom the Diamantina blacks who trade yearly with the Mulligan 
• hose country the piturie grows. One 
parcel which Mr. Wilson sent to me was some months in transit, 
as it had to be carried down on camels to Port Augusta ; the sea 
journey from Port Augusta to Sydney was of course a question 
of only a few days. 

The first parcel of piturie was in the form of broken twigs, and 
wagments of leaves of a pale brown colour, emitting a smeU some- 
what simdar to tobacco ; the fine dust causes sneezing. This is its 
sua! state, but the second parcel forwarded bv the camels was 
much less broken up and w .r. the difference 

«»ng probably due to the le » a it had under- 

ear? h ** Mr " Wilson ex plained in his letter, the camels started 
ler than was expected, and in consequence the piturie had to 
°e packed up before it was thoroughly dried. 

seeds 1 + T teIy n ° ne of the sam P les contained either flowers or 
Waa V* 1 ? L have but little doubt that the piturie supplied to me 
as o_bt ai ned from the plant A '. since known as 

^^ 2 oneoftheSolana,,, 

arm • ^croft gives the following description of the piturie plant : 2 
J£e pituri grows about 50 miles east and west of the 
Ausw an ' the b <>«ndary between Queensland and South 
__jrahan territory, and fro no la fcude. It is a 


by Dr. Bancroft, Jour. Queensland Phil. Soc, 1879. 


shrub or small tree about 8ft. high, with a stem at the thickest 
part at times as much as 6 inches in diameter. Wood light, 
close-grained, lemon-colons lille when newly 

cut. Suckers spring up around the tree, from long, rough roots 
spreading near the surface. Leaves 3 to 3| inches long, pointed at 
both ends, J iooh lightly record : 

flower, a funnel-shaped tube, from £ to § of an inch long, with five 
bluntish divisions, spreading to about ^ inch across. Three red- 
dish lines run tr n the throat of the flower, as 
in tli'' genus Mijopari'ia, which latter may he known by having 
four or five stamens of equal length. The pistil of the pituri ex- 
tends to the length of the two longer stamens. Stamens four, two 
long and two short; anthers, yellow, kidney-shaped, filament 
attached to the concave side, the :mtiu r bursting along the convex 
margin ; best seen by examining a flower that is just at the point 
of opening. Fruit, a gre-u berr; resting in the minute calyx. As 
it ripens it changes to black, and contains dark-brovn'kiduey- 
shaped seeds, covered with minute pits, recognisable by the aid of a 
pocket lens. Ripe berries soon fall off, and should be looked for 
under the tree, as those gathered from the branches are not mature 
enough to germinate." 

Mr. Wilson informs me that the blacks mix the piturie with the 
ashes of the leaves of a partieiil , .• j, 1 mi •:<,■! anally roll the mix- 
ture up with a green leaf into the form of a quid before chewing; 
the addition of the wood ashes is doubtless made for the same 
reason that lime is mixed with betel by the Malays and others, 
namely, for the purpose of ■'..-. K li!.",.,ti' _■ i he alkaloid during 
the process of mastication. The quid or bolus is, on ceremonial 
occasions, said to be passed from native to native, each one masti- 
cating it for a time, and then passing it on, it finding a r-tii-,' 
place behind the original proprietor's ear until again required. 

The effects of the piturie seem from all accounts to be very 
much the same as those set up by tobacco-smoking ; it does not 
appear to have the exciting effect upon the blacks with which i 
was at one time credit, d. As i\ the ease with ether luxuries, it is 
reserved by the older men for their own use exclusively, neither 
women nor young men being allowed to use it. The I ^°" 
for using it appear to be much the same as those which mciu 
white people to smoke and in certain cases chew tobacco. 

I have made no attempts to experiment upon the phyaiolQp 
effectsof thealk, £ I besubject has been veryruuy 

treated by Dr. Bancroft and other observers. The examination 
was made mainly with the view to ascertain its chemical 

• "f possible, constitution. The supply of a^° 

of both questions being 
In a letter dated 5th September, 1879, the Baron von 
K.C.EG., has been kind enough to place at my disf 


following account of the alkaloid obtained by him from piturie, 
which is the substance of a paper of his read before the Apothe- 
caries' Society of Vienna : — 

"For the preparation of prl ! the branchlets 

and leaves of D ' ', \. M., were subjected to 

exhaustion by boiling water, the infusion evaporated to honey 
thickness, then mixed with three volumes of alcohol, the resulting 
solution evaporab attract, the latter dissolved 

in water and pre: j | . ,,f foad Hie precipitate 

separated by tilt ration, contained a peculiar arid substance, while 
the nitrate, after and alter mixing with an 

excess of caustic soda solution and ether, yielded to the latter the 
alkaloid which was purified by agitating its etherous solution with 
diluted sulphuric acid, thereby forming the sulphate of piturine. 
The aqueous solution of the latter was then again decomposed by 
caustic soda, the pure alkaloid removed by ether, and the solution 
evaporated at a gentle heat. It formed' a brownish liquid of oil 
like thickness, heavier than water, of acrid and burning taste and 
tobacco odour, much affecting the organs of sight and respiration. 
It is volatile and forms f,. u b>ric acid, is of 

strong alkaline reaction, and combines thoroughly with acids. 

"Its hydrochh . with the chlorides of 

platinum and go] I ■ acids, phosphomolybdate 

"f soda, bi-iodie -mercury and 

lot -sio-bismuth, also wb' r soda, 1 but this 

precipitate is easily dissolved in an excess of this reagent. Piturine 
mixes with every proportion of water, alcohol, and ether. Con- 
centrated hydrochloric and nitric acids do not affect a colouration 
^hh it ; concen tr u brown clouds 

and dissolves to a brownish green liquid. The yield was about 1 
per cent, of alkaloid from the dried plant, 

" Piturine is in some respects allied to nicotine, but more closely 
akin to the duboi oporoidm (R Br.), the latter 

being of lighter colour, of bitter not acrid taste, of fainter odour, 
jess irritating to the eyes and respiratory passages ; its hydrochloride 
I u ^tion is not precipitated by chloride of platinum, but is so 
°y Phospho-wolframate of soda, and the precipitate is not redis- 
solved by a superabundance of that reagent." 

A- Ladenburg, (;..,..; .?..< />, „ ,'. ,. i-m), vol. 90, p. 874-876, how- 

e ^If ateS that :: "'" 5 is identical 

^th hyoscyamin. eedles, fusing at 

u ..and is isomeric n t l^tiuginshed 

^jo^ng a brilliantly lustrous compound with -< Id chh -rid.-. fuMiig 

Also when treated with baryta I 

I 159° C. 
bopine and. 

tropicsicid, both of which are also obtained from atropine. 


The great discrepancy between A. Ladenburg's account and the 
Baron von Mueller's can I think be only accounted for by the 
supposition that Ladenburg must have been supplied with a 
different material. Baron von Mueller and Rummel (Jour. Chem. Soc. 
January, 1879), state very plainly that the Jhtboiaia mgapttSM 
yields a volatile oily alkaloi confirmed by the 

extract from the Baron's letter, already quoted. 

In the same paper Baron von Mueller also describes pituric or 
duboisic acid obtained from the precipitate given by the piturie 
on the addition of basic acetate of lead. 

In the Pharmaceutical Society's Journal for April 5th, 1879, 
there is an account of an examination of some piturie made by 
Mons. Petit, of Paris, in which he comes to the conclusion that 
the alkaloid is identical with nicotine ; but M. Petit does not 
seem to have had sufficient material to permit a combustion to be 
made of the alkaloid ; he had its reactions with 

certain chemicals, and apparently was only able to make one deter- 
mination each of tl, • platinum and chlorine in the platinum salt; 
the amounts of which apparently roughly corresponded with those 
required for the chloro-platinate of nicotine, viz., 34 -4 per cent 
platinum and 37 per cent, chlorine, the percentages obtained being 
platinum 34- per cent, and chlorine 36 per cent. These results 
however cannot be regarded as final, since, Sl s will be >how n late r uii, 
the platinum salt cannot be depended upon, as it is not of uniform 

Preparation of the Alkaloid. 

The piturie was extracted with boiling water slightly acidified 
with sulphuric acid, th. !: ■ d onmitrafd 
distilled with an excess of caustic soda, the alkal m uisti Ian 
neutralized bv hvdrochlon, er a water batn 

until reduced to a small bulk j as the residue was of a yellowish 
colour it was once more distilled with caustic so 
neutralized with 1 again concentrated ; it 

now nearly colourless, caustic soda was again added, and w 
liquid shaken up with ether. 

The ether was next rem* , a ■ low a te mp f - ]e 

ture as possible in a current of hydrogen, the heat mea^e 
being raised gradually mtil it rea< hed 1 W C, a bath of sul P£ u at 
acid being used for this purpose. It was allowed to rem * , 
this temperature for about six hours ; the bath was then renioreu, 
and the distillation continued ;tt a still IuVh't temperatureo 
naked flame, the current of maintained , 

aU the alkaloid, with the exception of a very small quantity' w 
had become chirred, had passed over in a clear and colour^ 
condition. During the distillation the thermometei in 
temperature between 243° and 244°C. 

I. 60^ grammes of the substance gave -622 grm. of the alkaloid, 
or 1-037 %. In this case the alkaloid was not allowed to boil, but 
Mas maintained at a temperature of UO C. in a current of hydrogen 
for s.-v.-ral hours, to remove water and traces of ammonia. 

II. In a second experiment 500 grammes of the piturie gave 
12-3-i grammes of alkaloid, or 247 %, when distilled in a current 
of hydrogen. 

The piturie did not contain any non-volatile alkaloid. 

The alkaloid when freshly prepared is clear and colourless, but 
with access of air rapidly becomes yellow, and finally brown, 
especially when exposed to the sunlight. In a sealed tube one 
specimen has ren g the past eight months. 

It is soluble in all pro] portions in water, alcohol, and ether, 
yielding colourless solutions. On paper it produces a greasy 
stain, which disappears after a time. 

No determinations i,-. weidiiiu.' have vet been made of its 
specific gravity, 1, ut it is just a litrl h vi than water, a drop 
of it sinking slowly to the bottom of a vessel of distilled water. 

When freshly prepared its smell is very like that of nicotine ; 
afterwards, when darkened in colour and thickened in consistency, 
the odour is more like that of pyridine. 

It is volatile at ordinary temperatures, its vapour forming a 
dense fog with hydrochloric acid, its vapour irritates the mucous 
membranes very much, and when working with it induced violent 

The taste is acrid and pungent, and very persistent. 

It neutralizes acids completely ; but the neutral solutions of 
acetate, sulphate, and hvdr. . .id on evapora- 

tion from the loss of alkaloid. 

Oxalic acid is the only acid which yields a crystalline salt, but 
tms is more or less mixed with free acid, from the loss of alkaloid 
5 vol atilization, an acid salt mixed with free oxalic acid being 

sumT ^ Ceta ! ie ' sul phate, and hydrochloride, when kept over strong 
aipnuric acid, diy up into hard, brittle, transparent, varnish-like 
Mib-,tan< - s. without the sK_. it ion, even after 

siamung for months. All these compounds are verv hvgroscopic, 
especially the sulphate, and are very readily soluble in alcohol. 

Heactiom of the Alkaloid. 

Neither concentrated hydrochloric acid nor nitric acid changes 

, e colour of the alkaloid in the cold, but when warmed, hydro- 

it °ll C a ° id ^P^s a slightly reddish colour, and nitric acid turns 

^yellow. Concentrated sulphuric acid turns it brown after some 

tuft e, immediately when warmed. 


Platink cW te an aqueous solution of the 

alkaloid (1:100 aq:) so loner as the alkaloid is in excess, but when 
the solution has become neutralised, the addition of another dro| 
of platinic chloride throws down a slight yellowish flocculent pre- 
cipitate, which dissolves on heating, but does not reappear on 
cooling; if a larger quantity of the platinic chloride be added, 
the precipitate still dissolves on the application of heat, but on 
cooling reappears in a crystalline condition. 

In a solution of 1 part of the hydrochloride of the alkaloid to 
50 of water, a precipitate similar to the above is thrown down, 
and if heated, a part redissolves, the undissolved portion turns to 
an orange yellow colour and becomes crystalline— the dissolved 
salt also crystallizes only on cooling. Under the microscope the 
crystals appear to have the form of the octahedron, or combinations 
of that with other forms belonging to the cubical system. More 
dilute solutions of the hydro-chloride are not precipitated by 
platinic chloride. , 

All the following tests were made with an aqueous solution ot 
1 part of the alkaloid to 100 water. 

Mercuric chloride, in the aqueous solution of the alkaloid throws 
down a white cheesy precipitate, insoluble in an excess of the 
precipitant, easily soluble in hydrochloric acid; on heating to 
boiling the precipitate softens, but does not actually melt ; itu 
difficultly soluble in boiling water; on cooling it is redepositea 
in an amorphous state. . . 

A few drops of mercuric chloride give a white precipitate in 
solution of the hydrochloride, which disappears on shaking, dm 
when the mercuric chloride is in excess, a white ciystalhn 
precipitate is thrown down, which is rather easily soluble in no 
water ; on cooling, crystals in the form of rhombic prisms an 
plates are deposited, soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Copper sulphate in an aqueous solution of the alkaloid #ve^ 
light green precipitate, insoluble in an excess of the alkaloi . 
a solution of the hydrochloride the copper sulphate does 
produce any change. Jntion 

A few drops of gold chloride added to the aqueous som ^ 
give a reddish white precipitate, which disappears on s ^°£ te 
larger quantity of the re-agent gives a flocculent reaens ^ 
predpitate, which is persistent, soluble in hydro-chloric ac 

difficult y- , \~«* of g° ld 

In the solution of the hydrochloride a few dr ,°|lL 3 \n 
chloride give a n-ddish-whit." precipitate^ ^> ic V ^ reddi^ 
agitation; a larger quantity of the re-agent gives y^c 
precipitate, which is permanent but easily soluble in ny 
acid, much more so than the precipitate from the a lkal0 ^ aflUe0 u 3 
Tannic acid gives a tnvyi Ii whit.' precipitate m * ^ ^^ 
solution — easily" soluble" in hydrochloric acid. ^ 


solution of the hydrochloride there is a greyish-white turbidity 
only, which disappears on the addition of hydrochloric acid. 

The double iodide of mercury and potassium (HgI 5 ,2KI) gives 
a heavy white crystalline precipitate in the aqueous solution. 
Under the microscope this is seen to be made up of small plates 
arranged in stellate groups. With hydrochloric acid the pre- 
cipitate becomes yellow and pasty, but does not dissolve in the 
cold readily soluble on heating ; on cooling the solution becomes 

In the solution of the hydrochloride HgL,2KI gives a heavy 
amorphous yellowish white precipitate; on the addition of a 
httle hydrochloric acid it becomes pasty ; on heating, a part dis- 
solves ; with a larger quantity of hydrochloric acid, the whole dis- 
solves on heating; on cooling, it is redeposited as a yellow 
amorphous powder. 

t On the addition of a small quantity of an alcoholic solution of 
iodine a yellowish turbidity only is imparted to the solution, which 
is persistent for some hours ; but a greater quantity produces a 
brown precipitate. 

On treating the alkaloid with concentrated sulphuric acid and a 
trace of potassium bichromate in powder, the fluid takes the colour 
ot the bichromate ; after a time it changes to a dirty brown and 
then to green. When warm the change of colour takes place 

i^cold"/ whei 
wnwr is produced. 

The alkaloid behaves very like nicotine with picric, phospho- 
molybdic and metatungstic acids; the addition of picric acid throws 
down a yellow precipitate soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

miorphous pre- 
cipitate, insoluble in cold id, easily and 
completely dissolved on warming. 

ine precipitate with nicotine is a dirtv vellowish white amor- 
phous insoluble in cold dilute hydrochloric acid, soluble when 
armed, but apparently not so readily as is the precipitate from 
*ue mturie alkaloid, some white flakes being left undissolved. 

Metatungstate of sodium forms with both piturine and nicotine a 

ite amorphous precipitate, soluble only in much dilute hydro- 
chloric acid when warmed. 

Jodtne — • Vvllen iodine dissolved in ether is added t0 ^ e therial 
tu v!? n ° f the alkaloid the fluid becomes brownish red and 
mntl l \ after a short time yellowish red needles are deposited, the 

otuer hquor being yellow ; these crystals are easily soluble in 
Slut- ? ieldin g a brownish red solution; when the alcoholic 
«^i 10U ls eva porated at the ordinary temperature, indistinct 
**dl es and oily drops are left behind. 


When this alcoholic solution is treated with caustic soda in 
the cold, a smell similar to that of iodoform is emitted, not that of 
the alkaloid, from the nicotine compound nicotine is liberated, 
according to Wertheim (Watt's Diet, of Chemistry, iv, p. 47). 

The iodine compound of piturine melts at about 110 C, that of 
nicotine at 100° C. (Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. iv, p. 47). 

From coneine it is distil nidi- I 1>_ its aqueous solution not 
becoming turbid on heating nor by the addition of chlorine water. 
It differs from aniline 1 i hloride of lime; 

it differs from picoline id icolme being only 

•9613 at 0" C); from pyridin by it. tv ..'•ti.m with copper sul- 
phate, the precipitate Cu(OH) 2 produced by pyridine with copper 
sulphate re-dissolves in an . : and it appears 

to be distinguished from nicotine by its reactions with platinic 
chloride, gold chloride, iodine andmemuir .-hlori le ah-obyPalm- 
test. According to Palm (Kussische Zeitchrift fiir Pharmacie I. 4 
and Husemann's Pflanzenstoffe) nicotine when gently warmed 
with a little hydrochloric acid of Id 2 sp. gr. turns violet and on 

the addition of a httb t ., > • , n id P lour < luiii.'^ to i 

deep orange— the only sample of nicotine to be obtained i ^'' ' 
yielded the latter part of the above test very well; the orange 
being veiy stable, the violet colour was not so well marked. The 
piturine does not change colour at all, but when more heat is 
applied it becomes yellow. 

The Composition of the Alkaloid. 

To determine the composition of the alkaloid, the carbon ana 
hydrogen were way by combustion with lead 

chromate j the nitrogen by the sodadime process; the ammonium 
chloride left after the evap - of hydrochloric 

acid was titrated with decinormal solution of silver nitrate. 

The alkaloid for the determination of the carbon, hydrogen, 
and nitrogen was taken from two different specimens P 1 ^. 
from two different supplies of the piturie, but in both cases m 
boiling points were the same, viz., 243° to 244° C. , 

_ To prevent oxidation, the alkaloid was enclosed in the com 
tion bulbs immediately after its preparation. 

The results obtained were as follows :— 

Carbon 76-63 76-64 lost. 7653 JJ 

Hydrogen 8"49 8-46 8'52 8 '51 ••••• 

Nitrogen 14-80 15-00 15 ' 01 "" 


The average of these eight analyses is — 

Carbon 76-56 

And the relative proportions when calculated in the usual -v 

Carbon 5'9S 

Hydrogen 7 96 

Nitrogen 1-00 

ir very nearly 6:8:1. 
The formula would therefore be C 6 H 8 N, which requires — 
C 6 =72 = 76-59 per cent. 7656 per cent. 

To confirm this formula a platinum double salt was prepared in 
the usual manner. The crystals so obtained were orange red 
octahedra fairly soluble in warm water, but very easily soluble 
when even a trace of the free alkaloid is present ; partly soluble in 
alcohol, but insoluble in ether. 

To ensure as far as possible uniformity of composition, the 
platinum salts were always prepared from the same portion of 
alkaloid with the same* solution of platinic chloride, and as 
much as possible under the same circumstances ; notwithstanding 
this the percentages of platinum and of chlorine obtained were 
never the same, for the salts prepared at different times, neither 
did they fit in or correspond with the above-mentioned formula. The 

ihe amount of platinum was determined in twenty-three cases 
upon salts prepared at ten different times, but from the same sub- 
stance and with the same platinic chloride; the amount of Pt. 
varied from 34-15 per cent, to 38-40 per cent ; seven analyses 
yielded between 35-35 and 35-55 per cent. Pt. Nine determina- 
tions of chlorine were made, and they varied from 31-32 to 
-Jb-86 per cent. CI. 

The platinum salt is therefore clearly not of uniform composi- 
ng 11 ^ ^ Se Very unsta °h3 ; ^ undergoes decomposition with loss 
oi chlorine during evaporation, even when conducted under the 
desiccator without the aid of heat. 

J-ue mercuric-chloride double salt, prepared by adding an excess 
1 saturated solution of mercuric-chloride to a solution of the 
hydrochloride of the alkaloid, crystallized weU in rhombic plates 

and prisms ; the double salt was crystallized from boiling water, 
dried at 100° 0., and the amount of mercury and chlorine deter- 
mined in it. 

Two analyses gave — 

> the formula 

(C 6 H 8 N) 2 HCI + 5 HgC 2 
which requires 63-31 per cent. Hg and 24-72 per c 

C 10 H 14 N 2 ,HC1 + 5 HgCl, 

per cent. Hg and 25-15 j 

Brsii.lf s. nicotine is said to form under the s 

( Vide Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry, 

that yielded by its ultimate analysis, )>v 

of course be attached to such a compound as (C 6 H S N).HC1 + 

5HgCl 2 , in which the amount of alkaloid present is so very small. 

Alkalimetric Power. 

0-2986 gramme of the alkaloid required 18-5 c.c. T V normal 
sulphuric acid, a corresponding amount to that required by nicotine, 
to form (C 10 H U N,), H 2 S0 4 ; the molecule 
being 162, 0-0162 ; "" 

I hope at some future period to continue the subject of this 
paper ; meanwhile my best thanks and acknowledgments are a 
to my assistant, Dr. Helms, now Assisl 
University Laboratory, for his very valuable help in carrying 
the details of this investigation. 

lis substance has been spelt in 


On Salt-bush and Native Fodder Plants of New South 

[Read before the Royal Society of X.S. W., 3 Xovember, 1SS0.] 

H <'i riliza I countries much attention has been directed to the 
position and value of the various fodder plants grown in thorn, 

rii'l wllicli 

such subjects by 
"-^ iiiecnoas. That this should be so is not surprising, 
seeing the important r61e which the cultivation of these plants 

i^l m Euro P ean agriculture, forming indeed the foundation on 
which modern farming is based, feeding the animals which not 
only supply meat and much of our clothing, but also furnish the 
greater part of the manure required to bring the vegetable food of 
man to perfection. It is, however, somewhat surprising that in 
this country no attention whatever has, as far as I can learn, been 
directed to the native plants, and the more so when perhaps 
three-fourths of the wealth of the community is, or has been, 
derived from its flocks and herds. For many reasons foreign to 
the purpose of this paper, it has been too much the interest of 
every one to let the sheep and cattle of to-day eat the best there is, 
even "they destroy it off the face of the earth, without regard to 
what those of to-morrow will do. It seems reasonable to suppose 
that m our peculiar climate, subject to periods of continued 
drought, and havi Ls peculiarly saline, that the 

plants which have withstood these influences for ages past would 
be more reliable than others developed under different conditions of 
lnat many introduced plants do nourish here ana 
s is undoubted, 
'. Schomberg remarks u luced weeds 

south Australia, it remains to be seen whether that increased 
growth may not be the means of their own destruction, 
me t therefore be on thought of sufficient interest to induce 

* . £ m ake a beginning, by examining a few of those plants 
I not 1 I \ the Staple pasture of the " 

grow with ; 


now y , e resul ts before you, accompanying them with a table 
frn- g aver age composition of other fodders of good quality 

or comparison. All the E ich are used for 

J^jog var 7 greatly in composition at different periods of their 
DhJf \ a ? d I Lave selected analyses of hay or straw made of the 
* nt at the period of flowering, when they are at their best. The 

analyses have all been recalculated from the authorities given, so 
as to reduce them to the same method of statement adopted for 
my own work. The analyses of the meadow hay, red clover and 
lucerne, were all stated as containing 15 per cent, of water, which 
is the average in well-made hay ; and the ashes were all, with the 
exception of the oats, given in 100 parts of ash only, and that 
containing carbonic acid, and the chlorine was given in the free 
state. As the plants which are to be brought under your notice 
are not used in the form of hay, and as the specimens examined 
had in their long journey become in some cases partially dried, 
and in others (the more succulent ones) were in a state of 
incipient fermentation, which rendered it necessary to dry them as 
rapidly as possible, no water determinations were made, and the 
analyses are given on the dried plants. 

Immediately on their arrival they were divided into woody por- 
tions, and tender parts, including small twigs and every part it 
was considered probable that the sheep would eat ; the separate 
parts were weighed, and a sufficient quantity of the edible matter 
was dried on a water bath, and afterwards ground in a coffee-mill 
for the proximate organic analysis. The remainder of the plant 
was partially air-dried and then charred in a clay crucible at a 
dull red heat ; from the excessive quantity of alkaline salts 
present it was found impossible to remove much more of the 
carbon without running serious risk of losing part of the ^s^ 
volatilization, and the analyses were therefore made on the charred 
material, winch generally contained about 50 per cent, of carbon. 
In determining the quantity of ash the carbon was removed as 
far as possible by incineration, the remainder being aftorwi"" 
detercnined and deducted. As the char evolved sulphuretted 
hydrogen on treatment with acid, it was moistened with concen- 
trated nitric acid for the estimation of sulphuric and phosphoric 
oxides. In calculating the analyses, the carbon dioxide, sand, ana 
alumina found have been deducted, following in respect to tfie 
first the Continental method. It is not, properly speaking, an 
inorganic constituent, the salts not being in combination witn 
in the plant; and although its rejection is regarded bj ' som^ 
English chemists as removing a distinctive feature of the ash, 
is simply a question of what one regards as such feature 
some of the ashes— that from plants which could be well dustei ^ 
there was no sand nor alumina, and in the others the amoun^ 
these constituents rose and fell together, showing that both 
derived from adherent impurity ; but as no such c0imectl0n t ^ Iie i, 
be observed with regard to the soluble silica, this has been re ^ 
A large portion of each ash was examined for manganese a ^ 
rarer constituents of plant ashes, which could in no 
detected. The s : . : the original ash ai i j 

' "24 over and 31 under 100, and I have v» 


icity of calculation, ventured to calculate the analyses 
I parts exactly. The ash analyses are stated in two 

the first showing the composition in 100 parts, the 
i the dried plant. 

Atriph-x sp. Dwarf salt-bush. 



Woody fibre 

Edible yPartS °^ Plant '' 
Ash analysis. 
Potash ' 

Chloride of sodium 


Xo. 2. Atriphx campanulata. Small s 

Chloride of sodiu 

— . ■ ; 

Phosphoric „ 


No. 3. Atriplex sp. Salt-bush weed. 

Oil 2- 

Carbohydrates 43 1 

Woody f 

Sulphuric oxi. 

r; . 

Woody fibre 


Woody parts of plant 46 per c< 

Edible „ , 54perc< 

T>. Atriplx pp. 



Woody fibre 
AshC0 2 



Chloride of sodiui 

Sulphuric oxide 
Silica soluble ... 



Albuminoids ... 
Woody fibre 


Ferric oxide ... 

Sulphuric oxide 

7. Atriplex numularia. Old man salt-bush. 

\ r oody parts of plant. 

On ash. On plant. 

Chloride o 

CJienolea bicomis. Cotton-bush. 

Potash ... 


Chloride of sodium .., 

No. 4 contained or gave up 

in .•*!,-■ 

aw. * wjiKuuea or gave up zo ei 
of the others ; the quantity of this 
from the colour of the solution. 

By an unfortunate mistake t 
of No. 6 (the blue-bush) was in 

s chlorophyll t 
nerallv small, 

i generally i 
. of the original ._**£ 

lerated. la m«og < 


specimen, it was suggested that only the more tender parts of the 
plant need be sent, which suggestion was almost too literally carried 
out j and as there had been rain between the two gatherings, the 
plant had entered on its vigorous spring growth, so that the specimen 
consisted almost entirely of young, succulent shoots. This accounts 
for the high percentage of ash and albuminoids, which are generally 
higher in immature plants, and the ash would probably be richer in 
alkaline salts than the ash analysis made on the original specimen 
shows. Being then in a different stage of development, this analysis 
does not very well bear comparison with those of the other plants. 
The different character of the ash of the cotton-bush from the others 
was at once shown on charring, as the mass in the crucible slowly 
burnt away after its removal from the fire, and without further 
application of heat, and the residue after this spontaneous combustion 
did not contain above 20 per cent, of carbon. It was also noticed 
that on burning a small portion for the ash determination, it differed 
somewhat from the other seven, as they all burned with a luminous 
and more or less smoky flame, which was particularly the case with 

ing at the same time a peculiar, sc 
whilst it exhibited no such peculiarity either i 

i Composit: 

I European Fodder Plants at the 


. 'iV. 


' IJ? 1 " * fifty analyses, representing hay of good quality. Way. 
^ract s Diet. 2nd Sup., p. 530. 

en analyses of hay of good quality. Way. Loc. cit. 
ill number of analyses. Way. Loc. cit. _ 

& of flowering, entire plants. Arndt. JarsD. Agn. 

\r "■ ^«*a oi a sms 


To arrive at the value of a fodder plant, there are many proper- 
ties which have to he taken into consideration, besides the actual 
nutritive value as ascertained by analysis, in determining their 
suitability for grazing, such as the rapidity of growth of the plant, 
ability to withstand drought and constant cropping, and accepta- 
bility in respect to flavour to the cattle. On such points it is 
beyond my power to speak, but it appears to me a subject of suf- 
ficient importance and interest to induce some of those who have 
the opportunity to make accurate notes on the plants in this direc- 
tion, and publish the results. 

The order in which the salt-bushes proper are considered to 
stand from a grazier's point of view, are 1st, A. numalaria, or old 
man salt-bush j 2nd, the dwarf salt-bush, the others not being 
so much considered. The cotton-bush is considered to be of 
great value, both from the fact that the sheep get very fat onit, not- 
withstanding its unpromising appearance, which reminds one of a 
half-dried European broom-bush, but also from its ability to with- 
stand long protracted drought. The blue-bush (Kochia) is not 
held in much esteem by the sheep, who do not eat it unless pushed 
by hunger, and their owners naturally place it low down in the 
list. This must be entirely a question of flavour, as so far as can 
be judged from the proximate analysis of the immature plant 
examined, it must have nearly the same nutritive value as tne 
salt-bushes. . , 

An examination of these analyses, and a comparison with the 
examples of well known European fodders given, shows that . tn 
whole of these plants stand in a good position with regard 

^.mmjui they Cuuuau. 

preponderance a m looking at the analyses, s 

that they seem well entitled to their popular name of salt-basn", 
although there are only three which contain a very large T^P * 
of common salt. I can only find one analysis of a plant 01 
same genus, viz., A. verrucifera from the Kergis Steppes, wi 
contains 12-5 per cent of lash, 1 whilst in the specimens ^T^ 
it ranges from 24 per cent, to 31-28 per cent.; but in ^^ 
other genera, of the same order as Salsola, the ash sometime 
as high as from 30 to 42 per cent., as determined by tne 
author, 2 and many of these plants were formerly, and m 
cases are even now for local use, of much importance as * 

In the following columns are given the ratios in jMch t e ^ 
ash, the common salt, and the potash stand in^ek^ont^__. 



digestible matter taken as 100, including in that term the "oil, 
carbohydrates, and albuminoids. There is also given the average 
of the salt-bushes properly so called, omitting the blue-bush, as the 
analysis was made on a specimen at a different and imperfect stage 
of growth, and the cotton-bush, as it is a plant of an entirely 
different character. 

The great difference between the salt-bushes and European 
fodders is thus shown conspicuously, and the former are placed 
entirely by themselves, whilst the cotton-bush, as far as the points 
considered are concerned, ranges itself with the latter. 

Ratios of digestible 

matter of Ash, Potasl 

, and Salt. 



Potash. | Sai, 







3. Salt-bush weed.. 

7. Old man salt-bush 







3 207 

fed ck*£ y ; . 


These plants being chiefly used for the pasturage of sheep, we 
may glance at what effects might be expected to take place on the 
annuals, for there seems little doubt that changes in them must 
occur from a diet so very different to that on which they have 
teen bred from immemorial time in Europe. Youatt, after 
speaking of the effect of climate on sheep and their wool, says :— 
i'asture has a far greater influence on the fineness of the fleece, 
j | ? sta P le of the wool, like every part of the sheep, must increase 
«* length or in bulk when the animal has a superabundance of 
nutriment ; and on the other hand, the secretion from which the 
IT . ? for med must decrease like every other when sufficient 
not afforded." 1 

ion with other herbivorae, appear to require a 
oluble chlorides, which, by evolving free hydro- 

» stomach, or rather in the gastric juice, enables 

inT? X^S^t very considerable quantities of cellulose. Accord- 
J^jBidder and Schmidt, 2 1,000 parts of the gastric juice of 

nourishment i 

chloric acid in the 


the 1 p co t n 9Sf 148 parts of water, whilst out of the 
remaining 13-852 parts 6-0 consist of soluble chlorides and 1-557 
of hydrochloric acid. It:- - : 'S supply these 

chlorides in large proportion, and we might therefore expect the 
digestion to he active and to effect the assimilation of the nutri- 
tive matter with certainty. 

It is in the wool, however, that we should expect the greatest effect to 
take place from such a diet. Youatt says (page 60) " The abundance 
and healthiness of the wool is proportional to the amount of yolk." 
The yolk of wool consists partly of fatty matter combined to a 
greater or less extent with lime and earthy matter in the form of 
an insoluble soap, but its greater part consists of a | ■■■■ v.'iar com- 
pound containing potash called "suint." This substance fia*l 
about one-third of the weight of raw merino wool and about 14 
per cent, in ordinary wool, and is readily soluble in cold water. 
It is used to a considerable extent as a source of potash in 
where 1,000 tons per annum of potashes are obtained from it 
Hoffman says 3 that 1,000 lbs. of wool yield from 70 to 80 lbs. 
of pure carbonate of potash, and 5 lbs. to 6 lbs. of sulphate and 
chloride of potassium, the weight of dry suint being from HO lbs. 
tol801bs.,and this would give, as an average yield from the suint, 
17 per cent, of actual potash, and 1 ■■"> percent, of chloride and 
sulphate. From the percentage of suint given this evidently 
refers to < ordinary wool, and, as merino \\ 

- ' double, and 1,000 lbs. «* 


the ready solubility of this substance 

probable that much of it may be washed out of the wool _ by rain 
and dew during its growth, and that the quantity remaining ^ 
the shorn fleece may represent only a small portion of that W 
has been elaborated by the sheep. This would constitute aco£ 
siderable drain on the potash obtained by the animal from i 
food, and it appears evident that the plants we are considermg, 
from their richness in that alkali, would enable the ^P' hat 
especially merinoes, to withstand that drain and V*°« uc ° ls0 
abundance of yolk on which it appears the fineness oi tBe ^ 
much depends. That this is so is shown by the ^igh fstee 
which Iliverina wool is held, and I hope by an examination 
wool itself to come to a definite conclusion on the matter. 

The cotton-bush does not differ much in the matter of ^^ 
just considered from ordinary European fodders, i 
owes its value to the high percentage of carbohydi.tes whach^ ft 
tain., in which it stands above all competitors, and from w 
obtain i its fattening properties. ___— — 

In the following columns are given — 1st, the percentage of 
digestible matter (organic) ; 2nd, the ratio of albuminoids to oil 
and carbohydrates, or of flesh-forming material to fat-forming, the 
iormrr h(t'm<r taken as 100. 


° 1 

1. Dwarf salt-bush 






3. Salt-bush weed 



Red clover... 



OateTh t 


It will be observed that in every case the total amount of 
digestible matter in the salt-bushes falls below that in the Euro- 
pean fodders, with the exception of the old man and the 
cotton-bush; bn1 due to the greatly increased 

quantity of ash, as in none of them is the quantity of indigestible 
organic matter so great. The ratios of carbohydrates to albumi- 
noids vary greatly in the different plants, in some cases fully as 
low as in the leguminosre, in some rising as high and bight r than 
*n the grasses. The exceptionally low ratio in the case of the blue- 
oush is undoubtedly due to the very immature condition of the 
specimen examined. I do not feel warranted in drawing any 
conclusion from these ratios, taken from such a small number of 
^mples, but place them before you in the hope that some one else, 
py examining the plants from the different sfcandpointa already 
indicated, may enable us to arive at the proper composition of a 
J°dder plant to produce the best result in wool or mutton, or 

In conclusion, my thanks are due to Mr. Mair, of Groongal, 
^arandera, and to Mr. Wilson, of the Mercantile Bank, for pro- 
curing me the plant specimens ; and to Mr. Moore for naming 

Hot Spring, New Britain. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S. W., 1 September, 1880.] 

The sample of water forming the subject of this note was collected 
from a hot spring in one of the islands of the New Britain group, 
by the Eev. George Brown. ., to whom my 

thanks are due for the trouble taken in safely bringing it to Sydney. 

ihe water was of a yellow tinge, and smelt of sulphuretted 
nyarogen; at first it was neutral to test-papeis, but itterwards 
became very faintly acid, probably from the oxidation in part of 
tue sulphuretted hydrogen. 

No attempt was made to determine the amount of sulphuretted 
hydrogen and other gases, w 1 1 y of water was 

out small, and moreover on account of the time which had elapsed 
e its collection (some few months), it was ; ; 

y J of £' asp - Ion would afford 

out little information as to the actual quantities contained by 
water when freshly collected. 

ie left on evaporation to dryness at 100° C. amoun 

- — 1,000,000, or 2,541-84 grains per gallon, wh 

" " verage sea-water. 

-me residue L 

Composition of the Residue, dried at 100° C. 

Alumina and iron sesquioxide "440 159 7 

Ulcinm sulphate 1-394 506-2 

» chloride 2-240 8134 

Magnesium chloride 4710 1,710-3 

«odium chloride 87-320 31,707'6 

Potassium „^g tiaccg 

Combined Mater "Z...Z." 3696 1,342-2 

100000 36,312-0 

Water from a Hot Spring, Fiji Islands. 

When at Kandavu, Fiji Islands, in 1876, I heard of the boiling 
springs at Savu Savu, hut to my great regret my stay of three or 
tour days only at Kandavu was too short to allow me to visit them, 
and I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. T. D. Bromlow, R.N., 
tor the sample of water forming the subject of this note. 

The water wa glass bottles, well corked and 

sealed. I men ti I evidently been 

°ww*ed « iih greatcara On more than one occasion I have received 
samples of mineral waters whi bJ ess for chemical 

! m ^tuanon, , VlV U bM.nse iiiMiiHcient care had been exercised 
m the collection and bottling ; this was often a source of regret to 
me, since much trouble must have been taken to procure the 
samples, and still more to get them safely to Sydney; when distant 
rrom towns it is, ( ,f cjiuv, n. I ,d i pn^iWle to obtain glass- 
stoppered bottles, but when procurable there is nothing so 
convenient and , half-gallon bottles known as 

Winchester quarts. 

The water was clear and colourless, after the deposition of the 

but with a strongly marked saline taste; to test-papers it was 
thfiH ° r but very fain % alkaline. On evaporation to dryness 
£ t_ tere d water left a very white extremely deliqu 

blacken, thus showing the 

The total 

any appreciable amount of organic matter. 

afes gravity of the water was found to be 1 -0064 at 

quantity of solid matter in solution, weighed after 
residueat 110° C, was found to be 8,320 parts per 

~- «vm, or 582-40 grains per gallon ; but, after driving 

combined water at a dull ,,-d ' 1.,-ar. the residue was reduced to 

6 ''09 er?en Per mim ° n > 01 " 546 ' 91 &**** P er gallon— i.e. it lost 

The rarer elements were carefully sought for in this residue by 

of w the 8peH *' r ' ound - Tlie total quauT hy 

w ater at my disposal was but small — some four pints ; perhaps 

a larger quantity would have enabled ( 
Neither iodine nor bromine could be 
sought for. 

Uoride 1-646 

i P 8 0«) traces 

Calcium chloride 46-754 

sulphate 4-770 

Magnesium chloride -154 

Sodium , 42-171 

Potassium ,, T756 

Carbonic acid traces 

J3£ or JSL 

3,294-8 230-64 

100-000 7,813-0 54691 

From the above it will be seen that the salts in solution consist 
of chlorides for the most part, and that the chlorides of calcium 
and sodium largely preponderate over the others ; the amount of 
calcium chloride is unusually large. . 

No mention was made by Dr. Bromlow of the temperature ot 

The action of Sea-water upon Cast-iron. 

alogy in the 
ersity ot Sydney. 

[Read be/ore the Royal Society of N.S. W., 1 September, 1SS0.] 

Harbour, N.S.W. 

Mr. Moriarty, the Engineer-in-Chief for Harbours and Rivers, 
tells me that the dredge had not been wrecked as I had previously 
been informed, in fact she is still at work ; but that the screw 
became so rotten as to necessitate its removal. He accounts for 
the rapid decay, and very sufficiently, by the iron having been in 
actual contact with the copper sheathing of the vessel. In the 
same letter Mr. Moriarty mentions that an old iron cannon was 
taken up from the foul waters at the head of Darling Harbour, 
where it had lain for some twenty years, but the corrosion had 
only eaten its way in to about - x \- of an inch. 
Tff Ven 0rL tne mos * cursory examination the specimen is seen to 
differ entirely from the original cast-iron, except in form, which 
seems to be unchanged j the material however is so altered in 
composition that it may be safely described as a pseudomorph, 
S1 nce it is almost entirely made up of oxide of iron and particles of 
graphite. It is quite sectile, being readily cut with a knife ; the 
powder under the microscope presents a mixture of brilliant scales 
ot graphite, mixed with brown-coloured oxide of iron and a few 
*»aely scattered minute particles of metallic iron; these on 
removal by means of a magnet answer to all the tests for metallic 
lr on, and flatten out with a bright metallic lustre when ground in 
an agate mortar. 

In colour the external part of the specimen is of a dull grey, 
itnin it is of a rusty brown colour, with darker bands which 
° W more or less closely the outer contour lines. 

-Different portions of the mass apparently vary somewhat in 
composition; the portion taken for examination was purposely 
wT- S° m the innermost part, as it appeared to be firmer and 
«w triable than the very out i but even this 

onJ y contained -04 per cent of metallic iron; the boss of the 

screw was, I understand, on] 1 upon; the part 

examined by me came from one of the blades. On analysis it wa.s 
i . e the following composition : — 

Carbon 68-73 

Iron protoxide 23 23 

i sesquioxide 
Iron, metallic... 

The specific gravity 

found to be but 1*63. 

The carbon was not estimated directly, partly on account of 
the difficulty or mount by the com- 

bustion process, and partly because, after everything else had been 
determined, it was thought that the amount of carbon could be 
t-stimut-d with sufficient accuracy by taking the difference. 

The silicon was estimated in the form of silica by fusion with 
the mixed carbonates of potash and soda, the carbon being burnt 
off by the addition of potassium chl< .rate ; the residue was extracted 
with boiling water, the - i and determined in 

the usual way. , 

The metallic iron was extracted by means of a magnet, treated 
with fuming nitric acid, to get rid of attached impurin- -, "<^' J : - 
dissolved in by, ; i !u um.tuuWy 

It is interesting to note that the phosphorus has been eliminated 
completely by the action which has gone on, and that the a ™ "f g 
of sulphur is quite small ; for both were probably present in tn 

Several instances of the effects produced by sea-water acting 
upon cast-iron are quoted by Gmelin in his " Hand ho °* , 
Chemistry/' vol. v, p. 218. These are also referred torn jva 
"Dictionary of Chemi.strv," vol. iii, p. 331, but no aA^fT^i 
appear to be ci » • published in i j 

i.e. twenty years later. The instances quoted are the ™ [i ° vni g\ x . 

Certain canno bad ^J»JJ; 

two years under sea-water were found to be converte ^ 
substance like plumbago, some to the distance of hw* 
others to the very centre. (Sill. A.aer. Jonr., 4 p. 1£) ^ 
Somecannoi ^"Soi their 

1692, had retained their form and bulk, but had lost $rds oi ^ 
weight, yielded to the knife, did not act upon I 
were free from metallic iron (Deslongchamp X, CMem. - •' 
p. 89). 


Cannon-balls raise d at ( 'arlserona from a sunken vessel, lost fifty 
years previously, were found to be changed through J-rd of their 
thickness into a porous graphitic mass, which liccame strongly 
heated when exposed to the air for a quarter of an hour, in fact 
so hot as to drive the water off in steam. (BerzeHus Lchrb.) 

the Ro, 
l and steel, 

quotes some instances collected by Henry Wilkinson in his work 
" On the extraordinary effect produced on Cast-iron by the action of 
Sea-water," 1841. Amongst them he gives the following :— " Many 
of the vessels of the Spanish Armada were sunk off the shore of 
Mull in Scotland, and in 1740 some of the guns of a vessel named 
the ' Florida' were raised. These were both brass and cast-iron 
guns, and on so ipi g t] r w] rroded, they 

became so hot thai -itched. However, they lost 

this property after two or time hours exposure to the air, and 
there was no difference in the appearance of the substance before 
and after the combustion." "In a naval engagement with the 
French off Portsmouth in 1545, th 'Man Cose of the English 
Fleet was so ov< ace that she sank with all 

her crew of nearly 600 men. On the 16th June, 1836, a 24-pounder 
brass gun, 11 feet in length, belonging to this vessel, was raised 
with the aid of diving apparatus. This gun had a cast-iron shot 
in it, which on exposure to the air, is stated, became nearly red hot 
and fell to pieces." " At the same time," Mr. Wilkinson writes, 
"four brass and three iron guns were raised from the wreck of the 
Mary Rose.' The iron guns were of the ancient description, 
lonned of iron bands hooped together with iron rings, and they 
were all loaded, but the guns b. ii a mad< < f v rought or malleable 
""on did not exhi 1 1 s, which were 

made of cast-iron. Those bal meter ought to 

have weighed 30 lbs., were reduced to 19 lbs. 3 ozs. The 8-inch 
or '0-lbs. ones were only 45 : external appear- 

ance, the same as regular shot, they fell to pieces red hot on 
exposure to the air.* 

No complete analyses seemed to have been made of the graphite- 
uife residues ; hence no comparison could be made between the 
composition of this that of others. 

-Ur. Percy refers to some experiments made by Professor Daniell.f 
A cube of grey cast-iron was acted upon by dilute hydrochloric 
f o d When the a ° id WaS safcurated the cu ^ e was taken 0Ut and 


undiminished in bulk. A specimen of white cast-iron having a 
radiated fracture was similarly treated ; the dark grey spongy 
residuum could be easily cut with a knife and resembled plumbago. 
Some of it when placed to dry on blotting-paper spontaneously 
heated and smoked in the course of a minute. In another case 
when a considerable quantity of it had been heaped together it 
ignited and scorched the paper. 

But the most valuable contributions to our knowledge upon this 
subject were made by Mr. Robert Mallet, F.R.S., in his Reports 
to the British Association for the years 1 838, 1840, and 1843. 
These reports were made at the request of the British Association, 
and they contain the results of a most careful and elaborate series 
of experiments made to ascertain the action of sea and river water, 
both clear and foul, and at various temperatures, upon many 
hundred specimens of cast and wrought iron and steel, as well as 
to test the advantages of various protective paints and varnishes; 
they also contain the results of experiments made to ascertain tne 
protection afforded by zinc, <fec, to iron structures in contact witn 

Mr. Mallet mentions a case* in which bars of cast-iron 3 inches 
broad and 1 inch thick, which formed protectors to the copper 
of a vessel, to the amount of about -, J of its surface, wereiaj 
voyage of not quite five months to Jamaica and back, converted 
into plumbago to the depth of half an inch ; this statement iso 
special interest in connection with the specimen from the Kunie . 

Mallet states that Priestley was one of the first of I those ^ho 
observed this conversion of cast-iron into a plumbago-like ro as^ 
mixed oxide of iron and carbonaceous matter, and tna 
residues frequently but not invariably became hot or spontaneo^ 
inflammable on exposure to the air. Mallet states that under ^ 
tain circumstances even the purest malleable iron 1S Jf nV ® wr iter 
this plumbago-like substance,and quotes instances. The ■ aun^ £ 
mentions that some cannon !ld m ™? nf u5 

the site of the battle of La Hogue had, after an "n*?* ^ in 
years, been converted into plumbago to the depth of ■ 
some cases and right through in others; and assuming 
diameter to have been about 6\ inches, the usual siz e o rf 
shot, he points out that the iron had been destroyed to ^d 
3£ inches during the above number of years,— a mucn . 
rate of action than he obtained from his special experuu ^^ 

The foregoing will probably suffice as instances of the ac^ 
sea-water, brought about more or less by accident, i *• ^ 
experiments are far too numerous to quote here 

give a bare summary of his results. 

Report, vol. viii, 1838, p. 262. 

Hot and cold blast 


; Scotch and Welsh, Irish and ] 

; blast 

Welsh cast-iron. 

Mixe.1 oast-irons 
Welsh, Ac. 
So ,toli cast-iron. Chiefly 1 
Staffordshire, Shropshire, and Gloucestershire { MB 

cast-iron. Hot and cold blasts ... / ™ 5 » 

Grey cast-iron, mixed. Skin removed by planing -419 „ 
I Vrbvshiivand Yorkshire cast-iron. Hotandcold 431 „ 
Wrought-iron. Standard bar, No. 2 Dowlais ... -543 „ 

the approximate depth of corrosion 
is and steels at the end of one cen- 
tury m clear sea-water, foul sea-water, in clear fresh-water, and 
■when freely exposed to the weather in Dublin : — 


p ir 

a r^- 


Red short bar, Staffordshire. . 

•276 inch. 
•316 ", 

•277 " 
•239 ", 

•644 inch. 
•404 "„ 

•72fi " 

•379 „ 
■425 ,, 

•559 ", 
•430 „ 

•081 „ ' 
•039 „ 
•035 „ 

•030 "„ 

■024 „ 

•025 " 
•026 „ 
•043 „ 

•335 bell. 
•540 „ 

Best Welsh bar, I), ,.-. - . 

::;■':! - 

Common boil, 

Swedish bar, D. 

•no " 

.'. soft 

- f ... . 

Do - do. ' hard.!. 

•156 ", 

As in the former table the results were obtained from speci- 
■<I Wn immers„d for 732 days. 

Mallet found that the corrosion of cast-iron, which has had its 
skin removed by planing, is precisely the same in moist air as in 
wear sea-water, also, that the rate of corrosion of cast-iron in sea- 

wsr is a decreasing one, when the coat of plumbago and rust 
*m formed is removed prior to a second immersion. When the 
coating is untouched the corrosion goes on at a nearly uniform 

e - The coating of plumbago and rust is negative to the metal 
fc 6 ' When ?«ft on it assists in the corrosion of the metal; in 
strongly marked, 

^ «££fc£T 

i porous, thus 

Association Reports, 1840, i 

The rapid action of ^-- ad the commoner 

varieties of v r to the local gal- 

vanic action set up betwe* of graphite, films 

of slag, or other foreign matter. 

Where cast-iron is exposed to the combined action of fresh 
water and of sea- water, as ivers, the action is 

said to be much more rapid, for the heavy sea- water remains below 
> nil. tli > lightt 1 fresh \ ater floats above, thus producing a voltaic 
pile having two liquids and one solid, also in places where the H* 
water is foul and more or less contaminated with sulphuretted 

The action of acid waters in copper and other mines, and of 
solutions of the salts of copper upon iroi is seel] known, aiwtfi 
is taken advantage of by the miner in the humid or precipitation 
processes for the extraction of copper. It is quite a common 
thing for workers in certain mines to find neglected articles of 
cast-iron which have been exposed to the action of "acid" waters 
converted into masses of graphite-like matter. 

The action of sea-water upon iron, and especially upon cast-iron 
structures, must be one of very great interest and importance to 
engineers; it is certainly one well worthy of further investiga- 
tion, especially in connection with the construction of cast-iron 
cylinders for the support of piers and wharfs in harbours and 
estuaries. The copper sheathing of ships and the metal of cast- 
iron wharf woul 

either by actual contact," by wet ha\ sers, fenders, or by other 
ing a passage for the electric current, 
Mallet refers to the well known rapid . : . ■•' ' ; ivceut ;. 
made castings become coated with rust when exposed to a shower 
of rain, and he i >re rapidly in the 

case of castings made in "dry sand" or "loam" thai 
in damp or " green sand" moulds. He says, " in ' loam or 7 
s nd moulds, moisture not being present, but little V^§**i 
generated by the fluid metal to burn off the 'facing' of c^rj 
which remains ' pars, l0 r on the surf a e of the . 
innumerable voltaic couples in contact with water ; whueffl 
case of the 'green -and" ca^tin^. n;o~t of ih- < 
removed in a gaseous form ti \ , , 1 ■ - ' ' ' 

sand." But I am inclined to think that this difference is V r0 ™J c 
due in part, if not wholly, to the formation of a film <* .^ , {n 
oxide of iron by the steam from the moisture: the 
of such a film has long bee;, 

*i on a large .,,].■ lmI ;i Mr. 15... IV tl.- !'...* -or of Chemistry 
the Royal Academy, brought out his process. 

[Head before the Royal Society ofN.S. W., 1 December, 1880.] 

The specimen forming the subject of this note was found by Mr. 
C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., at Inverell, where the Macintyre River 
has cut through I I a river cliff; by the forma- 

tion of this section the included fragments of wood and trunks of 
trees are exposed to view. 

In the " Min. - I ,-s" published by the Mining 

Department in 1875, Mr. Wilkinson gives the following description 
of the manner in which the fossilized wood occurs, and on the 
same page (p. 76) he gives a diagram showing the position occupied 
by the particular tree trunk from which this specimen was taken:—- 

" An interest in tit may be seen on Mr. Colin 

Ross's property on the bank of the river at Inverell. The following 
is a sketch of it :— 

L "a, b, amygdaloidal basalt, much decomposed ; c, friable cellular 
basalt, enclosing fragments of wood and pieces of earth ; * dense 
columnar basalt : .. volume broccia, composed of fragments ot 
basalt of various sizes embedded in an indurated volcanic mud, 
rhich imparts to the rock 
„ .. . This breccia is older than 
b c d, and evidently formed the side of a hill on which plants 
were growing at the time of the basalt eruption ; for at the junction 
°f the basalt and breccia lies a thin bed of red clay, the former 
surface soil, in which I discovered numerous stems of plants. Some 
f these stems are in an ui "■ ^ net f te . * 

few inches into the basalt rock above, and several I found with 
" i woody matter but little altered. These facts are very singular, 

roving the viscid state of the ovi 

1 surrounded the small plants ■ 


how rapidly it must have cooled. Another interesting relic of the 
newer pliocene period that this section reveals is the trunk of a 
tree, about 2 feet in diameter, imbedded in the layer of basalt 
marked c in the above sketch. 

"The wood, though much changed, yet retains its fibrous structure 
most completely. It somewhat resembles the stringy-bark, and 
may possibly be a species of eucalyptus ; but this is difficult to 
decide without the aid of the microscope. 

" Surrounding the tree is a soft substance 2 inches thick, which 
was probably the bark." 

been destroyed 

with the aid of a microscope the structure of the cellular tissue ii 
much more clearly seen ; patches of white carbonate of lime ana 
of yellow oxide of iron are also observed to have been deposited 
within its substance. 

The specimen seems to have been considerably crushed and 
broken ; in general appearance it looks as if a number of angular 
fragments of chare «il hrul l.c-n pressed together. This brecciated 
structure was probably set up after the trunk was enveloped by 
the fluid lava, and was doubtless caused by the contraction of the 
rock round the wood, as it solidified and cooled. 

When heated in a closed tube much water is given off; when 
ignited on platinum foil it does not inflame or glow like a car- 
bonaceous substance, but ijui.-klv hums to a pale brownish-grey 
ash ; the carbon, which has apparently been converted into graphite, 
is present in very small quantity, and barely sufficient to impart a 
black colour to the substance. 

It effervesces with acids, is fragile, and sufficiently soft to be 
scratched with the thumb-nail. 

„ protoxide 



Magnesia =( 7-24.MgC0 3 ) 

Carbonic a 


The lime and magnesia evidently exist as carbonates ; a small 
quantity of the protoxide of iron may also exist in combination 
with carbonic acid, as there is •:»* of carbmuY acid left after in- 
verting all the lime and magnesia into carbonates. The alumina 
and iron probably exist in the form of silicate, as the amount of 
silica is nearly sufficient to form a silicate of the formula R,0 3 , 
3Si0 2 , or if the water also be taken into account, ALCUSiO, 
+ 4H 2 0. 

As it contains traces of sulphur and of sulphuric acid, small 
quantities of iron pyrites are probably present. 

The combined water was determined by heating the powdered 
substance in a combustion tube and collecting the water in a 
WB tfhed chloride of calcium tube, and the carbon by combustion 
with lead chromate in a current of oxygen, the silica by fusion 
with the mixed alkaline carbonates, and the alkalies by Dr. J. 
Lawrence Smith's process with calcium carbonate and ammonium 

Masses of silicified wood are very common in nearly all basaltic 
areas over all parts of the world, and they are very noticeable in 
many parts of this Colony ; this particular specimen is different 
from the above, in-, -n, i.-h a-, i:. t-u-l of being composed almost 
exclusively of silica or of hydrated silica, as is the case with 
ordinary silicified wood, it has been mineralized by a mixture of 
various substances. 

On account of the mineralized wood having such a complex 
M Hgfcituta in, it may be thought thatit mayhavebeen merely replaced 
mechanically — i. e ., it might be supposed that the wood has been 
burnt or rotted away and the mould left by it filled in with earth 
and charcoal, but such is not the case. There is no doubt that the 
mineral matter has been deposited from solution ; the woody tissue, 
winch was doubtless much charred, has been almost completely 
>n of mineral matters 
a solution. This process must 
oave been a very slow one, the cavities of the cells were probably 
filled first, the cell walls were next gradually removed, except those 
portions represented by the small remaining quantity of graphite- 
hke carbon, and replaced by mineral matter as the decay went on, 
°ut so slowly and quietly that no violence was done to the micro- 
scopic structure of the woody tissue. 

On the Composition of some Coral Lime: 
from the South Sea Islands. 

[Read be/ore the Royal Society of N.S. W., 6 October, 1880.] 

1. Reef Coral, New Hebrides. 
A white crystalline limestone, the fractured surfaces of which 
present all the appearance of aragonite ; for the most part it 
is made up of i remainder being 

-line like marble. No trace of organic structure 
could be detected. The external surfaces are, however, coated 
with a thin film of purple-coloured organic matter, which burns 
when heated on platinum foil. LVfore the blowpipe the limestone 
whitens and falls to pieces like aragonite. 

I am indebted to the kindness of the late Commodore 
Coodenough, R.N., for this and the succeeding specimen. This 
distinguished naval officer always took a very lively interest in the 
geology and mineralogy of the countries which he visited, and 
seldom failed to collect and bring back with him any specimens 
which were procurable. 

Locality : Island of Vati, or Sandwich Island, New Hebrides 

Group j from shore at the level of high-water-mark. 


Hygroscopic moisture "26 

Alumina and traces of iron sesquioxide ... '23 

Lime 54-62 

» soluble 

Sodium chloride 
Phosphoric acid 

A second portion from the interior only contained traces of 
odium chloride. 

2. Red Reef Coral, New Hebrides. 
°f a reddish brown colour, intermixed with white, due mostly 
Sluau fragments of coral and shell disseminated through the 

these make the rock look very much 
a cave deposit. Different portions va 
ins traces of organic matter. 

Hygroscopic moisture . . . 


„ soluble 
Alumina and ) 

ioxide J 

ike a bone breccia 

The determinations in the second column were made upon 
another specimen. 

The red colour of this specimen is probably due to the presence 
of decomposition products, such as clay, &c, derived from the 
disintegration of lava or other similar rocks; this seems to be 
borne out also by the presence of alkalies other than as chlorides, 
as well as by the presence of the silica, alumina, iron, and 

3. Coral Limestone, Duke of York Island. 

This specimen and the following was collected by Dr. Mew* 
RN, of H.M.S. « Pearl," from a raised reef on the Duke of ^oik 
Island, one of the Union Group, at a height of 110 feet above trie 

Hygroscopic moisture 

Or-ai.i.- m,-uter ... 


;;; ;;. -789 

Alumina and traces of iron 

sesquioxide ... I"** 3 

Manganese ... 

"" J : oiu 

*" -861 

'" -983 

.'.'.' -848 





[" .'.'. traces 


... 41-679 


••• ' 2 ° 

4. Tuff Rock? 

This specimen was also collected in 1 » 7 6 by Dr. 
on the island of Vati, one of the New Hebrides, from 1 
describes as a raised terrace of coral rock, which crops on 
Havannah Harbour, at a height of 525 feet above sea-lei 
highest point of the island being about 1,500 feet. 

The rock is greyish white in colour and readily friable ; 
will be at once apparent from the analysis, it is not a lin 
although it may have been found to contain corals. 

On addition of acid it effervesces but feebly, show: 

Hygroscopic moisture, @ 100° C 
Combined water, by ignition 

.. 3-68' 

.. 7-58 

Carbonic acid 

.. 1-04 


.. -70 

Alumina ... 

Iron sesquioxide ... 

.. -56 

.. 1-66 

Magnesia ... 

Potash and soda 


.. 56-56" 

Alumina ... 

.. 14-80 


'.'. 6-76 


.. -06 

The combined water was determined by ignition of the rock 
to complete fusion ; allowance was made for the carbonic acid 
winch was also driven off at the same time. 

5. Tuff Rock, New Hebrides. 

Brought by the late Commodore Goodenough, R.N., from the 
Jore, below high-water-mark, of Port Sandwich, Mallicollo, 
*ew Hebrides. A greyish-coloured rock, breaking with a large 
conchoidal fracture, with smooth earthy-looking surfaces devoid of 
lustre; of very fine grain. Soft, and readily scratched with a 
*Jiife. Emits a dull sound when struck. Specific gravity, 2-186. 

I* was labelled « coral sand rock," but, as will be seen from the 
aQ alysi8, it is mainly a silicate of alumina. 

Hygroscopic moisture 
Combined wate ' 
Carbonic acid.. 


On the Inorganic Constituents of the Coals of New 
South Wales. 

By W. A. Dixon, F.I.C., F.C.S., Lecturer on Chemistry, Technical 
College, School of Arts, Sydney. 

[Head be/ore the Royal Society of N.S. W., 6 October 1880.] 

In the early part of this year I made, for the Department of Mines, 
proximate analyses of the coals of the Colony shown at the late 
Exhibition, the samples being taken from the whole thickness of 
the seams from the - . ti<» l- ,1, r « ■ „ however the bands 
which are thrown aside in actual working. Having the residue of 
these samples and some others, it appeared that information of 

3 hoped that some light might be thrown on the insoluble 
tuents of the plants from which the coal has been formed. 

For the analyses the coals were charred and burned at a dull 
red heat until the ash was obtained as free as possible from carbon. 
Inis, in the case of coals whose ash contains little iron, is an 
exceedingly tedious process, so that in some of them it was found 
necessary to detei -non, and deduct it from the 

analysis. The ash was then treated by digestion with hydrochloric 
acid for about three-quarters of an hour at a temperature near the 
boding point of the acid, which contained about 22 per cent, of 
actual H CI. The residue was fused with mixed alkaline carbonates, 
and the insoluble constituents determined in the usual manner. 

The coals of the Colony naturally divide themselves into three 
a ^ Se f ' uamel y, those of the Northern, Southern, and Western fields, 
and the character of the ash follows, as a rule, the same divisions, 
6 f v Pt that the ash of tne coal found at Redhead, eight miles south 
. Newcastle, differs from that of the others in its neighbourhood 
in containing much less iron and alumina, and an increased quantity 
° sm ca- With the coals of the Northern district may be taken a 
sample from the Clarence River district, the ash of which was 

otamed from a small hand specimen only. 
an^ti^ 016 ° f the ashes showed traces of alkalies, carbonic acid 

u cnionne, besides those constituents given, but the quantity was 
thp i Ca T S vei 7 *numte. The following are ash analyses from 
tfl e Northern fields :— 

164 inorganic constituents op the 

Newcastle Coal Company's Colliery 
Specific gravity of coal, 1-283 ; percentage of ash in 
colour of ash, reddish. 


.. 27-21 

Ferric oxide ... 

.. 11-11 


.. 1-46 

Soluble in acid 


.. 1-56 


Sulphuric oxide 


Phosphoric „ 

.. 1-24 


.. 6-51 

Ferric oxide ... 

.. 3-02 



Insoluble in acid 





.. 45-57 

Undetermined and loss 


Australian Agricultural Company's Colliery. 
Specific gravity of coal, 1-286 ; percentage of ash, 444 ; 
colour of ash, reddish. 
Analysis — 


... 22-84 

Ferric oxide... 

... 15-20 


... 1'98 

_ Solu 


.. traces. 

Sulphuric oxide 


Phosphoric ,, 



... 3-45>| 

Ferric oxide... 

... traces. 1 Insoh 


... 53-10 [ 

Undetermined and loss 

... -20, 

Specific gravity of coal, 1-310 ; percentage of a 
colour of ash, reddish. 
Analysis — 

Ferric oxide... 

Sulphuric oxide 
Phosphoric „ 
Ferric oxide... 

Undetermined and loss 

Newcastle "Wallse 

Ferric oxide... 

Magnesia ... 
Sulphuric oxide 
Phosphoric „ 

Ferric oxide. . . 

50-21 J 


New Lambton Colliery, near Newcastle. 
Specific gravity of coal, 1-291 ; percentage of ash, 6-72 ; 
colour of ash, red. 
Analysis — 

Alumina .. 
Ferric oxide.. 


Soluble in acid 


Ferndale Colliery, Newcastle. 

Magnesia . . 
Sulphuric oxi< 
Phosphoric „ 

Ferric oxide.. 

Magnesia . . 

Waratah Colliery. 


.. 22-31' 

Ferric oxide 

.. 8-11 


.. 2-41 



Sulphuric oxide 


Phosphoric „ 

.. 2-29, 


.. 4-59' 

Ferric oxide 

.. 2-31 


.. 56-17 

Undetermined and loss 


Insoluble in acid 

Redhead, near Newcastle. 
vity of coal, 1-325 ; percentage of ash, ( 



Ferric oxide... 






Sulphuric oxide 


Phosphoric „ 




Ferric oxide... 




Undetermined and 

oss ... -18. 

This sample contained no chlorine. 


Ash of Coal from the Clarence Kiver. 

Percentage of ash in coal, 8-75 ; colour, grey. 

Analysis— nnJra , 

Alumina 22-78 

Ferric oxide 

.. 4-01 

.. 1-26 

Soluble in 




Sulphuric oxide ... 


Phosphoric „ 




•• 6 j>;^ ) Insoluble i 

Undetermined and loss 

" 05 

For comparison with these results samples of the roof and floor 
of the Australian Agricultural Company's seam were obtained 
from Mr. Gregson, who kindly sent me three samples of eacn. 
Of the roofs two specimens were much alike, and consisted ot » 


the third contained so much of this as to be an impure coal con- 
taining 49 per cent, of ash, and was not analyzed further ; ot tne 
floors two specimens were analyzed corresponding to the roo 
specimens : the remaining specimen was very similar in a PPff' 

ance to that marked Old No."l way. The samples were treated ; iu 
exactly the same manner as the coals; the organic matter being 
burnt off at a dull red heat, and in doing so both specimens oi 
the roof burnt with a faintly luminous flickering flame, one or ui 
floor specimens with considerable flame, and the other with none. 

Eoof Galley Way. 
Percentage of organic matter and water, 9-97. 

A u a hj b is of residue — 


.. 6-681 

Ferric oxide ... 

.. 2-77 

Soluble in acid 


Magnesia ... ... 

.. 132 


Sulphuric oxide 


Phosphoric „ 




•• 12-31) Insoluble in acid 


.. 75-56 V 87-87 

Undetermined and loss 

.. -32 


Old No. 1 Way 

Percentage of wa 

ter and organic 

-idae — 



Ferric oxide... 

. ...} 118 

... 1-6 

Magnesia . . . 


Phosphoric oxide 






Galley Way. 

Percentage of organic matter and 

is of residue- 


... 8-26 

Ferric oxide 

... 2-2 

Phosphoric oxide ... 

... -6- 

... 13-5 


... 75-1 

Floor Old No. 1 Way. 
Percentage of organic matter and ' 
Analysis of residue— 

Alumina ... .. 4-88 

Ferric oxide 2'8-t 

Lime -53 

Ma o _ 

Phosphoric oxide . . . 


Silica ".. ". 

Undetermined and loss 

Soluble in acid 

IIH [insoluble in acid 


On glancing at these last four analyses one is struck with the 
fact that the phosphoric oxide seems to increase with the quantity 
of organic matter, and that the quantity of alumina in the soluble 
portion does not bear the same relation to that in the insoluble as 
it does in the coal ashes. The analyses were not made in expecta- 
tion of finding any such difference, but it is believed that the 
times of digestion with acid were in all cases nearly the same. It 
would perhaps be 1 -tter to divi.h the alumina into easily soluble 
and difficultly soluble than si i nluV and insoluble, "as more 

soluble alumina might be obtained by more protracted digestion, 
but in the case of the specimens of floors the insoluble alumina 
required prolonged fusion to obtain it in solution at all. The 
ratio between the insoluble and soluble alumina in the various 
analyses of the northern coals is as follows :— 

A. A. Company... 1:6-5 Wallsend 1:3-4 

Waratah 1:4-8 New Lambton ... liM 

Clarence River ... 1:4-4 Redhead 1:2-7 

Newcastle Co. ... 1:4-2 Roof Galley Way 1 : 0-5 

Co-operative ... 1:3-9 Floor 1:0-6 

Ferndale 1:3-6 „ Old No. 1 Way 1 : 0-4 

These ratios exhibit a surprising difference, and appear to indi- 
cate that the ash constituents of the coal are not derived simply 
from admixture of the material of the floor or roof in an unchanged 
state. Unfortunately the whole of the samples had either been 
used in the analyses or tin..- , i«-i\ I'm this difference was 
observed, so that a more particular examination of this point 
could not be made. 

It has been suggested by Dana 1 that the alumina present in 
coal may have been in some measure derived from the ashes at 
lycopodiaceous plants as lepidodendron, which suggestion he based 
on the observations of Dr. A. Aderholdt and Prof. Church on W 
ashes of various lycopodiums. Alumina found in the ashesot 
plants is generally ascribed to adherent impurity, but in 1852 1* 
Aderholdt 2 found that the ashes of I 

and L. cJamtnm consisted largely of alumina ; thus, in that from 
the first plant free from spores he found 51-85 per cent, and wit 
spores 57-37 per cent.; in that of the second 26-65 per ■ cen* 

These results have 1 „ conh'n.H-d l,y Cliuivh, 3 who, after taiong 

every precaution to remove adherent alumina from the plan*, 
found in L. alpinvm 33-5 percent., in L.clamtnm 15-24 per cent, 
and in L. selago 7 -29 per cent., and also by Salm-HorstmarJ^ 

* J. Pr. Chem., xl, 1 

Sohns-Laubach. 1 The different ratio of soluble to insoluble 
alumina in the coal ashes to that in the roofs and floor appears to 
coincide with this view, as if this earth had been Mmmrfktlri 
by the plants we may readily believe that it would remain more 
easily soluble than that which had not been subjected to such 

Sir Robert Kane 2 in some analyses of the ashes of peat gives — 

Alumina 5-41 379 1-68 

Sand and silicates insoluble in acids 217 2-10 7-68 
and in the first two of these, even if the whole insoluble matter 
was alumina, which is unlikely, the ratio of soluble to insoluble 
would be high. Some of the results obtained from peat ashes by 
Messrs. Kane and Sullivan 3 point in the same direction. 

In none of the published analyses of coal ashes that I have seen 
are the portions soluble and insoluble in acid analysed separately. 
The analyses have evidently been made either by direct fusion with 
alkaline carbonates (or by treatment with hydrofluoric acid), or by 
treatment with hydrochloric acid without further examination of 
the insoluble residue. Neither of these methods could show the 
difference here noticed, and possibly it would not be so noticeable 
if the treatment with acid was persisted in until nothing further 
would dissolve, as alumina in some forms dissolves with extreme 
slowness although solution may ultimately be complete. In the 
extensive series of analyses of British argillaceous iron ores 
from the coal measures by M ler given by Dr. 

Percy, 4 most of which have been made by the double method, it 
is observable that in not a single instance does the soluble alumina 
reach more than about one-f ■ nA very often 

it is only one-tenth. In this respect the alumina in these ores is 
in much the same condition to that observed in the floors and 
roofs, or it is somewhat more insoluble. In connection with this 
matter Prof. W. Thomson, in a paper op the nature of the sea 
bottom in the deeper parts of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans 5 , 
considers that the red clay there found is an organic deposit, being 
a residue of the globigerina ooze from which the carbonate of 
calcium has been removed by solution, and suggests that all or 
many clays may be of similar origin. Church, on the other 
band, regards this red clay as an oxidation product of glauconite, 6 
^hich in its turn is considered by Ehrenberg to consist of 

of Ireland, p. 37. 

Process of the Destructive Di 

: Woods, 1851. 

210 to 220 (1864). 
Proc. Ro y . Soc>> j^ 32 (1874)- 
them. News, xxxi, 199. 

the stony nucL ■' Us of poly thalamus, 1 and if 

this is correct the organic origin of the clay would only be ante- 
dated. All published analyses of clays being made, like those of 
the coal ashes, for other purposes take no notice of the solubility 
of the various constituents, but it seems probable that an exami- 
nation in this direction might throw some light on the subject, 
and I hope shortly to take the matter up. 

The presence of phosphoric oxide in coal ashes is not noticed in 
many published analyses, but as this substance might easily be 
overlooked and determined along with, and as alumina or iron, 
according to the method of analysis employed, its not being in the 
hist of constituents does not necessarily imply its absence, unless 
it is noted as having been looked for. Le Chatelier and Leon 
Durand-Claye 2 have given analyses of French coal ashes, showing 
from 0-2 to 1*5 per cent., and E. Riley 3 has found in Welsh coals 
from 0-21 per cent, to 3 per cent, of phosphoric oxide in the ask 
This substance is evidently a plant residue, and is present in 
notable quantity in the strongly caking northern coals, which con- 
tain a much larger quantity than could be introduced by simple 
intermixture of the material of either the floor or roof, whilst it 
seems unlikely that it could be removed from either source by 
solution and be deposited in the coal. It may be observed, indeed, 
that the quantity present in the roofs and floors of the A. A. 
Company's seam is roughly proportional to the quantity of organic 
matter present, and that in the floor from the galley way the quan- 
tity of this oari l- nearly corresponds to tie 
proportion in the coal itself, and this specimen having the largest 
amount of oxide, the experimental error is reduced. In the asn 
analysis of peat by Sir Robert Kane (loc. cit.), he found tne 
phosphoric oxide to vary from 0-24 to 2-57 per cent., and J^ 
Ronalds 4 found in three samples 2-19-3-56 and 2-82, which sho^ 
that the phosphorus compounds offer very considerable resistance 
to removal by solution under circumstances which are pro ay 
analagous to those under which the coal seams were origim"v 

1 Jahresb. f. Chem. 1854, p. 885. 

2 Bulletin de la Soc. d'Encourag. l'Industrie Nationale, 

3 Percy's Metallurgy Fuel, p. 352. 

» Knapps' Technology, by Ronalds and Richardson, vol. 

Osborne "Wallsend Colliery. 
Specific gravity of coal, 1*404 j percentage of ash, 10' 
Analysis- colour of ^ ^" ey - 

Alumina ... ... ... 30-31 

Ferric oxide. . . ... ... 8-68 

Lime 1-18 I Soluble in 

Magnesia traces. ( 40-51 

Sulphuric oxide -34 

Phosphoric „ ... ... traces. 

Illawarra Coal Company, Mount Pleasant Colliery. 
Specific gravity of coal, 1,354 ; percentage of ash, 8 "76 ; 
Analysis— colour of ash ' &*?• 

Alumina 34-07] 

Undetermined and loss 

Insoluble in acid 

Specific gravity of coal, 1-369 ; percentage of ash, 11-28 ; 
colour of ash, grey. 

Alumina 26-84" 

Ferric oxide 7*95 



Ferric oxide ... 

... 31-56 
... 5-33 


Soluble in acid 

Magnesia ... 



Sulphuric oxide 


Phosphoric „ 



... 3-en 

Ferric oxide... 

. . . traces, f Insoluble in acid 


... 57-41 ( 61-02 

Undetermined and ] 

DSS ... -14 J 



Specific gravity of coa 

, 1-408 ; percentage of ash, 9-40 ; 

y sis — COlOUr 0f 

ash, greyish white. 

Alumina ... 

... 18-61] 

Ferric oxide... 

•" 4 1? I Soluble in acid 

"J2 f 24-00 

Sulphuric oxide . 

■13 1 

Phosphoric „ 


••■ '??) Insoluble in acid 


... 75-05 \ 75 . 87 

Undetermined and ] 

m - '13 j 


With these may be taken the Katoomba coal 
of the ash is similar, and differs from the other Western coa» 
Specific gravity of coal, 1-400 ; percentage of ash, 10O4 J 

Anal,,*!,- C0l0Ur 0f ash ' &' re y ish wMta 

Undetermined and loss 



These ashes distinguish themselves from those of the north in 
containing much less phosphoric oxide ; the average of the former 
giving 1-5 per cent., of the latter 0-22 per cent. The ratio of the 
soluble to the insoluble alumina is greater and the range is also 
greater, especially owing to including the inland coals with thon 
of the coast, which by themselves are tolerably uniform. 

The ratios of insoluble to soluble alumina are : — 


There are no analyses of roofs or floors to compare with these, 
but both, at all events in the case of the last three coals, are 
described as sandstone, and a rock containing so large a quantity 
of alumina as these ashes would scarcely be so described As the 
total alumina varies in them from 35 per cent, to 40 per cent, 
they are richer in that earth than almost any fire-clay. It there- 
fore appears as if the high percentage of alumina, the most of 
which is readily soluble, is again due to an original t ' " 
by the coal-producing plants. 


Vale op Clwydd Colliery. 

J gravity of coal, 1 -328 ; percentage of ash, 


Sulphuric oxide 
Phosphoric „ 

Ferric oxide 


silica ;;; 

Undetermined and loss 

Specific gravity of 

coal, 1-329 ; percentage of ash, 9-8 

colour of ash, grey. 




Ferric oxide... 


Soluble in &> 




Sulphuric oxide 


Phosphoric „ 


Alumina ... 


trace, f Insoluble in 

silica .:: 

6102 f 75-23 

Undetermined and loss ... "15/ 


Lithgow Valley 

Specific gravity of coal, 1-340 ; percentage of ash, 9 '6 

colour of ash, greyish white. 



Ferric oxide... 


... ... '74 

Soluble in a 




►sulphuric oxide 



Alumina ... 

1602 ) W 



r 76-23 

Undetermined and loss 

The ashes of these coals show a notable increase m j ^ 
centage of silica, as compared with those of the other fcewj^ ^ 
they differ also in presenting a much lower ratio or so 
insoluble alumina. The ratios, taking the insoluble as i, as 




The phosphoric oxide is intermediate in quantity &ew^ ^ 
Hunter River and Southern districts, but, if we regar ^ uS 
ditional quantity of insoluble ash as introduced trom ex 
sources, it would more nearly approach the former. 

There still remains to be referred to, the torbanite or kerosene 
mineral, of which New South Wales possesses deposits of incom- 
parable excellence, at Joadja Creek, near Berrima, Hartley, and 
elsewhere. These minerals yield between 70 and 80 per cent, of 
volatile hydrocarbons, and are successfully used both for the pro- 
duction of gas, of which the yield is from eighteen to twenty 
thousand cubic feet, having an illuminating power of about forty 
Queues, and for the products Is and paraffine. 

The seam at Joadja Creek is covered by a thin stratum (9 or 10 
inches) of bitun, • ath there is a 

similar layer of coal of inferior quality, the true floor and roof 
being sandstone rock. The following are analyses of the ash of 
each division of the seam. 

Top Coal. 

Percentage of ash, 6 -71. The ash was slightly pink-coloured 
and very voluminous, indeed it occupies about once and a half or 
I space of any of the other ashes examined, and nearly 

the bulk of the original coal. 

Analysis — 

Alkalies and chlorine 

... 4-05 Soluble in 

... 11-23 

Lhne iC ° Xide 

... 11-55 

Soluble in 

Magnesia ... ... 


Phosphoric oxide . . . 


... 22-15} 

Ferric oxide 

. . . traces. [ Insoluble ii 

... 48-86 ( 71-01 

Undetermined and loss 

... -41 ) 



Percentage of ash, 10*27 

gravity, 1,098; 

Analysis colour of ash, 

greyish white. 


... 14-74 

£^ COxide 

'.'.'. -30 

Soluble in i 


Phosphoric acid ... 



... 5-40^ 

Ferric oxide 

... traces, (insoluble ir 


... 77-12 f 82-51 

Undetermined and loss 


Bottom Goal. 
Percentage of ash, 22 '88 ; ash. very dense, grey coloured. 

Phosphoric 02 
Ferric oxide.. 

The ratios of the insoluble to soluble 



The ash of the upper coal presents in this respect a great 
difference from all the others examined, whilst the other two are 
very similar. On digesting another portio 
these coals with hydrochloi 
6-30 per cent, more of solul 

almost exactly the same result as before. The ratio j 
increased solubility would, however, only be 
shows a marked difference from all the other coais. 

The similarity in composition of the ashes of the t ^ 11 ^ 
those of the various coals, including the presence of a n ° t! L 
quantity of phosphoric oxide, dor + —-* te flC ™ 

bitumen by clay. 1 He found that clay absorbed bltu f*™ e 
matter from petroleum (the quantity is not stated), and be 
black, and as no such absorption took place with finely divided 
silica, concludes that the reaction is due to the alumina. in t 
sample of torbanite the ash only amounts to 10 percent, or ^ 
7 per cent, is silica, and we can scarcely think that the I F ^ .^ 
of alumina would suffice for the condensation of so man) ■ ^ ^ 
own weight of bitumen. It seems probable, rather, ^^ 
mineral has been formed like coal from plants either ot a • 

kind or under peculiar conditions. That the conditions ^fl^ 
tion have something to do with it is borne out by the obse 
of Mr. Fell, who has had much to do wi^heworfangj^ 

ote what a large percentage of ferric oxide is 
required to communicate a decided colour to the ashes, and it 
appears impossible to judge by appearance of the quantity actually 
present. Thus, some of the Newcastle coals with 9 per cent, or 
a little over are decidedly red, whilst the upper Joa.lja Creek 
coal containing 1 1 per cent, had only a faint pink colour. Dr. 
Fr. Muck 1 observes that if coal ashes contain much lime that 
there may be a large quantity of ferric oxide present without 
i-"inrmuiic;itii _ :.- to its being in the form 

'•i calcium ferric silicate. In the ashes of our coals there is very 
little lime, and yet the iron does not communicate nearly the same 
colour that it doe. in otlu r i -ram < s, as, for example, in brick-dust, 
'which is of a very decided red if it contains 10 per cent, of ferric 

Upon the Composition of some New South Wale 

[Head btfon . < jr., 8 December, 1880.] 

The following paper contains the results of an examination into 
the chemical composition of some samples of certain New South 
Wales coals, " kerosene shale," and of one or two carbonaceous 
minerals which, although they cannot properly be classed with the 
coals, yet can conveniently be included in such a paper as this. 

I may mention that most of the samples of the coals were col- 
lected by the officers of the Mining Department and were reported 
upon by me to that Department in 1875. 1 The proportions of 
moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash, coke, and sulphur 
only were then determined, as information upon these points is 
quite sufficient for all ordinary purposes. Shortly at';- rwards, as 
I had the remains of the specimens, I thought it would be 
desirable to determine the ultimate composition, and to ascertain 
the chemical composition of the ashes of these coals. 

I particularly wished to see how the ISTew South Wales coals 
compared with those of Europe, and especially with English coals, 
and to do so ultimate analyses had to be made, i.e., the amount of 
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc., had to be determined ; this of 
course necessitated the expenditure of considerable time and 
trouble, but it enabled me to ascertain how the calorific intensity 
of the fuels, calculated from the percentage amounts of carbon and 
hydrogen, correspond with their evaporative powers as determined 
by means of Thompson's calorimeter. 

The ashes wer ■ it was thought that a 

knowledge of th » ■.., .ul ! 1 ie of service to the 

Qtttrihagut as well as of terest; it is of 

course of great importance to many metallurgists to know the com- 
position of the ash. s of the coal which he uses, since some of the 
constituents may have a bad effect upon the products of his fur- 
ies, and in some cases even render the metal useless for certain 

Methods of Analysis.—! may perhaps mention the methods of 
analysis followed, sine, ' " 

1 Report of the Mining Department, 1 

over similai ground to know -what processes woi . i 1 1 .\ i 
and when it is wished to compare results it is often a great 
advantage to be able to use the same methods The | t>xu&ste 
analyses were made according to the well known process described in 
Crooke's " Select Methods in Chemical Analysis," p. 368, in each 
case upon about 2 grammes of the freshly powdered coal. 

The sulphur was estimal 2 grammes of the 

coals with chlorate of potasl i <\, and then adding 

strong hydrociii ion being largely diluted, fil- 

tered, and precipitated in the ordinary way. 

The specific gravity was determined upon the coal in the form 
of a coarse powder; the powder was allowed to soak in the specific 
gravity bottle, placed in a warm place, until air-bubbles ceased to 
be evolved, when cool the second weighing was proceeded with. 

All the determinations were made in duplicate. 

The carbon and hydrogen were determined by combustion with 
lead chromate in a current of oxygen ; it was found that when 
cupric oxide and a current of oxygen were employed that the carbt ft 
was liable to be understated. The nitrogen was determined in the 
ordinary way by the soda-lime process. 

Cah-nhil^l cnlnnjl,- i„f»„xift/ and ci-<'/>nrutiff }«>v> >:— The 
theoretical evaporative power was determined experimentalfy J 
means of Thompson's calorimeter, for a description of which see 
Dr. Percy's Metalling, vol. i , p :,tl. Tin x vabS »i\«n a^ t » 
means of several experiments. The caloriik- intensity was^caleu- 
lated according to the formula given by the same author, p. RJ ■ 

On examining the two sets of results, *.*, the calculated caloric 
intensity and th ■ power as determined by 

the calorimeter, it will 1 , I hey do not in a 

cases place the coals in the same order— there is no doubt thatotner 
things besides the absolute quantities of carbon, hydrogen, ox ^ 
and ash, influence 1 1 .e pi - du.-tir-n ..f h< x and help to dcternnn* 
the value of a coal— we as yet n ally kno* v. iy little as to W 
the combustible «rhethei 

*...__! ..^v:.,.,^.,,, ;„ diii 

w that there are 

considerable vari I - ' ru« I are of coals, w^ 

must necessarily influence the rate of combustion and the amo 
heat generated. e i s 

It is a well-known fact that many coi 
belonging to the Royal Navy, the great Mail Companies, ana ^ 
Intercolonial lines prefer southern to northern coaJ ' aIt O ort ion 
former contaii i si tnts ige of the greater p F ^ 

of ash is considered to be counterbalanced by the t ■ '■ ;• 
southern coal burns uniformly and does not forma c A^em 

when it is desired to get up steam rapidly, then the ncn 
coal is preferred 


In the report ' to the Mining Department upon the theoretical 
evaporative power of certain coals, I pointed out that " these re- 
sults represent ti ■ r evaporative power of the 
samples, i.e., the weight of water which would be converted into 
steam by the complete combustion of one pound of each of the 
various coals respectively."' 

"It must, however, be clearly understood that the actual heat- 
prodocing or evaporative power of a coal obtained in practice, 
depends very greatly upon the size, construction, and form of both 
furnace and boiler, as well as upon the method of firing or burning, 
and upon many other equally obvious circumstances; it will, 
therefore, be apparent that the 

alike, a-^ was the case in the experimental trials.'' 

Analysis of the Ask— -The ash was prepared for analysis by 
incinerating the powdered coal in a inulll • furnace at a dull red 
heat : in order to obtain, the ash as exprditioudy as possible from 
a fairly large quantity of coal, a tray 10 x 6 xl inch deep, made 
out of stout platinum foil, wi (ration. 

The ash was rendered soluble by direct fusion with the mixed 
alkaline carbonates, and proceeded with in the usual manner for 
silica, alumina, iron, lime, &c. ; the alkalies were determined in 
separate portions b Y Dr. J. Lawrence Smith's process, i.e., by 
fusion with calcium carbonate and ammonium chloride. 

The phosphoric and sulphuric acids were also determined in 
separate portions of tie- ash : as the prop.ation of phosphoric acid, 
where present. itatire tests to be small, 

the nad\ 1 idic a. id pr. >c< - ^ as employed, about two grammes weight 
of ash being taken in duplicate in each case. 


Warataii Colliery. _ 

A good firm, bright coal, i ! li'' >•' lT1 ""» 

''right layers preponderate. Fracture fairly ev. 
euboidal masses. Lavers of fibrous "miiu ral charcoal" or "mother- 
of-coal" in between the bright lavers; these are also to be observed 
in nearly all the other coals. 
Specific gravity, 1 -303. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Moisture 2'21 

Volatile hydrocarbons 36 70 

Fixed carbon 55"82 Coke> 59-97 percent. 

Sulphur I'M 

y Department, - 

Coke.— Good, fin 

Ash. — Loose and flocculent, reddish colour. 

he. — Good, firm, bright and silvery lustre, well swollen up, 
small cauliflower-like excrescenses. 

The calorific intensity calculated from the above is S,271 I 
According to experiments with the calorimeter 1 lb. of this 
would convert 14-3 lbs. of water into steam. 

Soda ... 

• - . 


Nodular Coal— A smooth, rounded, nodule of anthracitic coai 
from the Waratah mine; about 2 inches in diameter, harder 
than the ordinary coal, in whirl. I umlerstand it was found 
embedded — the rounded form is apparently not due to attrition or 
the action of running water; but appears to be of a concretionary 

On being struck with a hammer the massflew to pieces, as if if had 
been in a state of strain or tension; the fragments were smal an 
showed conchoi ! I believe that these noduies 

are sometimes met with of much larger size. 
Specific gravity, 1 -294. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Loss at 100° C -. **f 

Volatile hydrocarbons ••• 32 41 

Fixed carbon - 62-35 

Ash ... i'l 

Sulphur .- ' 19 


It will be noticed that the amount of ash is much less than i 
the ordinary coal from this mine. 

Cardiff Mine, Lake Macquarie. 

A bright, firm, and comp tic coal; whe 

struck emits a cl< t ii: Jn^ — a\A. very unlike the dull sound 
given out by so" ' 

a somewhat splintery and conchoiclal fracture. 

Tough, and does not yield readily to pressure. 

Does not soil the fingers ; no mother-of-coal or mineral charcoal 
observed. When ignited, decrepitates somewhat, and burns with 
but a small amount of flame. 

A few scattered grains of pyrites were observed in the sample, 
but the total amount of sulphur present, as shown by the following 
statement of percentage composition, is below the average :— 
Proximate Analysis* 

VoEemSter° 1S .** '.'.'. '.'.'. ... 43-354 

Sulphur '348 

Fixed carbon 49-486 

Coix.— 54-430 per cent., bright in lustre, and fairly 
wollen up. 
Ash. — Grey, loose ; contaii 


Hygroscopic mois' 

' Report to the Department of Mines, A. Liversidge, 

The calorific intensity calculated from the above results i 
Analysis of Ash. 

Sulphuric 2-255 


The presence of copper is rather an unusual occurrence in coal 
ashes; the copper |>rol.;il>ly « ■ x i - !:■ * 1 ,-is copper pyrites. An exami- 
nation for gold was lu.-iilr upijii i his ash, but without success ; the 
ash from some 30 or 40 lbs. weight of coal was tested. 
Anvil Creek. 
Structure laminated, but compact ; not so much mother-of-coal 
present as in that from the Waratah Mine. Breaks into enhow 
masses. Does not readily soil the fingers. 
Specific gravity, 1-323. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Moisture 174 

Volatile hydro-carbons ... 41-10 

Fixed carbon 47|0 J Coke 5570 per cent 

Sulphur "! '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. 1-46 
Voke.— Good, firm, bright silvery lustre, not much swollen up. 




lb. of this coal \ 

i made upon a specimen from a different 

Made up of alternate bright and dull ] 
lto the other irregularly, giving ■' 
uite distinct from the laminated a 
well defined bright and dull lay 
very brilliant pitchy lustre. Fracture 
Does not soil the fingers. 
Specific gravity, 1-274. 

Proximate Anah/sis. 



* 9 2 .f j Coke, 52-65 per o 

Cohe.~ Good, firm, bright silvery lustre, with cauliflower 

Ash.~ Loose, colour red, but paler than the Waratah coal I 
Dried at 100° C. 

Ultimate Analysis. 

Carbon 77"37 

Hydrogen 6 '^ 8 

Oxygen 10*6 

Sulplur ... 143 

Calculated calorific i 

Soda ... 

similar to the Waratah coal, bu 
lother-of-coal. Does not soil the fingers; streaky j 
Fracture conchoidal across the layers. 
Specific gravity, 1-287. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Coke. — Good, firm, not quite so bright 
rougher in in the grain and more swollen up. 
Ash. — Loose, buff-coloured. 
Dried at 100° 0. 

Ultimate Analysis. 


Calculated calorific intensity, 8,208. 
According to experiments with the calorimeter 1 
rould convert 13-21 lbs. of water into steam. 

A bright coal; laminated structure 
irregular cuboidal fragments. Does not soi 
Contains a little fibrous mineral charcoal, or 

Specific gravity, 1-333. 


Volatile hydro-carbons . . 


"■-2, ( 

Coke— Much the sar 
luHflower-like excresce 

:z: bom 

the Greta 


Of a pinkish 

shade, be 

ng white 


at 100° C. 

Hydrogen . 


Calculated calorific intensity, 8,323. 
According to experiments with the calorimeter 1 
'Ould convert 13-21 lbs. of water into steam. 

']:;., ;-ii..; 

Agricultural Company's Mine, Newcastle. 
Very similar to the Waratah coal, but a shade less bright. 
Breaks into irregular cuboidal fragments. Does not soil the fingers. 
Contains films of mineral charcoal 
Specific gravity, 1-297. 

i Analysis. 

Volatile hydrocarbons 
Fixed carbon 

Sulphur "... 

'.'. :;:;f;(> 

.. -.7-.V2) 
.. 1-33 

Coke 62- 


Coke. — A good firm coke ; 
A ah.- Heavy, white. 
Dried at 100° C. 


very large cauliflower-like excrescenses. 

mate Analysis. 

Hydrogen ... 
Oxygen ... 
Sulphur ... 

Nitrogen ... 


Calculated calorific intensity, 8,235. 
By experiments with the calorimeter '. 
onvert 12-92 lbs. of water into steam. 



Dull lustre, rather strongly laminated ; lamina; of bright coal 
very thin. Does nut soil the' fingers. Fracture is in parts large 

Specific gravity, 1-399. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Volatile hydro-carbons 

... 28-85 

Fixed carbon 

... 1140 

Sulphur '.'.'. 



Coke. — Does not cake ; only a loose a: 

ad incoherent black 

powder left. 

Ash. — Heavy, white. 

Dried at 100° C. 

Ultimate AnaL/sU. 




S$C ::: ::: ::: ::: 


'.'.'. 11-67 

lorific intensity 7,245. 
According to experiments with the calorimeter 1 1 
fould convert 12*65 lbs. of water into steam. 

Phosphoric acid (P a 5 ) 

1 :. ■/:■■ !•:■■ :i 

A good compact 
ot well defined, 
Specific gravity ] 

Proximate Analysis. 


Iro-carbons 33 '55 

Coke. — Fair, but rather tender. 
Ash. — Brilliant white colour. 
Dried at 100° C. 

Ultimate Analyst 

Calculated calorific intensity, 7,426. 
By experiment with the calorimeter 
invert 12-65 lbs. of water into steam. 

Analysis of Ash. 

Yale of Clwydd. 

A compact coal ; rather bright on tl 
layers being fairly numerous | fracture irre,£ 
does not soil the fingers. 

Specific gravity, 1-3! 


o hydro-carl* 

J C oke,63-l8pere 

Coke. — Hard, compact, and fairly lustrous. 
Ash. — Of a very feeble grey tint. 
Dried at 100° C. 

Ultimate Analysis. 


ggSS ::: . .. :.: ::: 

Calculated calorific intensity, 7,138. 

According to experiments with the calorimeter, 1 lb of this coal 
would convert 1210 lbs. of water into steam. 
Analysis of Ash. 

Silica 59-55 

Alumina 3735 

Lithgow Valley. 
Has much the appearance of the Vale of Clwydd coal. Does 
■ot soil the fingers. 
Specific gravity, 1-329. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Moisture 1'95 

Fixed' carbon ". ^ ° nS . 

[Coke, 62 -46 per cent. 

, and fairly 1 


Dried at 100° C. 

Calculated calorific intensity, 7,206. 

According to experiments with the calorimeter, 1 lb of this coal 


Mount Kembla. 
A coal of medium brightness, with laminated struct™ ! «• 
ing with a granular surface in pla 

planes of lamination. The bright layers are tender, and breaKm 
small pieces with conchoidal surfaces. 
Specific gravity 1-363. 

Proximate Aiwlysis. 

Moisture .|jX 

Volatile hydrocarbons ffl'lB 

fore no true 


formed' 8 

Carl.™ 80-67 

Hydrogen 5-30 


nd much swollen up. with cauli- 



Calculated calorific intensity, 7,983. 

According to experiments with the calorimeter, 1 lb. of this 
coal would convert 12-92 lbs. of water into steam. 
Analysis of Ash. 


ish practically s 

, formula A1,0 3 , 2 Si0 2 . 

A good firm coal, but more tender than the others. The ng 
ayors present in fair proportion. 
Specific gravity, 1-364. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Moisture 1"° 

Volatile hydro-carbons ••■ 3278 

F^edcaroon ... ... ... 53;84 J Coke , 64 - 2 4 p« 

Sulphur" '.'.'. '.'.'. ... !' 28 
Coke.— Bright and lustrous ; very much swollen up. 
Ash.— White. 
Dried at 100° C. 


Calculated calorific intensity, 6,653. 

According to experiments with the calorimeter, 1 lb. of this 


A hard, compact, lustrous anthracitic coal, slightly stained in 
parts with iron oxide, which looks as if it had been derived from 
the decomposition of iron pyrites J but, contrary to what was 
expected, hardly a trace of sulphur was found to be present. 
Any pyrites which the ooal contained must 

have practically undergone complete decomposition and removal. 

Anthracitic coals generally occur in places where the coal 
measures have been more or less disturbed or changed, i.e., in 
places where then ntortion of the strata, and 

aiso where there are intrusive metamorphic or igneous rocks. 
-Probably this particular specimen came from a portion of a seam 
y.hich had been affected by one of the intrusions occurring in the 
district. y 

Proximate Analysis. 

Volatile hydro 
Fixed carbon., 
Ash ... 


Calculated calorific intensity, 8,590. 
The ash of this coal was not analysed. 

The following analysis was made by Mr. Richard Smith, d I 
i] Laboratory in the Royal School of Mines, Londo 
it has been recalculated to correspond with the others. 
Specific gravity, 1*471. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Water 10? 

Volatile hy.lro-carl'oiis, &c 23*6o 

Fixed carbon 61*t>l 

The theoretical calorific or evaporative power, thai 

,f w,it,v «,,uvKtMl into .t.-a.,i !■> llb...ftli- ^. Md f^3 

Allora, Queen 

Loss at 100° C. 

lhe coal is bright, with, almost a jet-like lustre ; m parts very 
firm and compact ; free from earthy layers ; does not soil the 
fingers ; breaks with a well marked conchoidal fracture. 

The following tables Nos. 1, 2, and 3 are reproduced from my 
report to the Government, and the remarks up..n them are practi- 
cally the same as thosr which appeared in that report, but with 
WWi alterations as are rendered necessary by the additional 
information yielded by the examination of further specimens. 



— — • 


\ [ 


Mi i «. 



















3 arranged in ord< r, 
ine amount of ash present, the first of the series containing tl 
smallest,^ and the last the largest weight of ash. Wit ! t he - x< . ] 
" *' 9 specimens from Anvil Creek and the Car. 

s that the proportion of fixed carbon fa 
s in the amount of ash — the 

ndergo a corresponding dimini 


ceases with the L™ 

volatile hydro-carbons naturally i 


Speaking generally, the coals which yield a large percentage of 
volatile hydro-carbons may be said to be the best adapted for the 
manufacture of gas. 

It will also be at once apparent that the specific gravity in 
most cases affords a very good indication of the quality of the 
coal. As a general rule, ordinary coals which possess a high 
specific gravity contain a large proportion of ash. 

t is noticeable that the quantity of ash yielded by th 
s is much greater than is yielded by the northen 
; the specific gravity is higher as a rule. 

all the specimens examined is white and dense, 
whereas many of the northern coals yield ashes of a butt or reu 
tint, which are often quite loose and flocculent. 

l opinion that the relative 

of sulphur 

redness of the ash— on the supposition that the whole of the sm 

be approximately estimated 
x™^ COB <m tue asn— on the supposition that the whole of tl 
phur exists in the coal in the form of u 
the case ; on referring to the analyses on the Northern 1M* 
coals, it will be seen that some of the coals which left pure ww 
coloured ashes contained the largest amount of sulpm*, 
that others which left red ashes contained the smallest quanu j 
of sulphur. 

Sulphur may be present in coals in various fom*-«^ < LjJ 
combination with iron as j-vrit.-s, which is the most comma? ^ 
of all— as sulphuri.- .-in'.l n .-..nil.insit ion with tllP 1Il0Iga ?i ta8 b; 
stituents of the coal, such as alumina, lime, magnesia, or p° 
or it may even exist in the form of organic compounds. 

In order that an opinion may be formed with regard to the coals 
of New South Wales, it will perhaps not be amiss to compare them 
with some of those produced in various parts of Great Britain. 

In the first place, the proportion of ash in a coal is a matter of 
the greatest importance ; the value of coal as a fuel depends to a 
great extent upon the smallness of the quantity of non-combustible 
matter which it contains ; if the amount be very large the coal will 
be perfectly worthless j but for some purposes, as Dr. Percy states, 

beneficial in preventing its too rapid < miction in the furnace. 
On this account a kind of co.d mllrd • 1-r.t-d -.' which occurs in the 
middle of the Tenyard coal in South Staffordshire, is preferred for 
reverberatory furnaces by some smelters in Birmingham." 1 
Neither must the quality or chemical composition of the ash be 
neglected, for if the ashes be easily fusible, as they usually are 
when a large quantity of iron is present, they tend to "clinker 
«P" the grate and thus cans • -t. at waste of heat, and the expen- 
diture of much extra time and labour in stoking. 
We have seen that the Northern District coals yield on the 

Nattai, which g 

from 9-70 to 13-17 per cent., and i 

Percentage of Ash. 
Northern Coal-fields of ) * g ^ 

Western Coal-field's "of ) g -g4 

Southern Coal-fields of ) 

1 Percy's Metallurgy, vol i., p. 280. 

Now English Newcastle king coal contains 

from 0-79 to 2*49 per cent, ash (see Percy's Metallurgy, vol. i„ 
p. 99), and averages 1-68. The Nottinghamshire contains 3-9 
per cent., and coal from T>1 , i -~ i i \\ I m,^ :'iil[i] 

cent. English non-coking coals run rather higher ; thus South 
Staffordshire coal varies from 1-55 to 6-44, and South Wales 
from 1-20 to 7 -18 ; Scotch coals from 1-43 to 6-75 ; so that as far 
as the proportion of ash is concerned, some of our Northern coal 
is quite equal to the Welsh and Scotch coals, and but little 
inferior to the English Newcastle coal. 

A matter to which it is necessary to pay careful attention b 

the proportion of sulphur present in a coal. The presence of a 

large amount of this element not only renders the use of the coal 

unpleasant for domestic purposes, but makes it useless for most 

ballurgical operations. 

The quantity of sulphur existing in the Xew South Wales coals 
is by no means excessive, and (hoy will in this respect compare 
not unfavourably with those of other countries. 

Percentage of Sn lj>h ut: 

Playfai and De la Beche found during their \ 
the English Government, that the mean percentage of sulpiwr 
was as follows : — 

Lancashire 1*42 „ ,. 

Scotland 1-45 „ ,, 

Most of the secondary and tertiary coals, on the " tll j ' r ' 

contain a larger proportion of sulphur, usually two or tlnee 

sometimes as much as even 5-0 or 6 - per cent. 

Composition of the AsJies.— -In the table showing the P erce ^ of the ashes it will l)e noticeable there a" « rre 

ferences in the amounts of silica,, alumina, ai 

Some of the ashes, however, in the different 

fairly well together, and although the saiiq>l< 

districts, yet it maybe that they are from 
t 1 Vide Percy's "Metallurgy/ 

same seam. The composition of the ashes as wrll as of the coals 

one with the other, i.e., assist in ■!< termining their positions in a 
geological section of tlie whole of the coal measures as developed 
in different parts of the Colony. Judging from the composition 
of the ashes, one would be i : only do certain 

of the coals in each district come from the same seam, l>nt that 
the western coals from Vale of Clwydd and Lithgow Valley belong 
to the same horizon as the southern coal from Berrima; but much 
importance cannot be attached to this matter, certainly it would 
never do to allow the analysis of one specimen only from a given 
seam, to have much influence, for although a sample of coal may 
appear to be free fro, a foreign substances and to look perfectly 
uniform to the eye— in fact appear to be homogenous throughout — 
yet on analysis "it is nearly always found that the different parts 
of one and the same piece yield different proportions of ash, 
carbon, hydrogen, &c. Hence* if different portions of the same 
lump vary we may naluralh e\ : t!i unples taken from 

different parts of the seam should also vary. But in spite of minor 
variations in different specimens of coal from any given seam 
we find that on the average the coal will have a fairly uniform 
composition : to obtain uniform and trulv representative samples 
portions should be taken of the whole thickness of the seam from 
different parts of the working face. It would be well to take some 
tons weight of t ; be broken up into pieces of 

moderate size and well mixed. From this heap portions should 
then be removed, in radial lines cutting down to the centre, and 
thrown into a sn> ights; after this 

smaller heap has been well mi -uain removed 

radially and a third time well mixed; this List could then doubt- 
less be regarded as a true sample and not a mere specimen, as 
a single lump of coal must necessarily be. Too much care cannot 
possibly be taken o\ er ttu i wn of samples. 


















tills ill 















The name "kerosene shale" is not at all appropriate. The mineral 
does not possess t tie, i.e., it has not the charac- 

teristic lamellar or platv structure of a shale. Hand specimens 
are almost alwi E stra ification, but occa- 

sionally indications can be seen where the mineral is in the form 
of sufficienth Ln _• M -. o In u it is < ^, ' \ but even then the 
planes of str a1 le by the presence 

of layers or rihns of earthy matter. Near the top and bottom of 
the deposits the stratification layers are, however, usually better 
marked — i.e., where the shale merges into the roof and floor. 

The so called " kerosene shale " does not differ very widely from 
cannel coal and torbanite. Like cannel coal, it usually appeal* to 
occur with ordinary coal in the form of lenticular deposits. Like 
cannel coal also, when of good quality it burns readily without 
melting, and emits a luminous smoky flame. When heated in a 
tube it^neither decrepitates nor fuses, but a mixture of gaseous 
and liquid hydro carbons distils over. 

In colour it varies from a brown-black, at times with a greenish 
shade, to full black. The lustre varies from resinous to dull. The 
fracture is usually broad conchoidal, but the concavities are some- 
times very deep in proportion to their breadth, and at times 1 : u 
flexible concave-convex strips can be detached. V- 
emits a dull wooden sound. The powder is light brown to grey | 
the streak shining. It usually weathers to a light grey colo ? r ' 
and the trarfat ated with a white 

film. . ^ 

It is easily cut into sh;a ings. Thin sections ti 
scope present a reticulated appearance. The network " *"JJ 
and opaque, enclosing brown and amber-coloured translucen 
particles. . ,, 

Prof. Silliman has proposed the name of II' 
mineral ; but this has not come into general use, neither ^f 1 
appropriate name, -im-e tie- q»e. imen sent to him was no r 
Wollongong, but from Hartley. All the Wollongong oil swu 
which I have seen are of quite a different character ; ™ey 
true black carbenaee,,,, I lammation, «J« 

often contain f . !„■ fronds of the glossopteru, 

No chemical examination has yet been made of any of ^^ 

100 000 

The ash is of a grey colour, with a Blight redlish tin-". 
2. A second specimen had a sp. gr. of 1*054. 
Proximate Ana hjs is. 
Volatile hydro-carbons '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. 83'861 

In this case the ash was practically white. 

3. A third specimen from the same locality gave the f 

Specific gravity, 1-229. 

Proximate Analysis. 

h A specimen from Murrurundi, of 

colour, but spotted with small spooks 

stance, gave the following results :— 

Proximate Ana, 

Sulphur Z 

Ultimate Analysis. 


Oxygen and nitrogen 


5. From the Greta Mine. This also contains small specks of 
arhite clay. 
Specific gravity, 1 -1 3. 

Proximate Analysis. 

Loss at 100° C 

Volatile hydro-carbons 

Fixed carbon 

Phosphoric t 

Another sample from the Greta Mine gave the following 

Proximate Analysis. 
Loss at 100° C -48 

7. From the central part of a i 
tm, where it is most free froi 

i Agricultural Society's Show, 

Specific gravity, 1-052. 

Ultimate Analysis. 
Dried at 100° C. 


The following analyses of Torbanite, Cannel Coal, and Albertite 
were expressly made to see how they compare in composition with 
the New South Wales kerosene shale : — 
Torbane Sill, Edinburgh. 
8. Black brown colour, light brown streak, flat conchoidal fracture. 
Scattered over with minute glistening particles. 
Specific gravity, 

Proximate Analysis. 

Loss at 100° C '720 

Volatile hydro-carbons, &c 69-695 

Fixed carbon .. 9"045 

Ash (white) 20-540 

; form a coke — a black powder only i: 

Cannel Coal. 
Wigan, England. 
9. Black, well marked co lining streak and 

black powder. 

Specific gravity, 1 -259. 

Proximate A nalysis. 

LossatlOO°C 1-464 

Volatile hydro-carbons, &c. .. ... 45 900 

?!T dcarb0n ^J?! 52-636 cob 

right lustrous coke is left, 

100 000 
what cauliflower-like i 


Specific gravity, 1 -105. 

I'ro.r'uiuif' A nfihjsis 
Volatile hydro-carbons, &c. ... 

The ash is of a very pale brown colour. 
The coke is highly lustrous, much swollen, hollow, like a 
with smooth outward surface. 


— - 

Kerosene Shales" co 








111 .s«. 



Canncioal'/Wiaaii:: '.'.'.'.'.'. 







-Waratah Mm. 

Amongst the specimens in the University collection is a piece 
of grey-coloured shale containing a curious more or less rectangu- 
lar pipe-like perforation filled with a carbonaceous mineral. 

There is no history to this specimen, but it is labelled "over the 
Waratah seam," hence it doubtless came from the colliery of that 

The mineral is jet black, highly lustrous, very brittle, breaking 
into long more or less regular four-sided prismatic pieces. These 
prisms run at right angles to two of the walls of the pipe. 
The cross fracture is conchoidal — the powder or streak is black. 

The powdered mineral is insoluble in alcohol, buralphide ol 
carbon, benzol, ether, ammonia, caustic soda, and sodium hyposul- 
phite, but it is partly soluble in boiling nitric acid, yielding a brown 


Loss at 100° C 

Volatile hydro-carbons &c. 
Fixed carbon 

ihe ash is of a rich brown colour, light and spongy. N" 
coke is found ; the residue is fritted together and slightly s 

Hydrogen . 

suipK ; 

whnl v qUlte agree with an F described mineral, but on the 

mT lt seems to resemble albertite more closely than any other, 
ne composition does not yield a satisfactory formula. It is 
pernaps unnecessary to make a new mineral species of this sub- 

)rm of adipocere. 
Found between Twofold Bay and Brogo. 
Dried at 100° C. 

i when pressed. Probably t 

isfactory formula. 

On some New South Wales Minerals. 

[Bead before the 7, 

In the form of fibrous masses, made up of long, acicular 
crystals, white, silky lustre, like satin spar. Found as an 
efflorescence in a sandstone cave near Wallerawang ; it is very 
commonly met with elsewhere in the caves and under overhanging 
ledges of the sandstone rocks of the Colony. 

100 000 

The formula for the above is practically A1 2 3 3S0 3 + 18H 2 0. 
Another specimen from the same place was found to contain a 
notable quantity of magnesium sulphate. 


Andradite— Common Garnet. 
Found associated with magnetite at Wallerawang ; of a brown 
owour rather dull. Crystallized in rhombic dodekahedra. Coni- 
ne the compos i { garnet with the massive. — 
*oee magnetite from Wallerawang.) 



Crystallized in ?-,i-ii,u - d <jn-nu\>s of - jo.. I' aeh-ular crystals. Dark 
olive-green, colour, vitreous lus re, apple-green streak, translucent 
New South Wales ; hut exact locality unknown. 

Water lost at 105° "536 

., combined direct 13-955 

Copper oxide 64709 

Copper chloride 13218 

Sihca and insoluble matter 7 "599 


Hydratetl carbonate of bismuth, in the form of dull g»y 
or white earthy-looking rolled fragments— usually about the 
size of a pea, but sometimes larger pieces are found. i>re ■ 
with a dull earthy fracture. Found with the stream tmove 
most parts of the New England tin district. From Pond s trees. 
Hardness = 3 to 4. 

Silica .. 4-695 
Bismuth fcrioride fBLOA." 76«? 

cimen of opaque | 

>al. Adheres strongly to the tongue. Hardness 5-6. 

3 Tumut River. 

,, combined ... 
Alumina and traces o 

100 000 

3 difficulty of < 


Found in veins in the basalt at Two-mile Flat, near Mudgee. 
Of a pistachio-green colour — earthy, somewhat fibrous in parts, 
looks like ad ;. Friable ; fracture and 

splintery to earthy H 2-3 Sp gi 1W Yields green 
powder. Emits an argillaceous odour when breathed upon. 
Before the blowpipe ,.. d. < - i.-it fiw . becomes magnetic. 
With hydrochloric acid is decomposed, silica being left. Does not 




v in a dark grey porphy- 

A massive specimen, of a bluish-green colour—] 
outside than within. Breaks with' a somewhat i 
-tare. Brought from Wheeo as a specin 
Hardness = 4. Sr. <rr. 2-37 to 2 -43. 

From near Mudgee ; of a rich dark brown colour ; translucent. 

Imperfectly crystallized in groups of large rhombic dodekahedra. 


Manganese protoxide 


Black : brittle : conchoidal fracture j black streak on pag 

Somewhat greasy feel; does not adhere to the tongue, bo*, 

■ lied by nail, leaving shiny streak. T> orr i ra a. 

Collected by Mr. 0. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., from near tferruu 


Water lost at 105° C .JJg 

IL ™ ATITR - w , inirregu 

The following analysis was made upon i 

i specimen collected 

the neighbourhood of Sydney. 

Sp. gr. 449. 


Water lost at 105° C 



... 90-555 



e above results show the specimen to be an extremely good 

Haematite, Brown. 
massive form, dark brown to pitchy black colour ; brown 
c. Somewhat vesicular in places. 
Dm the neighbourhood of Jamberoo. 
. gr. 3-52. 

Hematite, Brown. 
In the massive form. Found with the titaniferous iron < 


tat 100° C 

nbined, by difference 

Manganese protoxide 



Alight grey, sub-translucent mineral, which breaks in places 
something like a very fine-grained quartzite or jade, with somewhat 
conchoidal surface ; in other places there is a fibrous structure due 
to the presence of bright acicular crystals. The weathered por- 
tions are stained brown with oxide of iron, and show the cavities 
left by fossils. It seems to have be< a 
shells of spirifera. 

Collected by Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., on theMudgeeKoad. 

Partly soluble in acid. 

Extremely tough. Hardness 6-7. Sp. gr. 3 003. 


The sedimentary rock in which the fossils were originally em- 
bedded must have been highly metamorphosed to account for the 

-'■v of th<> matrix. Th<- formula is practically 
2(§CaOjMgO)3Si0 2 . 

An irregular piece, about U inch long by 1 inch wide, and about 
j to -A- of an inch thick, with rough surface, as if it had filled a 
jagged crevice, coated on th i . o earthy matter, 

mixed with much oxide of lead of a brilliant red colour. The 
edges were slightly rounded as if waterworn. Did not look at all 
as if it had been reduced artificially or had been derived from 
bullets or sources of that kind. 

The majority of the specimens of native lead which have been 
brought to me from time to time have usually been derived trom 
bullets, which have found their way into the river gravel, &a, and 
have been found by the miners when washing for gold. 

Weight = 32 grammes. Found near Gundagai. 


Slightly crystalline, of a grey colour, with a few thin streaks of 
a lighter colour. Small ,,„.-h\-. of a pale green mineral can t* 
detected m parts, something like glauconite in appearance. 

Contains a considerable amount of impurity, and leaves a notice 
able residue when decomposed with hydrochloric acid. 

S'ERALS. 219 

. gr. 2-679. 


Water lost at 105° C 

„ combined 

Silica and substances in- 

A variety of haematite known as clay bawl iron ore, from 
Wallerawang, taken from the uppermost band. 1 

This specimen was taken from the outcrop of the seam, and has 
probably been subjected to bush fires, since the pr-pnvti.m of 
water is far less than is required ; and moreover the mineral con- 
tains a trace of magnetic iron, and yields a dark chocolate powder 
instead of the usual yellow-coloured one. 

Clay Band No. 1.— Wallerawang. 

Clay Band No. 2.— Wallerawang 


Water lost at 100° C 1-3 

Iron protoxide . . . 

,, sesqnioxide 
Manganese protoxic 

■46 } =54-46 % 
77-29 [ metallic i 

Clay Band, Jamberoo. 

Clay band iron ore from Jamberoo ; of a dark reddish browr 
colour ; looks very much like a clay or shale, which in fact it 
really is. Has a somewhat laminated structure ; breaks witn 
flat conchoidal fracture, with dull earthy surfaces. 

Sp. gr. 2-73. 

Water lost at 105° C. 

new south wales minerals. 221 

Limonite Concretions. 

In the form of small concretionary nodules, some of which are 
as spherical as marbles, in other cases they are more or less 
elongated ; or two or three of the globular forms may be joined 
together. Some possess a curiously wrinkled or corrugated sur- 
face, but most are quite smooth but not polished, the material 
being rather soft. On breaking them open they are seen to have 
traces of a concentric structure ; the outer portions occasionally 
present indications of a radiate fibrous structure also. The 
hydrated oxide of iron seems to have been originally diffused 
through an impure carbonate of lime and magnesia ; then to have 
segregated together into these concretionary forms, for occasionally 
the nodules are met with enclosed in such a matrix. 1 

Hardness, 3-4 ; Sp. gr., 3-52. The streak or powder is yellow. 

Water lost at 105° ... ' 3173 

„ combined 7304 



XT sia 



From a vein at Wallerawang 

• where the magnetite is associated 

with a vein stuff or matrix mainly composed of a ferruginous 

garnet. 2 The following analysis was 

m.n !•• 

mixture of the two minerals as 

they occ 

ax m 1 

Water lost at 100° C. 



„ soluble '.'.". 


Iron protoxide ... 

5574 \ metallic iron 

Manganese protoxide 





Phosphoric acid ... 

Carbonic acid 


Iron and Coal Deposit 

The finely divided ore was then separated by means of a magnet, 
he magnetic and non-magnetic parts then examined separately. 

The portion removed by the magnet amounted to 56%, but as 

pill be seen by t! it was found impossible by 

his means to obtain the magnetite quite free from the vein stuff. 


Sulphur ... 
Carbonic acid 

for the iron-lime-garnet, 3 CaO,2 Si0 3 + Fe,0 3 , Si0 2 . 

Hausmannite. 1 
A hard compact mineral, with a very minute crystalline strn 
ture ; strikes fire with steel ; fracture conchoidal ; of a dai 
iron-grey colour. Found in the Wellington district. 
Sp. gr. 6-466 ; hardness, 6-5. 

Soluble in hot strong hydrochloric acid, with evolution < 
chlorine, a residue of white silica being left. 

Silica ll;778 



,-,o- 1 ■:■> 

This mineral is one of unusual hardness and specific S^jf^ 
one consisting essentially of the oxides of manganese. i™ ^ 
is probably present merely as an impurity in combinatio 

A variety of titaniferous iron ore. From near Uralla ; f 
he river deposits, by miners working for gold ; in the i 

The iron exists in the form of both protoxide and sesquioxide, 
be former being present in the larger quantity. As it is difficult 
o determine accurately the amount of protoxide in a difficultly 
loluble mineral such as this, tl e total iron has been stated as 
netallic iron, and the oxygen estimated by difference. 

The alumina and silica doubtless exist in combination u silicate. 

Water lost at 100°C. 

„ protoxide 

Manganese protoxide 

Potash W 


Massive, -with a portion of a crystal s 

amber colour, translucent, ivdiinu* lu.-tiv, brittlo. .-i-lmt.' 

fracture. Hardness, 4-5; sp. gr. 6-097. Associ 

green chloritic vein stuff. From the Victoria Reel Gold Mil 


The following analysis was made for me by Dr. Helms :- 

3 correspond to the formula CaW0 4 . 

Phosphoric acid 
< 'arbonic acid 

from the Jupiter Mine, Vegetable Creek, 

Stannic oxide (Sn0 3 ) 
Titanic acid (TiO a ) 


Of the usual bronzy-black colour, sub-metallic lustre ; opaque ; 
lamellar structure, only traces of crystal faces. Found in quartz 
veins with tin-stone, Inverell. 



A pink schistose mineral was found embedded in the slates and 
other rocks at the S.E. corner of Rocky Ridge, by the late Dr. 
Thomson, Professor of Geology in the University of Sydney, and 
Mr. Norman Taylor. 1 

The mineral is somewhat friable, earthy and meagre to the 
touch j emits an argillaceous odour when breathed upon ; adheres 
to the tongue ; is decomposed by hydrochloric acid with separa- 
tion of granular silica ; yields a very pleasing bright pink-coloured 
powder j before the blow-pipe does not fuse, but darkens slightly ; 
heated in a tube it evolves moisture, darkens, but re-acquires its 
original colour on cooling. As the mineral is evidently only a 
non-crystallized decomposition product it is unnecessary to give it 


1 ^ Mudgee Diamond Fields, by Thomson and Taylor. Jour. 

Notes upon some Minerals from New Caledonia. 

By A. Liversidge, Associate R. S. Mines, Professor of Geology 

and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. 

[Bead be/ore the Royal Society o/N.S. W., 1 September, 1880.] 

The following notes and analyses have been made upon some 
minerals which \m re kindly placed at nn disp .sal l>\ Mr. Pryor, 
F.G.S., Manager of the Balade Copper Mine, Ouegoa, New Cale- 
donia, Mr. Bossiter of Noumea, Mr. Douglas Dixon, late of 
Sydney, and other friends. My thanks are especially due to Mr. 
Pryor, who has evidently been at very great pains to collect goodand 
typical specimens for me, as well as to send trustworthy informa- 
tion as to localities, mode of occurrence, and other similar matters. 
I should mention that this paper is intended to be merely a 
description of the particular specimens received, and as far as I 
have yet been able to work upon them ; it is not meant to be a 
general account of the minerals of New Caledonia. 

Disseminated in fine Lira ins and [.articles through a mica-schist 
much stained with red oxide of iron ; in parts of the rock pseu- 
domorphous cubi idant, apparently left by the 

removal of crystals of iron pyrites ; the red colour of much of the 
schist is probably due to the decomposition of the pyrites, sesqui- 
oxide of iron has been form- sh was doubtless 

held by the pyrites, set free. 

i ;etimes mistaken by miners 
for red oxide of copper, and for gossan. 

Cold is also met with in a talcose schist with quartz. 

Locality : Fern Hill Mine, Man-lime, Diuhot River; also in 
auriferous pyrites at Niengneue. 


Native Copper. — As irregular strings and thin plates, filling 
the joints in rotten and much fissured quartz veins ; most of 
the fissures are about half an inch apart, and more or less at right 

^ opper Gossan— Of the usual character 
earthy red oxide of iron, containing a trace 
more or less quartz. 

Balade and Sentinelle Mines. 

at the Balade and Sentinelle Mines. The specimens received 
from Mr. Piyor are mixed with streaks of the green carbonate of 

Tenorite. — The black oxide of copper occurs at the Balade mine 
in the form of a loose black powder intimately associated with 
copper pyrites. 

Sulphate of Copper.— From the Balade Mine, where it is met 
with on the outcrop of the lode in the form of beautiful pale blue 
crystals — some distinct : bin in other specimens the crystals are 
very small and arranged in mammillated aggregations. 

Malachite. — The green hydrated carbonate of copper ; most of 
the specimens from the Balade mine merely show it as a coating, 
or sparingly diffused through the mica-schist ; some are more 
massive, but friable and more or less earthy, but none sufficiently 
compact to present the usual characteristics of the typical mala- 
chite. It is also found at Goundolai, Diahot River, associated 
with cuprite and other ores of copper. Also Sentinelle Mine, 

Chessylite.— The blue hydrated carbonate of copper ; occurs with 
other copper ores at the Sentinelle mine, Diahot River, situated 
about 2 miles from the Port of Pam, and 17 from the 
Balade mine. Some of the chessylite is in the form of nodular 

crystallized mass,-.,. with a .■•■ .1 internal structure, associated 

with a white kaolin-like clav, presenting very much the same 
appearance as the chessylite from the Cobar mine, and apparently 

RedrHt/ute.—Oo VV pr glance or the grey subsulphide of copper; 
massive, of very good quality, associated with cuprite. 

Bornite.— The variegated or purple sulphide of copper and iron 
also occurs at the Balade mine : of a bronze colour, massive an 
of good quality. 

Chalcopyrites.— This, the common form of copper pyn** 
appears to be very abundant at the Balade mine and otg 
quality. It occurs both massive and in the form of small strings ^ 
layers running through a mica schist, in much the same /^ 
we often find layers of quartz under similar cll ' cum , staQC ^ v . , aa to 
mica-schist is often very much contorted, and in such a * y 
present a very pretty wavy silky lustre. . . fi sS ures. 

The chalcopyrites is also occasionally met with Imm S are 
One or two of the specimens kindly sent to me by Mr. rT L^ 
fairly well crystallized, the form being in one case the spneno 


curved faces ; in the other specimens, also from the Balade mine, 
the crystals are smaller ' : : urting of groups 

of tetragonal pyramids combined .vitli faces of the secondary prism 
and the hasal pinacoid. 

Most of the specimens of chalcopyrites received from the 
Balade mine would be described by miners as peacock copper, on 
account of the iridiscenl ■ present. 

Associated with the copper pyrites are the minerals quart*, both 
opaque white and tramdueeur, ealcite, dolomite (ferruginous), 
passing into siderite, the carbonate of iron, chlorite, magnetite, 
pyrrhotine, iron pyrites, and others ; one of the most interesting 
is perhaps the white tine-grained crystalline marble, closely 
resembling statuary marble in appearance ; it is very unusual for 
marble to appear under sir A ■ i s however 

very commonly met wdth in mineral veins. Some of the frag- 
ments of lmu-l.le are quite small, and are almost completely sur- 
rounded by the co] urply defined boundaries, 
just as if lump, of i ibh ] I mlh'ii into the vein and had been 
S .-con in led by ore. 

Mr. Pryor st ; it H 8, and dolomite 

are only found when the bed between lamina; 

of the strata are in actual contact with the copper deposits ; they 
then not unfrequently form the upper or under boundaries of the 
ore deposits. At the point of contact he has observed also that 
the opaque white qi aia generally grrea way to the transparent 

In speaking of the deposits of copper ore at the Balade mine, 
Mr. Pryor says :— " The deposits consist of compact yellow copper 
ore almost free from any kind of gangue whatever. Quartz even 
is only found in quantity upon the coming in or going out of ore, 

also noteworthy that no cavities or hollows are found in these 
"pipes" of mineral, and this circumstance accounts for there being 
no crystals of any kind, except a few very small ones of ealcite 
and chalcopyrite which line the faces of some of the joints. These 
joints extend uni and ore at the 

same angle, which varies from 40° N. in the smaller to vertical in 
the larger ones, and the two faults, while their strike is approxi- 
mately the same. re be referred to the same 
system of fracture. Another series of joints— merely divisions m 
the rock— occur however, and these dip S. but are not repre 
sented in the deposits. 

To give you an idea of the geological formation of the district, 
■1 have collect.-; -ative of the various meta- 

morphic rocks which are met with in ascending the mountains a 
N. or trans* -tance of about 2y u 

* where the deposits of copper crop c 




This chain of hills attains its greatest altitude at this point, 
where it is 2,500 feet above sea-level, and extends about 30 
miles E. and 10 W. with a general strike E. 27° S. There are 
being worked at present five distinct pipes of ore, S. 41.V W. with 
remarkable regularity at an angle varying from 20° to 45°. On 
some future occasion I hope to furnish you with a description of 
--gular formations and observations thereon, i 

crystals of amphibole, occur abundantly in these r , . 

found none larger than those sent you. " Th. ,-r\ st ils of tit mih ruin 
iron and magnetite are not so plentiful apparently, at least 
on the surface, from whence I procured nearly all the specimens 
of rocks. About f of a mile to the east of this mine, there appear 
to be either intrusive masses or dykes of serpentine (judging from 

of chrysolite and asbestos, while the enclosing country is talcose 

Galena.— The sulphide of lead ; from Coumac, in masses with 
a finely granular structure, reputed to be highly argentiferous ; 
the specimen given to me by Mr. Rossiter contained hut a small 
quantity of silver. 

Zinc blmde.—The sulphide of zinc : specimens from Coumac 
and the Baie Lebris, said to be argentiferous, are black in colour, 
ch stained wi» 
oxide of iron. 

Aiifiumtite.—Tlw sulphide of antimony ; a fine specimen of the 
ma^ive variety from Nakety, on the East Coast, with coarselv- 
bladed structure like much of the Borneo ore, was contained in 
Mr. Rossiter's collection. 

The specimen is coated in part with yellow oxide of anti- 
mony, to the thickness of about half an inch. 
Rutile.— The dioxide of titanium TiO, . . 

' i incompletely developed prisms, much striated, ot 
' i most cases the prisms i 
admit of n 

dark hair brown colour ; in' m<M n,-s i\,- prisms are much flat- 
partly embedded, and not sufficiently well-formed t 
measurements being made with the goniometer. 
In another specimen long, slender translucent reddish -brow: 
"y>t" K of rutile penetrate through and through 
crystal. Some of the crj ' 
Ouegoa, Diahot River! 

crystals are bent and broken. 

M. Jules Gamier seems to have been the first to die 
ence of a nickel-bearing mineral in New Caledonia : b 
it as i-ir bark as 1S01 and made his discovery pi 
but he did not, apparently, make any iuwstig; 
i la o i, ■! 1 1 i • ! in question : 

Gamier placed so 

In a letter to the 
January 6th, 1875, upon the miners 
lated and quoted by the late Rev. 

discovery as follows : — 

"I have recorded this in my journal, 24th September, 1864 :— 
Continuing to ascend the river of Dumbea : the rocks which I meet 
with are little variable, they are amphibolitic and often hold 
chromate of iron ; the rock is'also a e< nipani I ly a green matter 
which sticks to the surfac ■ i icki 1. Moreov, r it was one of the 
first steps in the country to announce nickel. I sent specimens of 
it to the Rev. W. B. Clarke, as he has had the g<..»ln.— to slate 
in his letter. I did not then give the descriptions, waiting for the 
definite work which I could only make in a place where I could be 
aided by the light of clever experiments, and also wii 
for investigation that I lacked in the Colony. It was Mons. 
Jannettaz, mineralogist at the Museum, who was so good as to 
analyse this green substance, which was thought mi^it a 
chrome in a cer r ■ ' we might judge 

by the abundan. ks. The analyse 

of Mons. Jannettaz gave me satisfaction. It was really that of nickel, 
and I was then able to say, in my < Geology of New Caledonia, 
P- 85 (1867):— 'It w,.uld be hiL'hlv interesting to study more 
completely the deposits of nickel, &c 

In 1869 I again wrote :— " The serpentines and in a general way 
of the rest, all the rocks which accompany them are often covered 
with a coatin- • \ U is nothing but plicate <;t 

nickel, alumina, and magnesia, * * * The nickel in this 
condition is so al $rt to hope to find one day a 

workable deposit of it." (Bulletin de Flndustrie Mmerale, p. dUl, 
tome XV.) 

From the above it does not appear that M. Jannettaz made a com- 
plete analysis of the mineral : he merely ascertained its compo- 
itatively. . , 

Since my previous analysis of the nickel-bearing minerals rrom 
^ew Caledonia 3 I have had opportunities to^xamme^ajvery 

1 Geol. Nouv. Cal., p. 85, J. Gamier, 1867. 
Jour. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., vol. IX, p. 47. , . , T - ov=lV w 

d A new nickel- A \ L : \-V 

Caledonia, by A Boc, K.8.W., lb A. 

large number of specimens from different deposits in New 
Caledonia and especially of the one nam* d Xon.n^nb: : the variety 
known as Garnierite does not appear to be at all abundant, nor does 
it appear to be of much importance to the mineralogist. 

Both varieties lose a portion of their o-mbiued waters when 
heated to 100°C. ; the amount is variable in different specimens. 

Nountt uti\ — No ei'j, tallizt d sp cimens appear yet to have been 
met with : the mineral appears to be completely amorphous, not even 
a crystalline structure being recognizable, unless the fibrous appear- 
ance of some be regarded as such ; it occurs in massive pieces, in 
botryoidal and si u stations with smooth mam- 

mill \n d -,ip tie *, in hi tt 1 i ) ,ses, as the cementing material of 

serpentine breccias, also as concretions, and in di<- 1 w . e fun. with 

; '■. • . " ■ . ,• -;->.-' , ■■■-■. 

polished conca . < h afit into one another somewhat 

like the petals of an unopened flower-bud : tins kind of structure 
is very often seen in mineral veins of all kinds and in their walls 
also where there is a slickenside or miroir. < >ce:i donally it is found 
invested with a drusy coat of small sparkling quartz crystals. 

In hardness ai . ., . it. aom times l.eiiu 

quite soft and brittle, crumbling between the fingers, and in other 
cases both hard enough and tough enough to be cut into orna- 
ments. These harder varieties take a xrry fair polish, and. rival 
malachite in beauty and effect. At the Paris E 
Messrs. Christofle had some beautiful polished samples, including 

very palest tinge, through apple green to a full rich malae. 
green ; the very pale varieties apparently seem to be nothing mure 
than a hydra t , ore or less charged with sili- 

cate of nickel. Some of the pale variety , alth >ttgh nut hard, ai* 
from their great toughness extremely difficult to powder. 

One specimen of noumeaite from Mont d'Or passes on one a 
into a layer of pale green jade like m in 

ing fracture and ]„, -.--in v. a hardness of rather more than 0, 
otherwise resembling jade. This layer had apparently been m 
tact with the walls of the vein and had somewhat the appearance of a 

copper. h , m 

Th, folio ng malv numbered f, m 1 to 7, ^[^J^fc; 


No. 1. Light green coloured specimens, showing petaloidal 
structure ; from the Bel Air Mine, Ouailou, East Coast, 

Alumina ) 

Iron sesquioxide \ 
Nickel protoxide 

99-60 Leibius 99'57 100-00 9937 

c and d the first portion of the water was driven off at 
astead of at 100°C. 
, A pale variety, very tough, from the same large block. 

iVa+pr lrvst at 100° O 12 "71 U" 2 8 

Swfwater.. Z 9'26 10-37 (by difference) 

No. 3. A dark translucent green, brittle, botryoidalo 
form from Boa Kaine mine, Kanala. 

Nickel pi 


Another specimen of this, 1 

No. 4. Of a rich green c< bh lighter portions, 

brecciated and showing a striated and fluted surface next to the 
walls of the vein, somewhat like a slickenside in appearance j the 
specimen of white hydrated silicate of magnesia. (See No. 7) 
formed the boundary wall or casing of the vein. Bel Air mine. 

No. 5. Translucent dark g 

mammillated surfaces, from Nakety. 


Combined water lost at 

10078 Leibius 100-00 
. translucent pale green variety from Ouailou. 

No. 7. -The casing from the walls of a vein of dark gn*j 
noumeaite at the Bel Air mine, Kanala, consisted of a dazzuj, 
white very tough hydrated silicate of magnesia whi 
quite free from nickel, and in others merely tinged 
green. The surface towards th< win « is much grooved, stn 
and polished, and i, „! ,, p.,,,,,,!* formed part of a .^ken^de. 

This minora! meerschaum in compos* o. 

apart as rock cork ; it, moreover, presei 
well-developed petaloidal structure. Tl 
McfTM'liiiuiii being only about 1*3 to 1 
black dendritic markings within it. 
One specimen possessing a very pale g 

- ; 

Water 1, 


.. 2135 
tinge gave the fol- 


The above composition furnishes the formula : — 2 MgO, 
3 Si0 2 , 5H,0, or 2 MgO,3Si0 2) H 3 0, if the water driven off at 
100° C. be disregarded 

The brownish or plum-coloured serpentine with which the 
noumeaite is often associated usually contains alumina, iron, <fea ; 
hence (in cases where analyses show the presence of any con- 
siderable quantity of these) it may be, I think, assumed that the 
mineral has not been completely separated from its gangue, but 
e been take together. 
The following analyses of some of the dark green brecciated 
Kanalaores, from which the gangue had not been wholly re- 
moved, will serve to show this :— 

Water lost at 105° C. ... 8'765 8"016 8'65 

tombined, by difference ... 9 '034 6-550 S'95 

blll ca - 47-041 38-108 36-79 

» soluble ... ... -70 


wrtatlOO'C. .. AW ' 

bible . '.'.'. 

The foregoing analyses confirm 
that the mineral is of uncertain composition; it ranges from 
practically pure hydrated silicate of magnesia to what is also 
practically only hydrated silicate of nickel. Some specimens which 
are now being examined quantitatively contain but a very small 
quantity of magnesia. 

Gdrnierite, — Since the receipt of the first specimen in 1874, I 
have obtained only one or two additional examples of this variety 
of the hydrated silicate of nickel and magnesia. It is at once 
distinguished from the more important mineral noumeaite by its 
adherence to the tongue, and by its falling to pieces when 
immersed in water, and (like halloysite) even when allowed to 
remain adherent to the tongue for a moment or so. It might be 
roughly described, apart jirom its composition, as being a green- 
coloured halloysite. Apart from these characters, there appears 
to be but little difference between the two varieties. 

Kupfernickel, the arsenide of nickel, is reported from 
Kanala ; but the statement requires confirmation. A specimen so 
labelled proved to be poor sted with a thin 

film of impure green carbonate of copper. I expect this ; minerd 
will be found in New Caledonia, but up to the present I have no* 
seen any authentic specimens. 


Up to the present the only cobalt-bearing mineral from New 
Caledonia which I have had an opportunity to examine baa 
been of one kind, viz., the variety known as earthy cobalt ore, 
asbolite or « wad," i.e., an impure oxide of manganese ™f^ 
cobalt oxide. It aj .] u 1 1 1 1 v oc i rs in the form of irregular ciep ^ 
and as more or less spherical concretionary nodular masses, 
mannnilh.tcl,,:,!',., .„ ^lay. ThtfCiay 

rived from the decomposition of the serpent 

l ivhi of the district. 
These nodules are Mack or bluish black in colour 
superficially coated either with the red-coloured clay 
oxide of iron. I understand that they are quite soft 

ft, when hrss 


dug up ; they readily stain the fingers, and yield to the knife at 
once, cutting like graphite, hut with a Mur-black shining metallic 
streak instead of a grey-black one. 

Some of the nodules present a very vesicular structure, like 
certain kinds of lava. Even the apparently quite compact nodules 
often enclose patches of the clay, especially towards the centre. 

Many of them present a very striking resemblance to the 
s dredged up from the depths of the sea by the 
do not feel quite justified in throwing out any 
ns as to whether they were formed under similar condi- 
tions, smce I have no personal knowledge of the conditions under 
which they are found ; but as far as an opinion can be formed 
from the specimens which I have had an opportunity to examine, 
I am inclined to think that they were not, but that the concre- 
tionary process has been set up subsequently — that is, the cobalt 
tighout the clay, 
but has since segregated together and assumed the nodular form. 

Asbolite also occurs as d< a r > • kaolin from a 

locality on the river Leia. 

Some nodules of the ore from Unia were examined, with the 
following results : — 

Specimen No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Water lost at 100° C 8-6S 10-19 10-54 

,, combined SSI 974 9"83 

Silica 15-34 15-15 17-20 

Alumina . 8 -86 8 -70 7 65 

Iron sesquioxide 10-41 10'26 5 '51 

-52 -51 -87 

Nickel oxide traces traces traces 

Cobalt „ 15-67 15-43 1359 

Manganese peroxide (MnO- ; ) U 52 9'57 12 '05 

Ma^iesia ■".... '....: .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. '.'.'.',:', 20^80 20-46 2263 

100 67 100-01 99-87 

The following contains but little magnesia — Coumac. 

Water lost at 100° C 2 86 

Water combined by di fference 16-67 

Alumina 1 o'-o 

Iron sesquioxide 23\r_ 

Chromium sesquioxide t ™. < lf 

cSroxTdMCoO^ n .. 2 '■'.'. '..- 1042 ^ 

Magnesia 1*79 

From the foregoing analyses it will be seen that the earthy 
cobalt ore from New Caledonia differs considerably from those 
met with in other places : baryta is entirely absent, although 
often present in this mineral fr«mi other localities. (See analyses 
given by Dana, Descriptive Mineralogy, p. 182), but magnesia 
seems to have taken its place in the asbolite from some of the 
New Caledonian mines. 

Specimen from Unia of poor quality. 

Water lost at 100° C 2"720 

Combined water, by difference 22-901 

Manganese peroxide 
Cobalt oxide (CoO) 
Nickel oxide (NiO) 

Magnesia ... 

Magnetite.— In the form of small very perfect octohedra diffused 

through massive granular chlorite. 

Balade mine, Ouegoa. , . L . . tw 

H:,l }!«,,„„,,,. I„ a ,,,I c.,loumI micaceous schist higg 

charged with oxide of iron, and in consequence often mistaken 

the gossan of a copper-vein ; the iron oxide has apparently been 
formed at the expense of iron pyrites, since much of the schist is 
dotted all over with small rectangular ravines, pseudomorphous 
after iron pyrites. 

Balade mine. 

Brown ll<t ui«tU,'. — A specimen from Baie du Sud evidently of 
very good quality, curiously permeated by reticulating savities. 

Also met with in a talcose schist in the form of pseudomorphs 
after cubes of iron pyrites; Mr. Pryor mentions breaking opes 
one of these and finding a nucleus inside, about one-third of the 
size of the entire pseudomorph, made up of minute crystals of 
pale green-coloured sulphur, &c. 

Pyrrhotiiio.—The magnetic variety of iron pyrites (Fe^) 
eoOected by Mr. Pryor at the Balade mine. 

_ Massive, of a brown-yellow colour with metallic lustre, asso- 
ciated with copperpyrites and transparent quartz, whieh is difi'used 
through the mass, just as is seen in some of the pyrrhotine from 
Bodenmais in Bavaria, 

t One of the specimens presented a somewhat cylindrical concre- 
tionary form, surrounded by a kind of crust of mica-schist, com- 
posed of white mica and quartz with a few flakes of black mica. 

Through the joints of some of the specimens layers of brown 
haiiuuite were present, underneath which the pyrrhotine had 
a crystalline surface, but no distinct crystals could be found. 
It was thought that perhaps this mineral might contain nickel 
like the pyrrhotine from Kelfva in Sweden, and in the Gap 
mine in Pennsylvania, but none could be found in the specimen 

Marcasite. — In the form of nodules, smooth externally and 
converted into hyd t 11 l oxide of iron to the depth of about 

half an inch, but the interior still in part consisting of radiating 
crystals of mar. ash I , ~ lules c losely resemble those from 
the English chalk, evidently set free from a soft matrix, which 
was probably limestone. 

Locality, Mount Tiebaghi. 

Iron Pyrites.— The bisulphide of iron, Fe S 2 . 

fn the form of fairly well developed cubes, both isolated and 
twinned, embedded in a slaty matrix from the Balade mine. 

Chromite. — The deposit of chromite or chromate of iron, 
commonly known as chrome iron ore, appear to be very extensively 
de Z™°P«'d inXcwi • ..i i i. ~ \ . II as of extremely rich quality. 
, The ore is met with in the form of alluvial deposits, as well as 
•« situ in the serpentine and other rocks. I am informed that 
some of these alluvial deposits are now being worked on a large 


The majority of the specimens are massive, with a crystalline, 
granular, or lamellar structure ; also in the form of more or less 
distinct lustrous black octahedra, closely packed together ; often 
the ore is however stained with oxide of iron, and mixed with 
more or less steatitic matter. Some of the specimens yield as 
much as 66 per cent, of chromium sesquioxide. 

One specimen made up of rather large imperfectly-developed 
iron-gray crystals — -some nearly half an inch in diameter — was 
found to have the following composition : — 


. (;iv54 

The amount of chromium sesquioxide is unusually large; this 
is due to much of the iron protoxide being replaced by magnesia, 
the difference being due to the lower equivalent of the latter. 
The above numbers approximate to the usual formula, KO, K, 

Localities: Petit Mont d'Or, Coumac, Tiebaghi, Ouaghi, 
Ouailou, Baie du Sud. 

Non-metalliferous Minerals. 

Coal. — A specimen of the so-called anthracite, from Paita, near 
Noumea, came into my possession some time ago , it is in 
form of a nodular mass hml, earthv, of poor ., 
unfit either for 

Torbanite or « *« ' c* terete* 

kerosene shah- lab, lied - X, ■, fah d-mia." exists in the bydnj) 
University collection. 1 <•■ mmt l.ow, ver trace its history, and*) 
not know from what part of X.-w Od.-douia it is supposed to 
been brought. It has very much the same 
physical qualities as the NVw Snuih Wab -s mineral w hid MJ* ' 
the nameof kerosene shah, d-1 ,!, it i. ,mt shale and does not 
yield kerosene, but a mineral oil of another kind 

The specific gravity is 1-238. 

Quartz. — In the form of fragments of colourless and transparent 
nek crystal, also as vein quartz. l>otli white ami t i nged with various 
olours from the admixture of impurities, also in the form of 
rhite pt bble c nt 1 t n ;ther with brown oxide of iron, and 
lixed with some mere or less decomposed mica, similar in appear- 
nce to the conglomerate from the New England diamond drift ; 
ollected by Mr. Pryor. 

V halo, han. —In flat pieces as if set free from fissures, often 
rhite outside like chalk flints ; in colour various shades of brown 
nd grey, also quite white as in earnelian. Collected by Mr. 

Cliert. — Of various shades of grey through brown to black, and 
much fissured, from Pointe Nea (?), near Noumea, apparently 
weathered out of a limestone rock ; breaks with the usual square 
splintering fracture of chert, and is thus distinguished from flint 
and other forms of quartz, which break with a conchoidal tract ure. 

Opal— One of the hydrated forms of silica. Of various shades 
of pale translucenr l.rWn, through grey to opaque white ; some 
of the white varieties have a flesh-coloured tinge, and dendritic 
markings are common in all the specimens from Olande. 

fV/ZWfr.— Calcium carbonate er\ stalli/ing in the rhombohedral 
system. There are several specimens of this mineral, some col- 
lected by Mr. Rossiter, from near Port la Guerre, which were 
mostly massive cleavage fragments. Mr. Pryor's collection from 
the Balade mine contained a few specimens crystallized inrhombo- 
hedra, and associated with small quartz crystals, taken from the 
joints of the mica-schist near to the deposits of copper ore. Also 
others apparently from the lode, intimately associated with copper 

Aragonlte. — The variety of carbonate of lime crystallizing m the 
rhombic system ; occurs of a reddish colour, presenting a eoar i ly 
crystalline structure on the fractured surface. The Balade mine. 

Another variety is of a pure white colour, breaking with a tine 
crystalline fracture, and presenting much the appearance of 
alabaster, apj »a >.-■ ins only a few inches across ; 

where stained * il Lei somewhat the celebrated 

Algerian onyx marble. It apparently forms the vein stuff of 
certain portions of the copper veins. 

Limestone.— Of a grey or dove colour, suitable for bmldmg or 
ornamental purposes : from the Baie de FOyselinat, Noumea, and 
from near Coumac. Collected by Mr. Rossiter. Mr. Pryor sent 
some specimens from an outcrop on the Diahot River, near to 
the Balade mine. M. Ratte speaks of the great extent of this 
limestone, in his Catalogue of Minerals from New Caledonia, sent 
to the Paris Exhibition of 1878. . ... 

-Dolomite— Occurs in the veins with the copper ore intermingled 
with quartz. Balade mine. 


Ankerite. — A variety of this mineral of a pale brown colour was 
found by Mr. Pryor, at the Balacle mine, associated with quartz 
and copper pyrites; breaks readily into more or less lamellar 
piece- contains mangam veil as iron, lime, and magnesia 

Magnesite. — In the massn ■ f in, whi .very dense, hard, and 
breaking with a conchoidal fracture ; somewhat platy structure. 
A qualitative analysis shows it to be very pure. 

A concretionary variety was contained in Mr. Rossiter's col- 
lection, labelled " Barytes from Bouenoumala," but on testing for 
barium none could be detected; the specimen had the same 
peculiarly reticulated surface and mammillated form as the mag- 
nesite found on the New South Wales diamond fields. 

Garnet. — In some cases these are very well crystallized in the 
form of the rhombic dodckahedron, varying in size from fa to | 
inch in diameter, most of them being \ inch. 

Some are brick red and more or less opaque, whilst others are 
: less transparent red, similar to the varieties used 

i hard and wry heavy 
schistose rock, composed of quartz, glaucophane, and some epidote; 
the other matrix is the rather uncommon variety of hornblende 
known as glaucophane. The race, of the lai-vr i-homlic dndeka- 
hedral crystals occurring in the glaucopl 
" xlges of t 

s\..ulil 1 

built up of plates, so that the edges of the garnets 
if cut through, a step-like section. 

Usually each face of th 

with a plate of mica ; the« 

face of the garnet in one or more directions. When the gamtt ;■ 
detached, a mou w ith mica. 

In some cases the garnets hav, crv.ta!li/.ed in thin red iilms 
between the plates of mica ; in other places the solid garnet ttjmm 
penetrate right through the layers of mica. , . 

An analysis of the garnets was mad.: with the following rt-u^ ■ 
Sp. gr. 4-011. 

Magnesia 4 t'.l 



which gives the following formula :— 

3 (FeO, MnO, CaO, MgO), 2SiO,- 

>-AlA> si0 '- 

Mica. — Froi a 1 i t . ■ silvery plates, 

some of which are about half an inch in diameter ; but no well- 
developed crystals were present ; by transmitted light the thicker 
plates present a dull greenish shade. Disseminated through some 
of the masses of mica are small red translucent crystals of garnet, 
and between the plates of mica films of garnet have occasionally 
crystallized out. 

Plates of this silvery white mica are also found sparsely scat- 
tered through the glaucophane, especially in the glaucophane 
hearing the garnets ; in other cases again, the mica is in excess, 
the glaucophane playing a subordinate part. 

< »n analysis this mica was found to have the following com- 
position:— Sp. gr. 2-938. 

The following analysis was prepared on a very small quantity of 
the material, as it was only possible to collect a very limited amount 
of this silvery win " nice cannot be 

attached to it : 

Water, combined 431 

Silica 50-GO 


i'.'7di L 

Neither lithium nor fluorine were present. 
The above results do not quite agree with any published 
analysis, nor do they afford a satisfactory formula; but it is 

apparently a variety of muscovite mica. 

Another specimen of mica, apparently of the same kind, but 
"f ^ rather darker colour and with less lustre, was examined with 

the following results : 


^^'■■■•••■■ mL -.-""'" SI -22 ■■■'•■■•■ ^ •■•■•■•■■ 5 I"2? 

The above corresponds to 2 (1RO, § RA) 3 Si0 3 4 

Hornblende.— In the form of black and fibrous schistose masses, 
;l - K-iatel wit'i whit • .livery mica and minute garnets, the three 
iglayera From the Balade mine. 

p, /m >j y Aw/Ue.—A rolled nodule, made up of confused 

mask's of crystals. From Tonsjete Bay. 

ie.— This rare variety of hornblende seems to be 
abundant in the neighbourhood of the B d . 1 ■ Mme. ;.-, M -■• Pryor < 
collection contained several specimens some of which differ ro 
colour, structure, and general appearance. 

Only one sp- are in the form of 

dark blue-grey silkydooking prisms, seated upon a base of a mica- 
ceous schist, composed of mica, glaucophane, and garnets, with 
some quartz 

: ' ■ 


?arb.,mt ■ v 
H = 6-7 

h garnet, norniue"^ — 

r the sake of comparison 1 app A {} i i1vm< t 1 niinei 1 
the Isle of Syra, Dana's Descriptive Mineralogy, p. 244 
■•<!< in !lm nn. J. pr. eli. xxxiv, p. 2 .'3 8), also an analysis by 


MgO 7-97 MgO .. 

CaO 2-25 CaO .. 

Na,0 9-28 Na a O .. 

Bhdl'trjP. — A rolled nodule— no locality, probably from lelno. 

Serptntine.— '\ klite or serpentine is very 

largely developed ill New I ra '' t mountain 

ranges ; but the mineral known as noble or precious serpentina is 

Some of the serpentine has a very peculiar plum colour and 
' oom on its surface. 

A specimen of the common massive serpentine was found to 
contain 0-78 per cent, of nickel oxide. 1 

Mannal'de. — A foliated variety of serpentine of a green colour, 
translucent, in Har into an asbostiform variety. 

said to be associ ; - »* Tlv] ,a - hl 

on the west coast. 

Talc— Of a white silvery or pale green colour, highly lustrous, 
posting a M-hihi -■ strva uv.C and . ntaining long semi-trans- 
parent interlacing' crystals of actinoike. 

lialade mine. 

Steatite. — Of a white colour, translucent, mixed with some sei- 
pentine; coll.eied 1,\ Mi. lo -her at Vate ? 

A green variety from Moira. also at tin 15 .'-el- mine. 

Chlorite. In en colour, break- 

ing with a crvsi 
"ystal, ; Balade mine. 

Kaolin.— From Ombatche. Of a dazzling white colour, very 
liable, with a harsh feeling. A qualitative examinati -u only was 
made of the specimen on its being found to be practically pure 
hvdrated silicate of alumina, with but a trace of sesquioxide of 

With little preparation would probably be extremely well 
adapted for the manufacture of porcelain of the best quality. 
l oF ckel Mineral* from New Caledonia. Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., 1874, 

Allophane. — From a small island to the south of Ntw Cale- 

As an incrustation, of a pale blue colour ; hardness about 3, 
brittle, is read ing streak, adheres 

somewhat to the tongue, translucent, resinous lustre, fracture flat 

Before tli 'our somewhat 

or less white up, but does n< 

to a powder ; at first it imparted a pale green t 
sible, in closed tube gives off water, and with 
skeleton of silica. When strongly ignited with cobalt 
blue mass is left. Gelatinizes with hydrochloric acid. 

At some future time I hope to examine some of these speci- 
mens rather more in detail ; many of them appear to be weU 
worth further investigation, but chemical analyses necessarily take 
a long time to complete. 

In conclusion, my thanks are due to my friend Dr. **"** 
Senior Assayer of the Sydney Branch of tie- K<>\.-i] Mint, t'or his 
kindness in making for me the seven analyses marked with M 
name, and to Dr. Helms for his assistance in anal) sin- tin chroiu- 
iron, the glaucophane and its included garnets and mica. 

Notes on a Collection of Fossils fiom the Palaeozoic 

Rocks of New South Wales. 

Part I. 

By B. Etiieridge, Junr., F.(!.S., Arc, Corr. Mem 

When last in England Prof. A. Liversidge entrusted to my care, 
for presentation to the Geological Department of the British 
Museum, a collection of palaeozoic fossils from various locality m 
New South Wales. Unforeseen circumstances, of a varied nature, 
have prevented my fulfilling a promise to describe these fossils, 
made to Prof. Liversidge, and I am now only able to partially 
carry this out, a portion of the collection still remaining to be 

Two difficulties are pre-eminent in an undertaking of this kind. 

First, the unsatisfactory stat< of preservation of t! p. in - 
and. secondly, the difficult i arise Ironi the. 

limited number of examples of any given form or forms. A 
proper comparison with known European or American >p.-.-i.-* 
can hardly be effected, and sometimes results in 1 1 e 1 t h to 
or opinion an hasty or erroneous. 


Genus Rtttzopiiyllum. Lindstrom, 1865. 

(Kngl. Vet. Akad. Forhandl., 1865, No. 5, p. 287.) 

Obs. Prof. De Koninck has described from the Upper Silurian 

rocks of Rockflat Creole, N. S. Wales, the internal cast of a coral 

very like that of a <■.■!.;, J,,, but which he think-, dmul.l nmiv 

properly be referred to the genus RhizophyUnm. This he has 

described as R i„t ,,,*, tot > but from th verj nature ot the 

fossil it will be at all tin.e ' tlier specimens 

wia it. 

Prof. Liversidge has obtained from near Yass three specimens 
which equally r. ] by De Koninck. 

They have truncated bases, in one of which is seen traces ot 

vesicular structure, so that in all probability our examples are also 
referable to Eh ho, i.jih lc h more contracted 

outline of the cone, as com ■ • metatum, I doubt 

very much if they should be referred to the latter. 

One of the three specimens is more Calceolu-likc than the other 
two, which aga; „, to a uiv iter extent, ami 

remind us very much of E. Tennessee-' ash (Roomer). 

One of the more pyramid several scattered 

tubercules over the convex side of the corallum, representing the 

the calices are tilled , t in the more 

Ccdo ^-/dike forii> ill" characters are to a certain extent exhibited. 
The central primary septum is visible, bordered on each side by 

Taking into. , -. hi eutiii"- U hveen our 

specimens and that of Prof. De Koninck, and the unsatisfactory 
figure of the latter, I am obliged to propose for the specimens 
gathered by Prof. Uversidge a distinctive name. If future 
researches should establish the identity of our respective forms, 
the name applied by me will of course become subservient to that 
given by Prof. De Koninck. For the present I provisionally 
«e specimens as — 


Yi;j,j ■/,■!///, I,;, 


le. Sp.n 

Pl._Figs. 7 

and 8. 


char. Corall 

n'cal, hav 


an almost 

J the angles 


d by the 

u of thecoi 

sides re 

unded : tapering: to 

an apex n 
Is the con 

and slight! v curved 


y well marked, h 



other minor 


ridge 1. wit! 

the u-ri 

ikies: here 

re over tl 

he coraUum 

are a fe 

III li'"l 


10 distinct ti 

,,,. of them 

is visib 

e on the flit 


apparently vesic 


Of the,. 


.;.; ;:::; 

inv. Thisv 

the amount 





n first they 


(,',iws Engiuxuut's. Enunrich, 18-15. 
(Neues Jalirb. f. Mineral., 1845, p. 42.) 

Ok. There are several pygidia and portion 

:„"';:: ;*;!: 

. ,: " 1 .,;: : ". 

occurring in New Somh Wales, l.y Prof. IV 

E. pvnct, »,, the numerous!) ribbed axis. 
space only occupied here and there by the t\ 

species in the British Museum that tin- mmd 



four, as iii the present case, others have five, and a; 
Saltei h ,rih, "a „> iv ; s.^en in L\ / <>« "<; - 
the latter sun bearing riri g 

four other i gs : hut i ii I that this character ab>i 
much t cual number of t bercules, two and 

them quite as often as four. 

Loc— Bombala, in a highly fossiliferous shale of 

Class— POLYZOA. 

Genus Protoretepora. De Koninck, 

(Foss. Pal. Nouv.-Galles du Such, pt. 3, t 

Obs. An iiifuiidil.ulifonn example retaining the 

shape exemplify - i , Id. 1 - m 1 

and size of the meshes. At one point the iVnc- 

;ies. It is probabl 

n,l :■-,- 

uistn .-• - , ,-i ... 
Prof. De Konii 

to some extent from the tyr i J Lonsdale. 

Loc. — Singleton, in a light-coloured micaceous sandstone. 
<7?ass— PELECYPODA. 
Genus Axodontopsis. M'Coy, 1851. 
(Annals. Nat. Hist.. 2nd sen. 1851, vh, p. o3.) 
Aun f hn,U, v ,i. A ,.tr IU. Sj, „ov. PL-Fig. 6. _ 
S P . CL ,-. < )1 li lU eIv n,,te. pr, diu-d t ^ards the post erior side,- 
&e»nterio, , inuled, hinge-line 

straight, shorter than the width of the shell ; beak sharp prominent, 
and ,,,, th lllt u,l tli.i, tin ] .^.noi end._ immediately 
bgowj the hinge-line are visible the elon gad^cav^Jeft_byJ^ 
^obb. Pal. Nouv.-Galles du Sud. 

Surface ornamented with concentric 
broaden out towards the ventero-post 

Obs. So far as I am aware 
toposis has not hitherto been noticed in the palaeozoic rocks of 
Australia, hut I think we have in the present fossil a species of it. 
Setting aside the general re .emUane. in Term to the described species 
of J„^/„„A,u,,,/s. the identity of the above shell to this genus is in- 
dicated by the presence of the cartilage grooves under the ningedme. 

In form Aw,,!;,,/,./,^ .1/^/,-,//;* is between A. quadrates 
(M-Coy), 1 and A. India. (M'Coy). 3 It is however more oblique and 
wider than either, and pe ■ ._,. than the former; 

^(WGo 7 y mtJ1 " greaterthanm auotlier s P eciesX ^ 

Zoc— Near Bombala, in a fnssilif. rous shale of Silurian age. 
Genus Conocaedium. Bronn, 1837. 
(Letluea Goognostica. Bd. i, p. 92.) 
Conocardium. tip. ind. PL— Fig. 9. 

Obs. The collection contains a very interesting species of this 
genus, but unfortunately the onlv specimen, it has relations with 
C. Hibemicum (Sow.), but is distinct. It resembles the latter in 
the very truncate form of the end, but differs entirely by the total 
absence of any trace of the deep shelly border. Furthermore the 
tube which rises from the trim. at. d i d of ('. Hlborinn'm does so 
from close under the hinge ; in the present instance it is central 
and the single line which proceeds from it to the ventral margin, 
representing the gape of the da 11, h. i h ts a i idiatim, 1 1 < mi 
each side of it. The produced end of the shell resembles that of 
C. oil,',.,.,,,, (Sow.), but the end again differs. It is too much 
flattened and too heart-shaped for the latter species, and has too 
well-defined a periphery. We have only an imperfect single 
specimen, but in all probabilitv this sp.-ei,.; will turn out to be a 


stralian species o 

of CovMonrdh'm -the ('. ferox (Dana), but 

different from our fossil. 

Zoc— Bun garalahv, Lake Haihurst. Gi 
1 Brit. Pal. Foss., p. T,'2. s IbidZv^ 

Genus Pleurophorus. King, 1844. 

(Annals Nat. Hist., xiv, p. 313.) 

Pleurophorus Morrisii. De Koninck. 

Orthonota ? costata. Morris. Strzelecki's Phys. Descrip., N. S. 

Wales, 1845, p. 273, t. 11, f. 1 and 2. 
rburophorus Morrisii. De Koninck. Foss. Pal. Nouv.-Galles 
(In Siul, 1877, pt. 3,1.. 281, t. 20, f. 5. 
Ohs. A small example of this species much incrusted with matrix, 
hut with the shell preserved. I have not seen the internal hinge- 
characters, hut the general configuration would bear out Prof. 
De Koninek's reference to the genus Pleurophorus rather than to 

Loe. — "VVollongong, in sandstone ; Carboniferous, or Permio-car- 
bonif erous ? 

Genus Aphanaia. De Koninck, 1877. 
(Foss. Pal. Nouv.-Galles du Sud, pt. 3, p. 302.) 
Obs. One valve of a shell before me (Figs. 3 and 4) appears to 
correspond to some extent with the characters of this genus, 
although not equally so with either of the species referred to 
Aphanaia, l»v Prof. De Koninck. From A. Mii<h- ,! i ! M '< Viv. v , ) 
it may he distinguished by the want of the posterior alate 
expansion, and the only valve we possess is much more attenuated 
towards the beak. It U this latter « haracter at d the general form 
which »ive it so much more the appearance of A. >/></" idea (DeKon.), 
and of which it may be the young. There is also a certain amount 
of resemblance between our shell and De KoninckV 3/i/tiIu* /;<>/>//<■ 
Further specimens are required before this form can be definitely 

Loe. — "VVollongong, in sandstone. 


Gemcs Loxonema. Phillips, 1841. 

(Pal. Foss., Cornwall, Devon, etc., p. 98.) 

Loxonema sulcnlosa. Phillips, PI— Figs. 1 & 2. 

M.hinUt gvlculoaa. Phil. Geology of Yorkshire, 1836, ii, p. 228, 

Loxonema mlculow. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., 1854, 2nd ed., 

Sp. Char. Shell elongate-conical, tapering gradually towards the 
apex, of at lee I probably more. wlurte 



concavely-curved ri !■_■•-. . r . -i:e. which are so disposed that if 
followed in a vertical line from whirl to whirl, assume a zigzag 
appearance, and are separated from one another by interspaces of 
at least three times their own width. 

Obs. The presence of the " Gilbertson Collection " in the British 
Museum, wherein the type specimen of Phillips' Loxoru ma Mtfl uk$a 
is preserved enables me to point out the remarkably close resem- 
• id a shell from Bungaralaby (PI. , 
■ difference I am able to detect consists in the 
somewhat more slender form of the Australian variety ; the type 
has four whirls preserved, the present specimen six. The great 
resemblance between the two consists in the flattening of each 
whirl just below tic ornamentation. 

In the former point both shells agree with Loxonen a congtrieto, 
Martin, but otherwise differ. They also resemble L. Lefebvrei 
(De Koninck) to some extent, but in the latter the strife or coste 
are very much finer, more num. n us, and less bent. Prof. Hall 
described some time ago and has lately figured sever d *h IN tr i 
the Devonian rocks of North America, which have a stiituig 
resemblance to the British ami .WtmK.-m forms, more especially 
the latter. Loxonema pexata (Hall) 1 is, indeed, very closely allied 
to our shell, whilst L. terebra (Hall) 2 , although generally resembling 
it, i, too eodi-v K ribb. ,1. A-ain. /, ,/ l,,I,i,;li (Hall) 3 is, although 
a more slender • near ours as L. pexata. These 

forms occur respective! v in the [:{^v Uelderb. - 
Chemung groups of the North American Devonian, whilst u 
mh- •lom (Phill. . is in Kngl; n 1 a carboniferous limestone specif 
For the present, 

for the Australian shell will be to the latter, more especially as * 
have been able to make a direct comparison. They differ (so iar 
I can see) only in the Australian form having a little less ro 
aspect, and in possessing somewhat coarser ribs. 

Loc— Bungaralaby Creek, west side of Lake Bathurst. ^^ 

In addition to the foregoing univalves there are some o ^ 
but all in such a sad state of preservation that it u 
atttempt an accurate d-t-rmmMtmu. The be* 

" "/!„ "'.' "ikmlra! '"'] < ','!'"l t ,'V.'.f 1 ,ake Bathurst, in a dark blue 

. N. York, vol. v, athw, t. 13, 


D astotheirid< 

which till-, f,,>' uhi, s onaiis in tl bed from Vukh 
before mo wov taken prolyl >lv equal that descrd 
James Hall arid II. A. Nicholson, M.D. The foi 
writers remarks- 1 < f 7'. irreijidnrh (Hall)— " On this si 
which has a he . I an average bre 

more than one ii i< h. i> than i 
counted ; and tl 1 \ I tl fo the thickness of 
an inch is composed almost entirely of these fossils, 
than irii tii ics as ri i a is < m be sl n upon th nta 

I" the Australian sj.H.-i. < the fori , 

. ,1,1,. t<> determine wh 
intermediate' ornamenting stria? existed. 

r the microscope. This sul 

hter of Saalfeld. In a pap< 
the Thurinsi:. 

Bless certain columnar appearances v 
Vales, 1S60, p. 286. 


considered, although perhaps simpl mineralization may account 
for it. 1 It will be seen from the following notes on the Australian 
Ttutacidites that the latter of these suppositions is probably the 

The late Mr. J. W. Salter also touched upon this subject in a 
paper onCorwdif , and T >/ «- ''it, «, read before the British Associa- 
tion in 1845. He described a laminar .structure as existing at :!.•• 
thickened nodes or annulations of the shell, the texture being 
looser here than in other parts of the latter, thus showing a 
transition towards the structure of the genus Cornv.lites. 1 

The sections of the limestone forwarded by Prof. Liversitlge, 
from the random manner in which the T-utacidites are scattered 
throughout it, li.! t the] •■ < t taken ai vary ~ 

angles, longitudinal, horizontal, or oblique in various dhvctHiis 
All these agree in showing that the shell wall was distW 
traversed by small tubuli from the exterior, passing inwards, which, 

although generally . I i- nil ,d over the whole surface, are much 

more crowded together in the annulations or circular costs? of the 

shell. These tubuli, so far as I have examined them, do not 

penetrate quite through the shelly matter, but become lost in its 

substance. I have not observed any trace of septa. When *» 

annulations of the tubes are cut through in verl 

are seen to be densely crowded with these tubuli, which are not 

neees.arilv all of the' same length, and in eaeli 

appear to tend from the upper and lo\w-r in. . 

centre. When any fragment of the shell contained in the genera 

mass of the limestone is sectioned parallel to the longer axis, tne 

tubes are seen as small crowded black dots. PL— Kg- 10«- 

The internal and external walls of the shells, or tubes, o 

Tut ?if,.s, eon .pond uith one another, the inner following tne 

outline of the cm.-, i-.,-, a- ■, ill I,,- „ en by a glance at the enlarged 
figure of a portion of one side of a tube. , , 

In one or two examples there does appear to be a ^"^j^ 
the shelly matter into lamina?, which would give coJoui ■ 
Itiehter^ observations on tlie presence of the col 

lites was looked upon as the she 
ir Annelide, now it is regarded by 1 
1 of a Pteropod. 

> be constant throughout the genus, t 
af a Pteropod by the late Prof. Quecl 

is as transparent as i^lass, and alnio 


Genus Spirifera. (Sowerby.) Phillips. 

Spirifera disjuncta. J. de C. Sowerby, PI.— Fig. 5. 

S. disjuncta. J. de C. Sow., Trans. Geol. Soc., 1840, v, 2 ser., 

t. 53, f. 8, t. 54, f. 12 and 13. 
S. disjuncta. Davidson, Mon. Brit. Dev. Brachiopoda, p. 23, t. o, 
I 1-12, t. 6, f. 1-5. 
Obs. Prof. Liversidge has forwarded a white sandstone from n 

I the fold and i 
more or less equal, rs 

" ''tVi striati i rem nd ou uiueh . f b« th ^ irifora » 
Carboniferous rocks, and of Sp. disjuncta, of the Devonian. As 
regards the first it approaches particularlv the variety attwvata 
(J- de C. Sby.). b; friend, Mr. T. Davidson, 

F.R.S., I think the i,i„>t appropriate reference will be to the 
Devonian form. 

Sfirit'rru <!isj llll rf ll was first indicated as an Australian fossil 
by the late Mr. T. Stutchbury, who found it at Pallal. a— t ited m 
one of his Reports on the Geological Survey of N. S. Wales. 
Since then the late Eev. W. B. Clarke obtained I 
Bowenfels, Sofala, Collins' Flat, &c. 3 The occurrence of & dtsjuncta 

on Histology, 1854, ii, pp. 335-36. 
ntary Blue Book, Dec. 1854, 

: . . 

at "WalL-u „ > 1 ' Mt tli< \ ipsvs of Prof. Liversidge 
as to the age of certain beds in that neighbourhood. In a paper 
"On the Iron Ore and Coal Deposits at Wall 
describes the deposits of iron ore as situated some six miles from 
that place, and near the junction of the Coal Measures with the 
Upptr Silurian or Lh_ <;,,:[■' >> h< > /\, which there crop out to the 

Genus Ateypa. Dalman. 
Atrypn reticularis. Linn. 

, is- ( Linn, sp. ) Davidson, Mon. Dev. Brach., p. 5 

t. 10, f. 3 and 4. 

Obs. A small cast of one of the many varieties of this sped 

occurs in the fossiliferous sandstone of Loinbala, It does not a 

for any further remark. A. r'-t'imhi ri* had hceii previously m 

iti-oon, t 

Obs. A single and badly prese 

■ ' ' 

the fact that, so far as I know it h 
Nov,- South Wale, roeks. although 
of Hindi. Vi roria. 1 

-. N. S. Wales 

Genus Stropiiomena. Blainville. 
tphomena rhoitibmcbrfl*. Wilekens, sp. ? 
t (Wilckens, sp.) 1 )avidson ,Mon. Brit. Si 

IIU . of the many forms 

, lt .i,Vitcd nature some 

;s of n.s.w. 257 

been kind enough to examine this and he considers the deter- 
mination to be correct, but takin • into consideration the state of 
preservation it is perhaps better to express the determination with 
a note of interrogation. The specimen is small, about the size of the 
variety figured from Craighead Quarry, near Girvan, 1 and some- 
what resembles this. The radiating semi-ribs are numerous and 
crossed by a large number of the fluctuating crenulations seen in 
S. rhomboidalis. 

The species has been met with before in New South Wales, at 
Rock Flat Creek, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke. 2 

Loc. and horizon — Bombala, in a mudstone of Silurian age. 

1 Ml; ".,ra;.!i. loc. . It., t. 44, f. 1 a and 6. 

Explanation op Plate. 

Fig. 1. Loxom The type specim 

limestone, for comparison with Fig. 2. 

Fig. 2. Loxonerrvi sulculosa (Phillips)? Carboniferous oj Devonian! 
Bungaralahy Creek, Lake Bathurst. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Aphanala ? sp. ind. Wollongong sandstone. A much 
weathered cast. Fig. :;, « tenor < <i valve. Fig. 4, reverse showing portion 
of hinge. 

Fig. 5. Spinf, rn <);.<;„, ,h„ (J. ,!«■. ( '. shy.) A drawing taken from several 
eaateof the i •■ mdstone of Walker's 

Point, Wallerawang. Devonian. 

Fig. 6. Anodontopsis Austral!* (R. Etheridge, jun.) A characteristic 
specimen of one of the valves. Near Bomhala. Silurian. 

18. Rhizophyttum? Australe (R. Etheridge, jun.) NearYass. 

truncated base, and, 

Fig. 7. the largest specimen, obverse and rev 

1 in the I- i ide of the c° rall ™> 

r the flattened side. The c 
broken rootdike bases of tubercles, Fig. 8. 
in which the interior of the ca jes are well shown. 

Fig. 9. Conocardium, sp. ind. A mutilated specimen from Bungaralaby, 
Lake Bathurst. Carboniferous ? Showing a view of one valve, ana «w 
truncated end of both valves united. 

' . ■' ■ ' - '• 

Near Wellington. 

Fig. 10a. An enlargement of a portion of one of the wa 
showing the tubuli clustered at the annulations of the shell, x iw. 

Figs. 11 and 12. E»rrUn,r»* vwctotm (Briinnich)? In a fossihferous sbalc 
of Silurian age. Near 

2 of the natural size except Nos. 11 and 12, w 


Jour.RqySocKSW Vol.14 JSaO 




A Comparison between the Prospect and Kenny Hill 
Schemes, proposing a high-pressure Water Supply 
for Sydney. 

By Mr. F. B. Gipps, C.E. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S.W., 6 October, 1880. 

The great importance and the general interest of the question of 
water supply to this metropolis are, I venture to say, a sufficient 
apology for engaging the attention of the members of this Society, 
while bringing before them a comparison between the Prospect 
and Kenny Hill schemes, embracing a high-pressure water supply 
for Sydney. If in the elaboration of my argument there should 
seem to you any grave defect of reasoning, I trust that you will 
not permit any such error of judgment to prejudice you against an 
impartial and" c '-whole merits of the com- 

parison. The following prominent features in the two schemes 
commend themselves to an attentive consideration :— 1. I he area, 
storage capacity, and cost of the storage reservoir. 2^ The length, 
character, and cost of the conduits, and their duty. 6. llieir com- 
mercial and ecoi: • 4. Their sanitary influence 

Storage Reservoir. 
The most essential point in a storage reservoir is its impound 
ing capacity, or its actual volume available for the intended 
supply. This quantity must be estimated from its surface le^ei 
to that level at which the outh t conduit is entered. The depth 
left for settlement of suspended matter must vary according to 
circumstances, such as the area of the reservoir or the purity ot 
the water suppl; Iv f 3t ™ re ' ser ! 

any unm-c -^ sii n»lv iiuplii s wa^te < f water. 1 ?T e ^ r " 

supply sources on this deposit or settlement, for whdst the ^supply 
that from the Schuylkill only gives ^inch annually, that from the 
Delaware River gives 1 in "f mud m ^l 

reservoirs of the New River Water Company, Lo ? don ' a ^M" 
•96 inch annually. The duty of a storage reservoir is to provide 
^t only for any accident which may ha PP en ^^ Specially 
^of "several consecutive years of 

excessive drought. The eminent hydraulic engineer, Mr. W. 
Clai'k, in his Report on the Commissioners' scheme for water supply 
to Sydney, in recognition of the above essential qualification of its 
stora-o iv>ervoir, thus alludes to it : — " The prominent feature of 
the Upper ISTepean Scheme is the Prospect reservoir ; it resembles 
the Yan Yean in Victoria, and affords, like it, a very abundant 
ai tdfi« ial Btorage, so essential in a climate liable to extended periods 
of drought." 

Prospect Reservoir. 
The physical features of the Prospect Reservoir are thus 
described by Mr. Moriarty, Engineer-in-Ohief of the Harbours and 
Rivers Department, and the designer of the Upper Nepean 
Scheme: — " The valley of Prospect at this part spreads out into a 
broad flat basin, bounded on the north-west and south by a semi- 
circular amphitheatre of low hills forming the divisio aquarium 
of Botany Bay, the Hawkesbury, and Port Jackson. Lower 
down, whore it is proposed to place the dam, the valley contracts 
to about 1£ mile in width." Tli.- area and capacity of the 
reservoir are thus represented by the same writer -.—"The reser- 
voir at Prospect, when rilled, would cover an area of 1,291 acres, 
and would contain in all 10,635 million gallons ; but as it 
is proposed to draw off only the upper l'~> feet of water, the 
q lantitj available for supply would be reduced to 7,110 million 
gallons, equal to nineteen months' supply for the present popula- 
tion of Sydney and suburbs, allowing 100 gallons per head per 
day. It would be of about the same superficial area as the xa 
Yean, but considerably deeper, and would contain a much large 
quantity of water. When full the water in the reservoir worn 
stand at 195 feet above sea level, and might be drawn on to ■ iiu 
feet above it, or 31 feet above the top level of tl 
reservoir. The whole of the valley c 

1 gray clay— the most suitable 

: • 

bottom of a reservoir— and there is abundant material of fa*> ~^- 

kind in the neighbourhood for the formation of 

Prospect dam, as measured, is 7,904 feet long and 80 tee * | e ' 

The cubical contents of its embankment, inclusive of clay puddle, 

i~ estimated at 2,044,450 cubic yards, and its cost, accor « 

Mr. Moriartv, at £170,130, inclusive of - 

works. Its I 

Kknnv Hill Reservoir. . thfl 

of the Kenny Hill reservoir is near the summit ° 
ank of the dividing range of the X^^L** 
own Valley, being the same range wHicn r } ^ 
traverses to the Prospect reservoir. li» r ^ 
t about 18i mil< ut,mthei r~ 


■er, and the Campbelltown and Camden Road passes tknxafa 
In descending this flank towards the Nepean River the 

broad flat valley with small swamps in the centre, whilst low 
down the view embraces a grand panorama of the Nepean VaHtJ, 
with the Blue Mountain Range beyond. The comparative llat- 
ness of the upper valley in contrast to the steepness of its bound- 
ing ridges, and the gradual approach of two long concentric spurs 
from the north and south on the western flank of the proposed 
reservoir, offer unusual advantages for the impounding of a deep 
capacious storage lake. The reservoir at Kenny Hill when full 
would cover an area of 1,048 acres, after deducting 50 acres for a 
long spur which i ityia estimated 

at 8,549,000,000 _ II. n . oi . hi li MH> million gallons would be 
available for supply. At its highest level the surface of the water 
wouldbe330feetal'.\ - t ' .. 1 \ h. u i« I - ed o < u et. to it^ lowest 
supply level, it would still have 56 feet higher elevation than 
Paddington reservoir, and 12'J feet high- r tl .nl 
voir. The bed of the principal valley of the ir- 
retentive yellow and red cla j ■ "' ,s ' • x iltir '"> 
appear to vary in thickness from 8 to 12 feet, and to rest 
on or cover a stratum of impervious ironstone. The occurrence 
of this stratum. HM» of all the weather in- 
fluences which have tended to erode the surroundin.' strata Of 
sandstone and shales, probably accounts for the formation of this 
flat valley at such an elevation. There is an abundance of excel- 
lent clay in the spur intruding in the centre of the basin for the 
construction of the dam, for which, from its vicinity, it offers 
especial advantages, whilst its removal would add considerably to 
the capacity of the reservoir. The dam, as measured, is 6,400 
feet long and 80 feet high. The cubical contents of its < mbank- 
ment is eatimat. •"'- ' 'elusive ..t 2.«>,0U0 
cubic yards of clay puddling. Its cost, inclusive of pitching and 
outlet works, in comparison with .Mr. M >i •■ ' - estimate ot the 
Prospect dam, should not exceed £172,000 whilst the land would 
probably cost about £7,000. 

Comparison of Reservoirs. 
In comparing the Prospect and Kenny Hill reservoirs, it 
appears that the former has a larger area by 243 acres ; that it 
impounds 2,086 million gallons in excess of the latter, but that 
its actual available capacity is 1,000 million gallons less ; that its 
dam is longer by 1,500 feet, but the cubical oon< 
51,590 yards more • that its highest surface level is 19o feet above 
sea level, and its lowest available supply level 170 , feet above sea 
level, between which levels it is estimated that 7,110 million gal- 
lons will be stored, whilst the highest surface level of the latter is 

330 feet above sea level, and its outlet or lowest available level 
270 feet above sea level, between whicb levels it is estimated that 
8,110 million gallons will be stored; so that whereas in the former 
there will be a clear waste of water equivalent to three million 
gallons, in the latter there will be no waste, there being only suffi- 
cient depth left to provide for settlement of sediment. It cannot 
be termed imaginative in assuming the storage of three thousand 
million gallons unavailable for supply as a great waste of water, as, 
under auvcii «! epth as 50 feet for settlement 

of suspended matter would be excessive, whilst with a water 
which, by careful analysis, only gives 4-6 grains of solid matter to 
the gallon it is still more beyond the limits of requirement. Sup- 
posing the amount of - dii i<-i t ;r\ ,., ,rt r at 2 -rail -. p« r L'.dl > 
and a constant inflow of daily, it Troon 

take five years to cover 400 acres with 1 inch of deposit The 
cost of the construction of the dams and outlet work- and the pur- 
chase of the land 1 ,vs onl dill" -once of £7,000 in favour of 
the Kenny Hill clam and works. Both dams are solid embank- 
ments. The water from the Prospect reservoir is JjjjaJ* 
through a water tower into i 
through the hill on which the < 

outflow from the Kenny Hill reservoir is uirouyu n w-- 
into two 36-inch pipes, laid in atunn* I 

ing the Nepean sil- of the dialing lange, debouches on the 
Campbelltown side. 

Service Reservoir. 
Connected with the Kenny Hill storage reservoir, fomul |' * 
fact, a very important accessory to it, is a small supply or se 
reservoir, situated in a valley at its em 
area, as at present surveyed, is onbj 
average depth of 12 feet, w 

dam would be 1,120 feet long, 33 feet high, and 
66,000 cubic yards of earthwork. Its 
The surface level of this reservoir would be3i- 
level. Its southern extremity almost intercepts ™® P 16 * 
line, at about 18| miles from the entrance of the * epea^i ^ 
tunnel. Whil 

the canal, it would be capable of supplying Uie be 

f drought it woulc l J ' 

of Sydney, d m i ■ ; l l ' " "T quT)P iy o 

.„ -.3 extent of three mi 
Waxerley and Woollahra. As the smallest f l uan ^ ave pas sed 

into the Prospect reservoir from the Nq . 

in anyone month was measured al 

next month by a flow of 1,382 million gallons), n iJ ^ ^ 

presumed that an available storage of 120 mdhon gallon 

be amply sufficient to meet the demands of "Waverley and Wool- 
lahra under any contingency. But to place its storage qualifica- 
tion for the above purpose beyond all doubt, the area of the 
supply reservoir might be largely increased by constructing a dam 
lower down in the valley 50 feet high, which I believe would im- 

vould not exceed 1,900 feet, whilst its cost would 
probably be less than £30,000. 

The next feature in the respective schemes which claims our 
attention is the length, character, and cost of their condm s. 
Quoting from Mr. Clark's report, the length and character of tho 
conduit r ri« th. ! , : ' l.rirtly summarized as 

follows :— Tunnels, 101 miles ; open conduit, 2i\ miles; aqueduct, 
3 miles ; pipes, 13 j mil. , : u M.n ■ dr. 1 ; i. d. . giving a total dis- 
tance of 63 miles. By a weir in the Upper Nepean River, , 1U 
feet high and 4361 f ee t above sea level, it is proposed to divert its 
waters into a tunnel 4 mil< l * "»* !l t T° 

feet fall i,-r mile, of discharging S5 million gallons daily into the 
Cataract River, at Broughton Pass. Shortly below this point a 
weir 101 feet high will conduct the water into a tunnel 1 mile o4 
chains long, capable of discharging 85 million gallons daily. 1 ivm 
the point of exit of this tunnel, at 6 miles 30 chains from tlie 
Nepean River, the supply is conducted by open canal and a series 
of aqueducts and tunnels into the Prospect reservoir. inese 
works are to be - allow of a delivery ; ..1 • t 

million gallon.. L beheve ™ na f 

been determined; ; act tunnel and 

canal as far as Prospect, so as to allow of a daily delivery of 120 
million gallons. Beyond Prospect reservoir the conduit works are 
nged as follows :— The supply, at the rate of 29 nullum gallons 
1 «- open canal for a distance of 3 ^J° 

aqueduct for 7,989 feet, to a sma r 
„_ pipe, 48 inchc- *- 

From this point, at 10 miles from Sydney, and at an elevation or 
164 feet above' sea level, a 42-inch cast-iron pipe » P"^ 
capable of supplving Crown-street resei 

gallons daily, when J it is intended to pump one *f ^^ 
to Paddington and 500,000 gallons to Waverley height dady. 
The cost of these works inclusive of a compensating dam below 
at £1,170,768. That Mr. Clark regarded these estimate as 

approximate only may be inferred from the following remark on 
the lined and unlined construction of the canal : — " To bring these 
variable quantities into estu is impossible, and 

even with requisite surveys and borings they can only be approxi- 
mately ascertained. These surveys and borings could not be com- 
pleted during the period of my visit." These estimates seem to 
have been based on the inference that most of the shale which the 
canal line crosses is horizoi a I . and of an imper- 

meable charact % of the conduit unnecessary. 

But there is much reason to doubt the correctness of such an 
assumption, as though in a bore-hole the shale beds might seem to 
lie horizontal, and be consequently impervious, there are good reasons 
foi dist u> J i ■_: ,1 ■ < id ■ shales occur on 

the flank of a i ; aal i sis, which, wtoa*»* 

exposed, shows a most decided dip of the strata on either side; 
secondly — they are nearly always composed of thin alternate 
layers of hard and soft, strata; and lastly— they are subject to 
rapid decomposition, owing to their being impregnated with salt, 
so that, unless lined, on being exposed to the atmosphere and a 
constant current of water (hey would admit of considerable leak- 
age, and would be quickly undermined and eroded. The line of 
canal enters this shale at Woodhouse Creek, at 13 miles from the 
starting point in the Nepean River, and will probably traverse it 
for at least 15 miles. The whole of this distance will probably 
require masonry lining, which, at £2 7s. 6d. per cubic J**** 
side-walls and £2 per cubic yard for bottom pitching, 
£391,500 to tie bang the cos" ■* * 

of the above works to £1,562,258. 

Conduit via Kenny Hill. 
he supply conduit for 18J miles, J 

he Kenny J 

further description 

entirely of cast-iron pipes. > It is pw- 

• the first 691 yards are laid in a jtmmel 

ther enjoin the supply 

,.,.„;,. it a short distance below tne 

. f one of the principal 

' ,v The country traversed is 

but in any case it would only require a sln.n tunnel of al.out -tUU 
yank after whi ■ rover 1! mile — the valley d 

one of the feeders of Bunbarry Curran Creek. A 
from the point of inlet it would cross How 1 lowing Creek, 70 fe.-t 

'•■/:■ :■ . 
Southern Railway line, at an elevation of 135 f. . 
It would then gradually ascend the western slope of the Georges 
Riv< r Rai ,.'. i !■■ ■, !•• ii at the junction 

of Bunbarry Curran Creek with George's River — a little over 10 
laiics distant from the inlet tower. Here it crosses the ri\. r, 
which is ISO feet wide, with steep bank-- on either side, by an 
aqueduct 500 feet long, reaching from the top of the hit bark to 
the top of the right bank, at a height of 40 feet above the river 
bed, and about 45 feet above sea level. At this point, owing 
to pressure of time and the dense nature of the scrub, I was com- 
pelled i.o abandon niv survev : but from inquirv L am led to 
believe that time s no dim. lit i unm i t i ening between tht 
Uext cro-,si;,n- ( ,f ( ;, ,,,,, ; , measurement) 

further on, and i above the junction of 

Harris Creek, where, according to description, an aqueduct of 
about 700 feet would be required to span the river. The pipedine 
^ould then ascend a low ridge and join the Prospec* line a. 
point 271 mile- distant from Kenny Hill reservoir, and ,-.' miles 
distant from Crown-street reservoir, at an ele\ ..tion of r.h ut < i 
feet above sea level. The length of the pipedine from the Kenny 
Jit:! storage reservoir to Paddington is estimated at 31 miles, 
whilst that from the supply - estimat-d at 1 

aile further, giving a total length of 32 miles of pipes. 
Estimated Cost of Conduit. 
The estimated cost of this line of conduit is as follows— Tunnel, 
691 yards from service reservoir, at £15 per running y,i .. 

ronningyard. _ d a meter, for ti • 

tost section of 10 miles. 1 i standing a sate 

head of 333 feet, or 144-20 lbs. per square inch, ae-ualb tn 
exposed to a head of 246 feet, or to a pressure of 106-25 Iba pel 
square inch, weight 946 tons per mile, cost, at £6 15s. per ton 
Guided in Syd m t gle line of piping, or £ 1 2, i * J 


for a double line ; lead for joints, £800 ; trenching and laying, 
£3,000; carriage, at 30s. per ton, £2,838; giving a total of £19,409 
per mile, or of £194,090 for 10 miles. For the second section of 6 
miles across the valley of George's River the thickness of the pipes 
would be increased to 1^ inch, capable of bearing a safe head of 
412 feet, or a pressure of 178*39 lbs. per square inch, whilst it 
will only be actually exposed to a maximum pressure of 330 feet 
head, or of 142-89 lbs. per square inch; weight, 1,159 tons per 
mile ; cost, at £6 15s. per ton, £7,823 5s. for a single line, or 
£15,646 10s. for a double line of piping, which, with lead at £ 800, 
laying at £3,000, carriage at £3,476, gives a total of £22,922 10s. 
per mile, or of £137,535 for the whole section. For the last sec- 
tion of 16 miles to Sydney the thickness of the pipes would bell- 
inch capable of bearing a safe head of 375 feet, or a pressure of 
162-38 lbs. per square "inch, whilst the maximum pressure it will 
be exposed to is a head 295 feet, or of 127-74 lbs. per square inch ; 
weight, 1,023 tons per mile ; cost, at £6 15s. per ton, £6,905 5s. 
for a single line, and £13,810 10s. for a double line of pipes, which, 
with lead at £800, laying at £3,000, and carriage at £2,558, gives a 
total of £20,168 10s. per mile, or of £322,696 for the whole section. 
Besides the above sums, at least £500 per mile will have to be 
added for air and reflux valves, gates, etc., amounting in all to 
£16,000, also £35,000 for aqueducts, £10,000 for purchase of land, 
and £4,500 for clearing. The entire cost of the Kenny Hul 
scheme is estimated as follows :— Tunnels and conduit to service 
reservoir, as per Mr. Moriarty's estimate, but including an 
additional sum for 5 miles of lining, £207,906 ; service 
reservoir to impound 650 million gallons, dams, &c, ^ wv ' 
storage reservoir to impound 8,110 million gallons, dams, 4C^aa 
per Mr. Moriartv's rate of estimate, £172,000 ; land £($*>> 
tunnels from reservoirs, £47,865 ; 32 miles of a double line °i 
36-inch cast-iron pipes, £654,321 ; valves, gates, &c, £io,vu >, 
aqueducts, £35,00" : -.- -f and clearing, £14,500; reserv 
at Petersham, £4,800; reservoir- at Waverley, -£8,000; resen ^ 
at Woollahra, £5,000 ; compensation reservoir at ^ en ^g , g2 
£10,000; survey and contingencies, £20,000; total, & l ^ff > J 
The above safe-heads for the pipes are quoted from B* 1 *^ 
tables, and according to Humber they can be constantly exp 
to that pressure. 

Duty of Kenny Hill Scheme. 
In an average season the service reservoir ^*%d 
sustain the whole required supply whilst the maximum d y ^ 
the pipes would >,«. equal to the delivery of 23 iminon s 
daily to Crown-street, or 19 million gallons to Pf^on or 
million gallons to Woollahra, or 10-07 million Pf^^ of 
luty during a very protracted seas 

drought, when we might suppose the service reservoir reduced to 
341 feet above sea level, and the storage reservoir to 280 feet 
above sea level, would be a delivery of two million gallons daily to 
Waverley, one million gallons to Woollahra. besides seven million 
gallons to Paddington, or 10"4 million gallons to Crown-street, 
The duty actually proposed for the pipes is to deliver during 
ordinary seasons, when the supply will balance the demand, two 
million gallons daily to Waverley heights, 325 feet above sea level, 
one million gallons to Woollahra, 276 feet above sea level (which 
one pipe would manage in fourteen hours), and thirteen millions 
of gallons to Paddington, 214 feet above sea level. The surplus 
water from the canal would flow over a weir on the western flank 
of the dam into the storage reservoir. During seasons of drought, 
or as soon as the supply fa i ; b the service 

reservoir would be relieve.; ; ly. and would 

he called on only to satisfv the three million callous supplv to the 
high level reservoirs. Even with a much more severe and pro- 
tracted drought than we have on record, the water in the service 
i''-<i\oir, with such a moderate demand on it, would not be 
reduced in level by 20 feet, nor the surface level of the storage 
reservoir by 30 feet, but the pipes would even then be capable of 
delivering three million gallons to Waverley and Woollahra, 
and S-G million gallons to Paddington. But with the data sup- 
plied us of the r.-.' - Upper Nepean 
and Cataract Rivers, and of the actual flow of water in those 
streams, the result of careful observation extending over many 
years, it would be absurd to suppose such a contingency. The 
accompanying section shows at a glance the actual quantities 
which can be discharged into the various high and low service 
reservoirs in Sydney and suburbs from different levels in the 
supply and storage reservoirs at Kenny Hill. 

Comparison of Conduit Lures. 
In comparing the conduit lines of the two schemes, the advan- 
tages in favour of the Kenny Hill scheme line will be at once 
apparent It is shorter in distance by nearly 13 miles, and 
therefore so much the less liable to damage ; its cost of construc- 
tion is less by £329,866 ; it has two channels of supply, so th; t a 
certain delivery would be ensured ; it could be constructed m a 
ttnch shorter time (by at once proceeding with the dam of the 
supply reservoir at Kenny Hill a supply from the Cataract River 
could actually be delivered in Svdnev in two years, as a hue of 
Pipes could easily be laid within that'time) ; but its great advan- 
tage, which far transcends all others, is that it will be able to 
deliver an ample supply to Waverley, Woollahra, the North Shore, 
^ fact to the whole of Sydney and suburbs, by gravitation only. 
Whereas the duty of the Prospect scheme, as elaborated by Mr. 

Clark, ensures only a low service supply of twelve million 

gallons daily to Crown-street, of which 1| million gallons is 

pumped to Paddington and Waverley, that of the Kenny Hill 

scheme ensures a supply i 

cirumstances, to Waverley, -North Shore, and 

in ordinary t 

reservoir, which quantity would 

gallons except mprobaMe d» 

cumstances. The advantage claimed for the Prospect scheme is 

its power of increment, at amuch smaller cost. According to 3Ir. 

Clark's report, twenty-nii:< i lilliou dlons are brought within 14 

miles of Sydney. To deliver this quantity into Crown-street would 

require two 36-inch diameter pipes in add ,; >i to lie presi . p '■■ 

posed works, which, it tin stimato as for the pine-line fr< 

Kenny Hill, won Id cosl £293,265. B 

pipe, the service reservoir at Kenny Hill «■ >ul<! <\\}>] lv ( 'rown-str r 
with thirty-four mil lio„ -all ,us, at an extra cost ot t33.">,100 KK. 
or Paddington reservoir with 28-5 million gallons, dining a 
favourable season, or the storage reservoir during a dry 
season, when reduced to the 300-feet level, could supply 1, 
million gallons to Crown-street, and 21 million gallons to Padding- 
ton ; sothat the actual difference would not exceed £41,895 ' 10& 
Whilst, with a yet larger increment, this difference would be 
reduced to a minimum, as the whole conduit as far as Prospect 
would have to be enlarged. That the pipes are 
accredited to them may be inferred from the fa 
Mr. Moriartv's report— that in Boston two pipes of MM* 
diameter, with a grade of 2£ feet per mile, deliver ten nuUion 
gallons daily. Exception has been taken to this long une « 
piping that if the water was brought to a sudden stop the gr 
pressure from the water ram would infallibly burst the pipes^anu 

ment all danger i ; age of the flow 

of water would be avoided." Such a line of pipes would not be like 
an experiment, liable to failure, as we have had sufficient experience 
of their use in every part of the world. Melbourne is ,-upplied 
from the Yan Yean by pipes having a head of over 300 feet. San 
Francisco lias 31 miles of 1 irge supph | iping, whilst in London 
itself some of the mains have "a pressure of over 200 feet head. 
Relief valves could be so fixed that in no portion of the supply 
pipe need the prt <sure under any cm tnmency exceed a fixed 
would pre vein it emptying, suppos- 
• undulations. To diminish 
i escape valve or sluice-gate 
might be fixed at the crossing of (_U orge's Paver, so that, on any 
fracture occurring near* sure from the 

closing of valve* obviated by allowing the 

water to escape into Kin ,'', Iliver : whilst. ] \ imh,' s< If- u. ting 
shut-off valves at the reservoirs, 
Lherpool r,,it mn.i'Ls, the flow i 

would be stopped in a few minutes after the occurrence ot tne 
fracture. Such in-;, n it; h s he n ! it 1;. ext vised in the inven- 
tion of stop-valves that they can be adjusted at a distance by an 
electric wire, so that any chance of accident to a jape conduit is 

Commercial and Ecoxomu 
Whilst the Pi,,,., ct supply is on 

tes, that i 
uianuia-turing and commercial purposes, 

and motors, to brewing and chemical arts, to compressing aoi xui 
tramway motors, to watering the streets, to public fountains, and 
Jast, but by no means least, to prevention of extensive fires. J 
T. Fanning, C.E., in his excellent work on hydraulics, remarks 
that the general introduction of public water-works on the constant 
su Pply system, with liberal pressure in the mains and house 
s «-vic< - throughout American towns and citi. s. h is . neouraged its 
liberal use [ n the household, so th it the 1. intimate and economical 
domestic use of water is of greater average in the American cities 
than in any other country of the present time. Further on he 
adds that the use of water is steadily being popularized for its 
mechanical use. So that here is an argument greatly favouring 
a high-pressure in preference to a low-pressure system, that the 
artisan after completing his day's work «ri 

Jours a power always available by which, with but little trouble, 
he can add consi ■ water was only 

available for dm, n-street, thirty 

gallons a head would be amply sufficient; if it could be smpphed 

for the above purposes in sufficient quantity delivered at a high 

level, more than sixty gallons a head would be used, reducing the 

rates and adding largely to the income of the Corporation. 

Sanitary Influence. 

The last subject of consideration, but one of primary importance, 

y influence of the respective schemes, by which I 

" ' j the causes of disease. 

With such an assurance of the purity of the waters of the Cataract 
and Nepean Rivers, the sources of supply, as their favourable 
analysis affords, it may be assumed by some that to question its 
healthiness is mere waste of time. So assuredly it would be, pro- 
vided the same condition of water could be assured in its outflow 
into the city reservoirs as in its inflow from the sources. Un- 
fortunately this is impossible, for in flowing through such ■ 1 j \ 
line of canal as by the Prospect scheme, with su 
several miles, exposed to the heat of an almost tropical sun, it 
must soon acquire properties favourable to the development of 
vegetable and animal organisms prejudicial to human health, to 
which the surrounding air even would add numerous specimens. 
Amongst representatives of fauna we may anticipate the presence 
of protozoa, embracing infusoria and rhizopoda; of aiinaUaa, 
embracing scolecida and rotif era ; and 

nulosa. The representatives of alga? will probably include ha - c \ m ^ 
oscillatoria, d-smidia, diatoma, conferva, some of them <; on ^? 
elements of decay, and, in union with other matter, of putrefac- 
tion. Most of these specimens, both of fauna and alg*, ; 

[e, from which 
submitting all t.-st.s of 

careful microscopic 

examination, besides trying them by chemical analysis. 

examined water, both from river and tank, clear and tertetaj 

which would undoubtedly have been pronounced i 

analysis, yet which, on being submitted t" n 

seen to contain parasitic worms s 

to render it unfit for drinking purposes. in tn 

another fruitful sm.r, f disease, which, by wind, ram, ana 

*i,,, ,„:,v I,, ,-..„v.v.-.I in... tl •• waters of an open canal * 
i |,.„ ! ,,;, lt i„„ of M. Migu.-l and M. Pasteur, it W^ 
,,,,« of !,aet,ria and spores 5 moulds are al ;ffl ^ 
in ,.,,^,,,,,,1,,,. ,,„.„„ Ml . , This is confirmed by Trofessor 1 j ^ 
who adds that a few cubic centimetres of air w , p ro f es sor 

l.ri,.- inf.etion into tl,.- .nost d.verse infusions; ^ e /warning 
experiences, gives a no , j^of 

'V:.v: >.. .,...,:;.„,, ^''-^C^ 

this and future generations. Fie assures us «"« . £ever , pig- 

!?:; , .r'""'' l :;':"..*:; , ^i 8 rU£3*.-*'' 

that any body capable of causing disease by such means could bo 
anything but a body having the nature of bacterium. Now, bac- 
teria are just as much plants as mushrooms, cabbag< s, &c , so th it 

do. Bacteria can be sown in Pasteur's solution just as easily as 

the liquid becomes milky, and there is no knownmethod by which, 
if one drop of Pasteur's solution was placed in a gallon of water 
its constituents could be estimated. Every cubic inch of such 
water would contain 50 or 100,000 bacteria, and one drop of it 
would be capab! : ctive fermentation in any 

Rubstance caj ' a. Forpurposes 

d as such a sub- 
stance, and we may conceive such water as pure as may be as re- 
gards chemical analysis, 
regards the human body." 

he very advisable to shorten the line of open canal as much as 
1 ssible in order to J i^n. - 1 } ity of th \ ter, especially 
with the terrible example of the effects of a few germs on the 
population of Lausanne, in Switzerland. The typhoid fever 
which devastated that town, infecting a quarter of its inb ibitanta, 
was traced to germs from fever patients carried into the supply 
stream some miles above the town, which was exposed to all the 
oxydising influences of sun and to nitration through sand, and yet 
produced such deadly results. The shortening of the canal line 
can only be effected by the adoption of the Kenny Hill scheme, 
which, in comparison with the Prospect scheme, has an open 
conduit of about 12 miles, a-ainst ;J7 miles, or a clear 
difference in its favour of 25 miles. The high-pressure of 
the former scheme would also be a powerful aid in completely 
flushing the sewers and in rapidly disposing of any accumulated 
injurious matter in the side drains of the streets. 
Lime Treatment. 
The unfavourable comparison of the bright Bpmriding 
waters of Loch Katrine with the Canterbury ua:er at ■ ti la- 
ment by Clarke's lime process, when, on being subjected by Professor 
Tyndall to a searching electric light, the former appeared to have 
been taken from a muddy pool, whilst the latter was clear and 
transparent, together with the experience in Dublin and elsewhere 
that some kinds of bone disease are due to want or deficiency of 
hme in water, these two facts should impress on us the neccs ity 
f ap p lyi ng a lime process to any scheme of supply which may be 
determined on for Sydney. 

272 the pbospect and kenny hill schemes. 

I have now completed my comparison of the two schemes, t 
it remains only to recapitulate the principal features in an ep 
mised form, that their comparative merits may be more clea 
and concisely denned. 

works, £186,536. 

\ -. , 

!- |imnp</d to 
ning 10£ million gal- 

lons supply Crown- 


,n.s to J'a.Miiutou, 
evel, at an estimate 

s open canal u 
miles nt piping, and If miles re- 
servoirs. The canal beyond Pros- 
pect bas only 6 inches fall per mile, 
which is insufficient to provide for 

Such a long double 

The pipe-line * u« 
render any prolog 
supply from accident 

: ■ 

4. An accident to the d_ - 

all traffic on entail out . 

at Crown-street 
ing pumping sta- 

high and low levels, arising from t 

valley on the north, 

pletely drained into tn 

\ Hi<*h deliv> r 
attendant advantages oi ^ 
mains and reticul 

1 above synopsis i 

. i 
of from 15 to 20 per cent, would be e 
reat importance of my subject, I fear 
i too little time to its elaboration, havi 
weeks in surveys, preparations of pla 
has involved long and abstruse calcula 
I to hasten this paper, as the contracts 
ri&in right of the spot proposed for the i 
ienny Hill, so that any further dela; ' 
it futile for any practical purpose, 
earnest hope that it may have the effect of arousing united 
action to thoroughly investigate the merits of my proposed modifi- 
cation of the Upper Nepean scheme, while there is still time to 

Mr. Trevor Jones, City Engineer, in opening the discussion, 
said :— The subject of water supply for the city of Sydney is one 
that has been before the public for so long a time that unprofes- 
sional spectators may well be pardoned for exclaiming, " Enough 
of dispute— let us have a little water," and for being a little shy 
oi entertaining new projects. The engineering faculty, both here 
and in the adjoining Colonies, while regretting the low head of 
pressure at whir, , is to be delivered after bringing 

Jt a distance of 63 miles, are fain "to admit that the question has 
been handled in a scientific manner by trained men. When I 
entered on the duties of City Engineer, although recognising the 
talent that had conceived the scheme and the scientific manner m 
^hich it had been considered, I so far shared in the general regret 
that I mac i e weekly incursions into the country with the faint 
hfpe that some modification would occur to me whereby a large 
storage capacity might be combined with a greater head of pres- 
sure than that obtainable by the Prospect scheme, for, notwith- 

standing the concurrence of Mr. Clark with the Commission that 
the pressure due to Crown I am of a different 

opinion on that I that nothing short of a head 

of 90 or 100 feet above Crown-street will suffice for the numerous 
requirements of a city like Sydney. The present pressure is insuf- 
ficient for ex; bout the intervention of an 
engine — it is insufficient for the actuating of hydraulic lifts, cranes, 
lathes, pumps, gi •. , &c. If 100 feet be added to 
the Crown-street level, then for all levels up to those of the heights of 
Darlinghurst, Su I etersham and Pad- 
dington the fire-engine could he dispensed with, and firemen, instead 
of rushing to the lire sb : . r raising steam 
and racing dangerously through the streets, would run to the fire, 
where the hose-reel would probably be all ready, brought thereby 
their comrades I h e hose and at once 
deluge the fire in its incipient state. 

My examination of the country was brought as far down the 
line of conduit as Campbelltown without success, when Mr. Gipps 
showed me his proposal. In his company I visited the spot, and 
came to the conclusion thai . all bought it miidit not turnout so 
favourable as made out by Mr. Gipps, it might afford the desired 
delivery of 100 feet above Crown street. Having read that Mr. 
Moriarty had said 1 think in this very room— tb 
ing his selection of Prospect as a site for a le-mmr, if ^ vUf ; * , 
a site were found at a greater elevation he would be in favour of 
its adoption, I waited on that gentleman, and found that he had 
caused a survey of the Kenny Hill neighbourhood to be made, and 
on the face of that he pointed out that the capacity was not so great 

— 1 +u ~* ^- A H require twice as much ear: 

' T ,who had only made 
place, was fain to be content to abandontheidea. 
Since that time Mr. Cipps has re surveyed the site, and madesucn 
alterations and new dispositions— ami , 
which, being seal- 
course by Prospect-as to make it appear that the Governmew 
might well bestow a careful survey on both reservoir and p£ 
track, as, if proved correct, at least the coveted 10U teet 
pressure would be obtainable, along with ample storage cap J 
The action of the City Council (whom I have the honor k > 
in the capacity of City Engine) on the previous ■** » ^ 
to wait upon the Government with the request that tnev 
cause the claims of the scheme to be thoroughly >»^£f ^ h t 

i the spot) 

acy of the sun 

of the levels, would haven o 
.:„:*„ ^ +v,a snot} when set aga^ 

i recently learned that the Department h 
is as will increase the head at Crown-strt 
—I am not aware to what extent; but, as the head at Propped 
only 170 feet, and from which must be deducted the UOMM 
fall for delivery at a distance of 22 miles, the difference obtain 
must fall very short of the desired 240 feet above higb-wafc 
mark— in fact it can at most not be 10 feet. Not being able 
bear testimony to the correctness of Mr. Gipps's levels or tarn 
I feel bound to state that his estimates give me the i:,. 
being cut too low ; but I do not think it necessary for him i 
--lev, .1 <avi i pentii u •. i.-, if tin solieim isotherwis, f ( , ii 

the additional head obtained would, according to Mr. Clark'* e.-t 
mate, be heapl o red at i c »st of £150,000 < e tl it of tl 
.:■ of the cost i 
pumping to the higher k \ anything for tl 

wore tiieieei ... service, power for i ichiurrv. and the list i 
smaller street mains. I : .l rify that, so it 

as I could invest u he sit tin Kenny Hill Valley seemed i 
have a good soui. i '.,. l ..f r. ntive clav, and amide mat< n 
for both dam and puddle-wall. 

In the above I will, no doubt, be held to have subordinate- 
the scheme for the irrigation of '" 
that of the supply of Sydney. 

primary object of the scheme was a gravitation system for 
Sydney; secondly, that I have from an actual experiment at 
. in Victoria, found that the estimated cost per 
acre for prepaid ■ .leh as to deter 

proprietors from using it. If in my eagerness for a high-pressure 
scheme for this city I have allowed myself to be trouhh-me to 
those carrying out the present scheme/ my excuse is that having 
for over twenty-four years witnessed the beneficial results of such 
a -scheme in about five towns oi Victoria, I am ver\ loth to he 
content with a low pressure system for this city. Jt would have 
been far more congenial for me to have concurred in what had been 

their 1 

me introduction of a higher pressure in the mams would i»e dis- 
astrous in burs— with regard to some of 
the mains laid in a • H> Bait ; the iron msome 
°t the pipes in such localities has been structurally changed to a 
kmd of plumbago, and the present pressure is gradual h de.-troy- 
JJg them ; but the general run of pipes are the same thiekuc- a-, 

ag 300 feet head of pressor- 
Another source of annoyance would also make itself felt if a high- 
pee — viz., the bursting of lead services, 
^ery ir on service-pipe is attached to the main by a length of 

2 or 3 feet of lead piping, and this, instead of having been of 
the weight of 9 lb. per lineal yard, is only 5 11). and no doubt a 
great many of these and some of the iron service-pipes, which are 

to what I say this evening ; I cannot but regret this, as how- 
ever favourable I may be to the examination of the claims 
urged, I cannot speak of them profit!... .ally, not ha\i:i- mid 
a level or theodolite on the ground, and am here as a private 
citizen anxious for the securing of the best scheme, and the City 
Council have intimated their intention of urging on the Government 
the closest scrutiny of them before it is abandoned. 

Mr. C. Stuart said he had a resolution to propose which would 
bring the consideration by the Society of Mr. Gipps's scheme to a 
head, yet without restraining discussion upon the same. Of course 
the Commissioners who recommended the scheme now being carried 
out deserved every credit for the attention they had -mn to ue 
subject, and the Gov.-rmnnd also <h-.s-rv.-d every credit for uaumj 
obtain,,! the- s.-rvic * of an ac-oiuplhdc-d hydraulic engineer like 
Mr Chirk to .niid<- tln-ir roiin ■< ■!■ ■ " ' '!"■ - !i »" suhjivt, Mr. UarK, 
as a m h-ncilicTii m had don, his dui- . and those at the head of the 

merit of ^teTschele. ^There migh 



propounded to him to say which was the be 

taken all over the country and then asked to J 

for himself, or, as was done in the present < 

an elaborate scheme put before him for his decision, uc _--■ 

Stuart) scarcely thought that justice was done to M 

ning's scheme, for although the Government afforded some ■ & 

assistance, yet he did not have the assistance which was nece b j 

to enable him to put the thing before a man like Mr Ctak 

proper scientific or professional v, ,.i. Whatever Mr. Mannui* 

UU w, worth, ifwas not presented to Mr Clark :m aw* * 

he could make anything out of it. But now they had a J"F 

before them whiel 1 i ,k n markably plausible— and M * ug_ 

appeared to have ,,, l^^±^^%^^lS^ 

"f^-i rXt^st^ 

Sleety of New South' Wales, Wing W?™^^ 
nortance of a water service which should provide P 

of pure water to the city of Sydney and the rapidly 
future manufactories of the Colony the invaluable 

S and at the same time secure to the present and 

duable advantage of 

Iruulic power, are of opinion that the Government should at 

i proceed to the full examination of the water scheme pro- 
l-.und.-d by Mr. F. B. Gipps." 

The Chairman pointed out that, unless the by-law of the Society 
ruling that notice must be given of every resolution were sus- 
pended, he could not receive the motion proposed by Mr. Stuart. 

Mr. Stuart then moved that the by-law the Chairman had 
referred to be suspended. 

The Chairman remarked that the discussion on the question of 
water supply had better proceed, and the resolution which had 
fled thereon could be dealt with afterwards. 

Dr. Belgrave congratulated the Society upon the action it had 
taken to ventilate the long d< | - 'I'tant question 

of water supply, and bring it forcibly before the Government and 
the Country. When the question 'came before Parliament last 
session he had been and. r : Prospect scheme 

was to give high pressure by pumping, but he had since ascertained 
that it was only proposed to pump half-a-million gallons toAYaverley 
and a very sin: j : -h-.t the service in 

Sydney would be essentially a low pressure one, which was totally 
unequal to the requ'unn. nts «.f t « it) The great ad\ nt i-i - i.f 
a high-pressure scheme had been pointed out by Mr. Norman Self e, 
in a paper which he read to that Society, showing that water was a 
motor of considerable value which had been well used in Victoria 
in the direction of mechanical appliances. It was also a motor 
which would increase its value to the community, and. if the high 
Mr. Ginns were carried out, would 
al and ot 

equally well ada ; - ! 1 1 lent At such places where 

there were great the development of mdus- 

tricsahiMl,.,,,...^.!!,,. M .,-wee carried along the route Mr. Gipps 
proposed would be a powerful motor. With a low-pressure service 
we should be entirely deprived of revenue from that source, and 
this was a matter well worth consideration. The difference in the 
cost of the length of dams and capacity of reservoirs contemplated 
by Mr. Gipps's scheme was very satisfactorily met by the great 
economical advantages of his plan. Assuming that it would cost 
twice as much at the outset as the scheme at present accepted by 
Government, the difference would ultimately be made up by the 
value of the water as a motive power. There were some disadvan- 
tages no doubt, as Mr. Jones had pointed out, that would accrue 
from the adoption of the high-level service. He had no doubt that 
a different reticulation of the service-pipes would be required, and 
Probably the renewal of the larger pipes ; but this expense would 

be amply compensated for by the super; 
the use of water as a motive power. There were one or 
however, that he would like to be informed upon by Mr. Gipps. 
One of these was whether he had included in i.>< ^timatethe ilu.ono 
or £20,000 which would probably be required for the renewal of 
pipes, which would have to be replaced during the next few years . 
and if so, how many miles of piping he calculated would require 
tc be renewed. The use of open canals for the conveyance of 
water was Aery objectionable, as he had been convinced by his 
observations in London and elsewhere, for they were open to pol- 
lution by the most offensive matter, which became a fruitful 
source of disease, from much of which those districts stpfStd 
with water by em-lo^d pip -s was free. The purity of the water, 
therefore, was of vital importance, and should be carefully bam 
in mind in di^cu^ing .1 ^ Ij.-iik- like that proposed. In that 
scheme, however, he did not notice that any refer 
to the position of his supply reservoir, or how- much the 

uil.-s around there t 

indeed, the country wn, singularly suitable tor a 

He believed the regulations of the Socie" 

to second the re: 
it proposed, yet 
further investigati 

onal acqua 

ed in the question. 

.died capable of impounding air 

-- 1 - -uitable «~ ' 

wever much lie might appi 
•od that Mr. (Jip; - «hei 
K ,j authorities having no conne 
by personal acquaintance or by professional interests, witn tno 
concerned in the question. „. , 

Mr. Goodlet and Mr. A. Dean spoke in favour of Mr. wpp 
scheme. . , . , „ rp( . sur e 

Dr Belgrave observed that th 
service would reduce fire i 
rates. Such would be tl 

pubHc^nT which "jSple whThad travelled on **gffi 

missed so much. There would be 1 1 

streets bv means of pipes much ». 

now. The tramcars might be driven as they were am 

; tm phericp, i, ; ,,ul J - { ^, p , v b»l 

storage reserv. ' okiefly of shales 

the water would invariably be cloudy or muddy, and that in 
flowing direct through pipes it would be delivered in that condition 
to the different service reservoirs in Sydney; whilst by flowing 
through a long canal, as by the Prospect scheme, all matter in 

delivered into Sydney in a much clearer condition. l\ That for 
irrigation purposes the Kenny Hill scheme is vastly inferior to 
the Prospect. 3. That a gravitation scheme from Null's Hill 
reservoir has already been rejected by the Commissioners, owing to 
the expense of iron piping. 

In answer to the first objection, I would point out that the 
physical and gi the country of the Prospect 

reservoir is nearh ■ ical with that of the Kenny Hill reservoir, 
so that to admit of the correel luction we shall 

have to assume that 5 miles of canal will be sufficient for settle- 
ment purposes. But experience in our river system has proved 
that the water in some of those which have as low a fall as 1 foot 
becomes muddy. able or unfit for any domestic 

purposes, owing 'or 80 miles higher up the 

stream. Supposing, however- such a desirable condition could be 
guaranteed by allowing the water to flow through an open canal, 
it must then be admitted that the accumulation of sediment in 
the bottom of the canal would necessitate its constant cleansing ; 
and I think it must also be allowed that there is, in a sanitary 
point of view, a much stronger objection to the extension of such 
an open conduit, owing to the increased opportunities for the con- 
tamination of the water. In my remarks on the sanitary in- 
fluence of the two schemes I drew especial attention to this fact ; 
and I would add yet a few more experiences, the more deeply to 
impress its importance. It is now ascertained beyond doubt, 
through the patient investigations of Professors Krupp, Kolbe, and 
Pettenkofer, thai and yellow fever are propa- 

gated through the microscopic fungi from faeces of patients, and 
that they can be especially generated in a tropical climate, and 
through water can spread disease and mortality to a most alarm- 
Professor Smith, favour the clearness of the water in one way, in 
another would expose it to the more deadly influences of con- 
tamination, aidi . - ths various organic sub- 
stances, both aniii hich it would be impossible 
to keep out of an uncovered conduit. In direct answer to Una 
J* fc»on, I toil k I < i < t« supplied from 
the Kenny Hill Reservoir wi :i as P urer - In 
the first place, it would flow direct into the service-reservoir in 

25 per 

ordinary seasons, and the shales being laid with brick or masonry, 
the water for delivery would be almost as clear as when it entered 
the Nepean tunnel. Even storms would hardly affect the clear- 
ness of the water, owing to the rocky character of the sources of 
the Nepean to the point of supply. During heavy continuous 
rains a small catch-drain round the top of the reservoir would 
collect all drainage or denudatoiy matter and carry it off into 
another valley. One other From high pressure 

I forgot to dwell t of flushing sewers. A few 

years since, the Health Officer in California officially reported that 
per cent, of the recent extraordinary mortality was due to the 
dition of the sewers, resulting from insufficient power for 

With regard to irrigation, it appears to me the Kenny Hill 
scheme has am . than the Prospect, as both 

the Nepean and Campbell town valleys can be irrigated from the 
first, whilst the advantages for manufacturing purposes for both 
those places is incalculable. The supply for Sydney being drawn 
during ordinary seasons from the service reservoir, the whole of 
the surplus inflow, after providing for evaporation, would be 
available for irrigation or manufacturing purposes to the above 
places. The last objection, that a gravitation scheme from Jtalls 
Hill Reservoir had "been refused owing to the expense of piping, 
appears to me no reason why, with iron at such a much lower 
rate, it should be objected to now. From Mr. M< 
to the Commissioners, it seems that the Bull's Hill reservoir was 
capable of storing only 4,636 million gallons, and 
level was 260 feet above sea-level. Th 

the dam 96J feet high, and would contain 2\ cubic yards of< earut 
These are all such different conditions to those ottered oy 
Kenny Hill scheme, having its reservoir 110 feet higher, its dam ^ 
feet lower, and its impounding area so much larger, as har y 

Belgrave, Mr. Gipps said that n Uw .*— 
the present pipes would do for his scheme. Selt-actorig 
could be applied to shut off too heavy a strain. The supp 7 ^ 
be increased to any extent by the addition of 10 or 20 feet to^ 
walls of the reservoir, for the contour of the country ^ 

favourable to conserving an immense quantity of water. 
extra outlay would not be large. suspension 

Mr. Poolman seconded Mr. Stuart's motion for the su f ^ 
of the by-law to allow the original resolution to be p 
vote. The motion was lost. 

On Wells in Liverpool Plains. 
By T. K. Abbott, P.M., Gunnedah. 
[Bead be/ore the BoyaJ Society o/N.S. W., 3 Xo>; , 

Some few years ago, at the request of my friend Mr. Russell, I 
was induced to institute a series of inquiries -with the view of 
ascertaining the depth at which the underground springs may be 
relied upon as permanent in the district in which I reside. I 
regret that I met with hut little success at first, and found exist- 
ing in the minds of the proprietors of run'- a disinclination to im- 
part the information desired. Gunnedah heing nearly centrally 
situated in the Liverpool Plains, and the general character of the 
plains in the interior of this Colony being somewhat similar, I 
thought that if I could obtain reliable data as to the depth at 
which water was found i ! i strict, it would 

be a fair index of what might and probably would occur in other 
parts of the Colony where the surroundings were like. So little 
success did I meet with, and so slowly lid the information I 
required come to hand, that this paper which should have been 
completed and read in 1877 has dragged "its slow length along" 
to the year 1880. Indeed, on many of the stations in this district 
I am mainly indebted to the free-selectors for whatever informa- 
tion I possess. 

With a view of making the inquiry as complete as possible I 
caused to be printed the following paper, which was distributed 
throughout the district :— 

1. Name of station ? 

2. Position of well, parish and portion ? 

3. Size of well? 

4. Character of surface ? , 

5. Notes of all strata passed through, including thickness and 
character to first water 1 

6. Quantity and quality of first water, also remarks on its 
appearance, i.e. how it came— in rock, gravel, or otherwise ? 

7. Like account of strata and water to bottom of well ( 

8 - Dip and amount of strata 1 , 7 

9. State instances (if any) which have come to your knowledge 
*here brackish water having been first struck has been passed 
through and fresh water found? , , , - 

10. Instances of the reverse (if any) within your knowledge ? 

The object of these questions was to obtain relii ' 
the flow of water beneath tbe surface of the earth. It is well 
known that river- t; kii _- ih< if rise in the mountains flow for 
many miles and are eventually lost in the plains. If it could be 
ascertained beyond doubt that these rivers maybe reached by 
well-sinking or boring it would impart confidence in the per- 
manence of the springs. I believe the area of the watershed of 
which the water passes Bourke, the Darling. Namoi, Barwin, 
Gwydir, and all their tributaries, is about 140,000 square miles. 
The average rainfall at and about Bourke would be 16 inches; 

] igh stations have about 40 inches. " In Queensland, from which 
the Darling at Bourke drains very larj. lv. tbe rainfall/' Mr. 
Russell says, "would, I sh< 10 inches." Esti- 

mating however tbe rainfall throughout at 16 inches, and reducing 
it over this largo ami in tbe usual way for evaporation and soak- 
a"o. and in ord-r to avoid rbc possibility of error reducing what 
remains by one-half, tbe river at Bourke xhovld be 200 feet deep 
and -200 vards widr, and flow all the year round ! At Bourke 
tlio river in sotttrtiwrH nearly dry. Where then does all this 

i w of assisting as far as I can over a limited area 
towards decisively solving this problem that I have undertaken 
the collection of facts regarding veils in this district. lean 
only at present supply a paper upon wells in the county o: 
Pottinger. Th< any other ot *f 

counties in this neighbourhood is of too meagre a character to 

tined. by means of the forms I had printed and circu- 
late], information regarding about 100 wells in the district ot 
, accompanying this paper I have prepared a piw 
| over an area 

pwardsof 2,000,0 

pastoral prmeip: 
ire generally lev* 

theories. My mission 


I cannot begin better than teas of one of the 

most remarkable wells in the district, numlri' '20 on the plan. It 
is at Bando head-station, at an elevation, I should say, of 100 or 
150 feet above the plain. The country is basaltic; and immedi- 
ately behind the well rises a range of mountains from 1,000 to 
1,600 feet higher than the myall slope upon which the well is 
situated. The lat.> mauaj. /-Mi V.'. I\ Ki-ei„ has obligingly 
furnished me with the following : — " Size of the well, 7 bet 
square ; character of soil at surface, pipeclay ; strata, unknown. 
This well is 90 feet deep, and has 90 feet of water in it. Its 

in its immediate deinit\ it .a- with >'i ; " ub\ that a team of 
bullocks could bo watered. This was about thirteen years since, 
and during the late drought the well has overflowed continu- 
ously." I luv\e flfopieet 1 ^ ivl n'l e.l thb well mVfedi 

to say, been furnished. 1 dioul.l estimate the flow, however, at 
about 20 gallons per minute, and in thirteen years this would 
amount to sufficient, if conserved, to form a lake 4 feet in depth 
and 32 acres in extent. The character of the ridges is, as I have 
stated, basaltic onbark; and in 

idditioi to the l markab] verflo\ »f this well which succeeded 
* ru g-l irking, several of the little previously dry watercourses 
are now trickling rills, u.d on ^ away from the range, m one 
instance at least, quite treble the quantity of the overflow from 
the well. WhetJ * is occasioned 

by the sapping of the timber, or whether it occurs through the 
operation of natural causes, I am not prepared to state ; but it 
appears somewhat remarkable that the well should have existed 
for several years and the watercourses retained their normal con- 
dition for a peri. ye* 18 " 01ll - v to d . evelo P 
into permanenl when the eucalypti were 

Instances of Salt Water. 
Bearing upon question 9 in the form supplied, although not 
exactly in answer to it, Mr. Keene states :— " I knew of an in- 
stance on Colly Blue (Collv Blue is on Coomoo CoomooOe k. wk 
Plan) where an old well 65 feet caved in. The water w ttns weu 
was limited and -dry fit for stock. A new 

well was sunk 12 feet to the east of the old one, and at 33 fee ; a 
bed of sand was pierced and an unlimited supply of excellent fresh 
water obtained." This fact appears tome to be 
would prove that the water below the surface is held in channels 
and may be obtained at very short intei 
conditions. In the well which caved in the water was obtained at 

284 on well; 

65 feet, brackish, limited, and unfit for human use. In the second, 
only 12 feet distant, water, excellent in quality and unlimited in 
is obtained at 33 feet. 
Beyond Bando head-station, and situated on the side of the same 
range of mountains, there are two remarkable springs called Tam- 
bar. These springs are about 100 yards apart, 4 miles from 
the plain, and elevated above it somewhere over 200 feet. In one 
the water is contained in a deep cup-like cavity in an otherwise 
dry and stony-looking spot, and flows across the main road from 
Boggabri to Coolah. The outflow from this spring varies con- 
siderably with the state of the weather. On bright sunny days 
the flow is only about 120 gallons per hour, and c 
day (although no rain may be falling) the outflow 
reaches 400 gallons per hour. The second spring h 
40 feet lower than the one just described, 
1,200 gallons per hoar. I carefully exami 
not discover the existence of any sufficient catchment from which 
these springs might derive their supply. My observations lead 
me to the belief that the fountain head is situated many miles from 
where the springs break forth. Upon the plain in front of Tanibar 
some wells have been sunk 100 feet deep without obtaining water. 
Tambar is elevated over 200 feet above the plain, and the water 
flows from the surface. 

At Bomera head-station there is a well, not numbered on the 
plan, only 6 feet deep, where the water almost always remains 
level with the surface, and the supply is practically inexhaustible. 
This well is distant about 12 miles in a south-westerly direction 
from Tambar, and is situated in a sandstone formation on a slope 
about 200 yards from a creek, the bed of which is 40 feet lOT® 
than the water in the well, and this creek is frequently dry. 
Some of the land in the vicinity has been cleared, but very little 
sapped. It appears to me to be similar in character to the spring 
at Tambar, and the fountain-head must, as in the other case, ^ 
many miles distant from where it flows. To the north-west 
Bando there is a most remarkable spring at Garrawilia nwu 
station, and upon a recent visit I availed myself of the , opp*£ 
nity to measure the outflow. I found that this spring yielded w 
enormous quantity of 9,600 gallons per hour. I rode over ^ 
spring where it makes its first appearance and was J ir P^ 
find the ground quite hollow for a space of upwards of M » « : » 
nndup,n listening one ,-ould hear the sound of £*£ 
water under foot. In many places there happened to M ^ 
fissures or holes in the ground, and the water , C °^ of a bout 
rushing along on its subterranean course at a ctep ^^ed 
3 or 4 feet from the surface. A large dam has been 
below this spring, and one of the most extensive sheep ■ ^ 
establishments in the Colony is supplied with water oj r 

engines from this dam. The -whole area of the valley ia 
the spring arises does not exceed 2,000 acres, ami the yi 
annum at the rate quoted amounts to nearly eighty-live mil 
gallons of water. There can be no doubt whatever that tin 
of this spring is far remove. 1 from tin d: 
in w lii.-li it occurs. 

On Moredevil Station, near the sow;' 
years ago, a well Avas sunk to a considerable depth. Th 

80 feet. No sign of water was obtained befoiv this lei 
reached, when, as the workmen broke through KMBM hard n 
water rushed in so rapidly that they were compelled to a 
their tools and make good their escape by means of a n 

feet of the surface. Some years ago, as the well just d< 
exhibited symptoms of caving in, another well was sunli 
80 yards easterly from the first. This well is 100 feet dot 
is situated higher on the slope by 1 or ."> feet than the fir: 
When the bottom was reached the water came as rapidb 
the first, and rose to within 4 feet of the surface, and 
following morning the lirst well had overflown, and a 
stream amounting to upwards of 300 gallons per hour was 
from it. This has continued ever since, through all vari 
seasons, without cessation. I have obtained from Mr. W 
the present man a- flowing statement 

I cannot do better than give in his own words : u 
measured the rate at which the water rises in both well 
first is 6 feet x 6 feet, and I think 80 feet deep, and is i 
within 20 yards of a spring where as a rule the water is 
ground. This is the well which overflows. January 5 
out 5 feet of water ; rose 30 inches in 50 minutes. Jami; 
took 20 inches of water ; took two hours to fill again. , 
28th, took out 4 feet of water ; rose 25 inches in 60 i 
February 14th, took out 7 feet of water ; rose 18 inches 
minutes. The above measurements were all made in fine \ 

water rises much more rapidly than it does at the higher level. 
This is the case with both wells, as you will perceive by the 
following : No. 2 well, 10 feet x 8 feet, about 100 feet deep, 
situated about 80 yards from the spring, and the same distance 
from the spring in an easterly direction from both. The water in 
this well stands about 4 feet below the water in well No. 1. 
South of this about 20 yards, limestone is on the surface, and the 
ground rises gradually. On the lower ground below both wells 
pipeclay is I may say on the surface; the depth to which it 
extends I don't know, but it is several feet. Water rises as 

follows : January 5th, took out 2 feet of water ; the first 13 
inches rose in 1 hour and 45 minutes ; then 2 inches in 60 
minutes ; the remaining 9 inches at the rate of 1 inch per hour. 
January 8th, took out 1 foot of water ; rose 1 inch per hour." 

I have given Mr. Williams' statement exactly as it is written, 
and its value as a record cannot be doubted. My labours would 
have been considerably lessened, the results expedited, and my facts 
enhanced in value, had all the persons to whom I applied for infor- 
mation been as obliging as the late manager at Bando, and the 
managers of Bomera, Moredevil, and Trinkay. To those gentlemen 
my best thanks are due for the information they so promptly afforded 
It appeared strange to me that the weather should so much 
affect these wells and springs ; and in turning the matter over in 
my mind I th oi . a in the fact that 

on bright sunn i vaporate an enormous quan- 

tity of moisture, which upon dull days would be retained or 
rather not drawn from the earth. In the case of the springs at 
Tambar and Gairaw ilia, whi« h must have their fountain-head far 
distant from where they appear, and the wells of which Mr. Vil- 
liams gives the description, a little reflection will show that the 
cause of this alternation in the outflow cannot be ascribed to the 
influence of the vegetation. The springs at Tambar are on the side 
of a mountain, and 300 feet from the summit ; and the springs in 
the wells at Moredevil are found at depths respectively of 80 feet 
and 100 feet, a depth to which no ordinary roots would penetrate. 
Coomoo Coomoo i ; i stath n situated upon a creek of the same 
name, and there are a few it> winch unfor- 

tunately I have not been able to fix upon the map. Near the 
head station there are two wells on the creek about 10 feet above 
its bed, and the water rises in each to within a foot or two of the 
top. The creek is often dry. Lower clown there is another wet 
not far from the same watercourse, which makes water at the ra 
of nearly 7,000 gallons per hour. Coomoo Coomoo Creek, as 
be observed by the map, flows out on the plain, and in wet seaso 
forms Goran Lake a sheet of water some 25 to 30 miles round. 
This lake, which comes into existence during very wet sea *\ 
and sometimes lasts for several years, forms in wh; 
a depression in the plain, the borders of which are niarkewy 
defined l,v an. I -h of the water varies from 

3 to 7 feet. S ■.. ., ,i u il. ■ to the south-west, Trinkay scrub 
Che soil is oi » 
i , i , ';, \ vvvhere in the scrub goo* 1 

The well numbered 59 on the plan is situated 
and as will be seen by the Schedule, flows over i 
sunk at the base of a conical isolated hill, to a 
feet, and at an elevation above the level of the 
It has continued to flow for fourteen or fifteen 
■ r )7 on the plan is about 5 miles from No. 59, 
between the latter ami the plain, and about 100 
welli ■ 

dipping slightly 

No. 59 this would plac< t] be level of the 

flowing well above described. 

With regard to the po- : ' i. h or salt water, 

passing through it, and then obtaining a supply of fresh, my in- 
formants generally assert tl • within their 
knowledge of such cases. Well No. 86 (which is marked upon 
the plan, although it is in the county of Buekland) affords a 
remarkably good illustration of this. The description shortly is 
as follows : — " 90 feet deep ; at 50 feet salt water came in large 
quantities ; at 90 feet unlh ;' - re water in 
5 feet of sand. -nation of the 

sand ; 2 feet loose water-worn stones and sai d mixed : first watt r 
at 25 feet, in , . limited : quality hard and 

brackish ; wat l liave no 

information of instances of the n-\ < r>e. /. . U ■ A water being found 
first and braeki ""' reason that 

as soon as fresh water is struck well-sinking ceases. 

The wtueiv: . ,,r the country is about 

the same for the Mooki River and Cox's Creek. The plains 
extend some 30 miles from one to the other past Lake Goran, but 
in other places :' I by low scrubby ranges 

"id abrupt basaltic mountains. The plains on each are generally 
the same loose b **>ns producing 

an abundant u . With 25 wells on the 

western watershed of the Mooki, I find the average depth to be 
*H feet, and the average depth of water in < h w,.-h 1- U 
feet. In 40 . - atershed of Cox's Creek, 

extending over nearly 70 miles, I find the foil- m 
Depth of well, 7 :-■»• in well, 16 feet, lhe 

average of 24 wells on the western watershed of Cox s Creek is as 

288 ON WELL; 

follows : — Depth of well, 62 feet; depth of water- in each wbH, '22 
feet. I may here mention that west of Cox's Creek, at a distance 
of 10 miles or less, loose sandy soil is encountered, and water, I 
am credibly info] ed almost anywhere at from 

10 to 20 feet from the surface. A sandstone formation extends 
to tli" Casth r he grandest iron- 

bark forest in the Colonies. Of the 89 wells situated on the west- 
ern watershed of the Mooki and the eastern and western water- 
sheds of Cox's Creek, the average depth is 63 feet 6 inches, and 
the depth of water for each well is 1 7 feet 6 inches. From one 
end to the other along Cox's Creek an unlimited supply of good 
water may be obtained at an average depth of 50 feet. Of tire 89 
wells of which I have spoken as lying on the watershed of Cox's 
Creek and the Mooki, I find that 73 bottomed in sand or gravel 
with an abundance of good fresh water. Six bottomed in clay, 

brackish; oi in ml with ,1 m 'ml one in rock, with 

water good. Tim u , ,a L . d.-nll, of tlms- last 16 wells I find to be 

rat Liverpool 
fc plains of the 

)f the pole serves to elevate 

the benefits of clv ^; tlon . nM 
» or four stations wind-engines 

,> large as those generally sunk 

'•'' '""'''V'^lter Tweak and 
'■" v ' '","' ' " a sinmostof 

16 inches in diameter could be made (and at one-tentli the cost) 
which would supply the place of any of the large wells. In most 
good wells the water shows a tendency to rise to the surface, and 
in some cases does actually rise and flow over. If wells were bored 
and tubed so that the water if it did rise could not escape through 
layers of sand or the fissures in the various strata, the chances of 
having flowing wells would be considerably increased. At any 
rate, in attempting to solve the problem " Where does our rainfall 
go?" boring machines must be called i to r q ' in'on, and it may 
, wdien our store of gen i added to 1 y 


that which 1 L:ne ende.'\ uured to place 
before this Society t< night, n Ih d.-d from all parts of the Colony, 
the vast interior plains about the Darling may be rendered as pro- 
fitable and productive as any other of the more favoured portions 
of this great land. Lieutenant Maury, in his celebrated work on 
" Oceanic Currents," begins with the startling sentence " There is 
a river in the ocean." It may fall to the lot of some member of 
our Royal Society to exclaim at no distant date " There are rivers 
in the earth," and, with the assistance of those who are in a posi- 
tion to render it, to indicate their lo« ■ nth at which they 
may be found, and how rendered serviceable to mankind. 

Postscript. _The map which accompanies this paper has been kindly 
prepared by Messrs. ror, and A. P. D. Hamilto'i, 

Und Agent ; its accuracy may therefore be relied upon. 


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WEDNESDAY, 12 MAY, 1880. 


Charles Moore, F.L.S., V.P., in the Chair. 
The rumutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The Annual Report of the Council was then read as follows :— 
In presenting the Report for 1879, the Council has the pleasure 
to congratulate the members on the continued and increasing 
prosperity of the Society. The number of new members elected 
during the year is fifty-one, the number of members which the 
Society has lost by death is four, by resignation ten, and by 
removal from the lists on account of the non-payment of the 
annual subscription eleven, thus leaving the actual increase in the 
year twenty-six, and making the total number of ordinary 
members upon the roll to date 430. During the year the Society 
has elected the following gentlemen as honorary members, via :— 
-Mr. George Bentham, F.R.S., V.P.L.S., C.M.G., &c, the Royal 
gardens, Kew ; Dr. Charles Darwin, F.R.S., M.A., F.G.S., 
*-^S., &e., Beckenham, Kent : Professor Huxlev, F.R.S., LL.D, 
*.<*.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S., Sec., Royal School of Wxm, Sooti 
Kensington ; Professor Owen, C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.L.S., 
V-P.Z.S., &c. the British M total number 

ot honorary members nineteen. Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., F.G.S., 
* c > of the British Museum, has been elected a corresponding 
member of the Society. T 1 , • is : Action to report 

to the Society that vol. xii, for 1878, has been duly distributed to 
all the members, and that vol. xiii will very shortly be ready. 
financially the Society's affairs are in a satisfactory condition, 
"e Council has also to announce that in accordance with the 
resolution of the Society passed at the general meeting held on 1st 
October, 1879, it has ordered a pair of dies for the Clarke 
memorial medal, at a cost of 100 guineas, which Messrs. J. S. and 
A. B. "Wyon promise to have completed in about six months from 


this date ; after this is paid, a balance of £200 will be left, which 
the Council propose for the present to leave in the Bank as a 
fixed deposit, at 6 per cent. At the Council meeting held on 
April 28, it was unanimously resolved to award the Clarke 
memorial medal for the year 1878 to Professor Owen, C.B., <tc. ; 
for the year 1879, to Mr. C. Bentham, C.M.G., &c ; and for 
1880, to Professor T. H. Huxley, LL.D., Sec. Roy. Soc, London, 
for their valuable contributions to the knowledge of the palaeon- 
tology, botany, and natural history respectively of Australia. During 
the past year the Society has received 664 volumes and pamphlets 
as donations and exchanges, as distributed 523 

volumes and pamphlets, as per list. In addition it has suhscnl ■ • 
to thirty-six scientific journals and publicati >n>, and h; -pmvl - I 
several works of reference. In the early part of the year the 
whole of the by-laws and regulations were revised by a Committee 
appointed for that purpose ; the rules as revised will be incor- 
porated with the forthcoming volume. During the year the 
Society has held eight meetings, and the majority of the Sections 
have held regular monthly meetings. The report of the curators 
of the geological cabinet shows that it contains thirty-six specimens, 
and the Society's microscopical cabinet now contains about **> 

The following Financial Statement for the year ending 30th 
April, 1880, was presented by the Honorary Treasurer :— 

Receipts. <> a d 

£ s. d. £ "• d ' 

To Balance in Union Bank 30th April 58 2 

" scriptions and entrance fees, from 1st 

May, 1879, to 30th April, 1880 ... ... 463 9 

1st January, 1879, to 
oer, 1879, total," .C473 Us. 
Proportion of Gas Account paid 
of Art, to 31st April, 1879 

Government Grant, on subscriptions paia 

sundry Societies 

By Temporary laying < 

„ Refreshments for 8 

„ Sundry expenses — cc 
,, Furniture and effect; 

ExiENMTiKE— continued. 

£ B. d. £ B. I 

By Book-binding 11 7 1 

,, Reporter (discussions on papers) *i (> 

., iVliverm- Society's Journals t,> members ... -1 1.'. •! 

,, Petty cash and postage 32 

„ Freight, carriage, packing-cases, &c 10 15 3 

„ Insurance on hooks and furniture 1 5 

„ Gaa Account 21 6 9 

„ Assistant Secretary's salary to 30th April, 

„ Housekeeper, to April 30, 1SS0 10 

„ Ditto for survey examinations 1 2 ('. 

,, Ditto refresh.'^ .s 14 4 
„ Covering and packing exchanges and 

presentations to Foreign Societies 7 10 6 

,, Interest, rates, and insurance 129 10 

„ Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1SS0 MM I 

£784 15 8 

Note.— Vouchers for the sums mentioned in the note to last year's 
Balance Sheet have been produced. 

H. G. A. WRIGHT, Honorary Treasurer. 
W. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 

a April, 1880. 


i Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1*70 •"> 

. Rent of hall to Academy of Art 200 

, Hire of rooms to sundry Societies 16 1 

from General Account 129 

i Interest on fixed deposit £100, due 21st 

February, 1880 6 ] 

i Ditto ditto £100, due 30th April, 1880 6 

t on £2,000 @ 6% to 31st March, 1S80 

, , Balance in the Union Bank, 30th April, 1880 18115 6 

£610 16 6 

H. G. A. WRIGHT, Honorary Treasurer. 
AV. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 

30th April, 1880. 

ENDING 30th APRIL, 1880. 

Assets. £ -• °i 

To Balance in Union Bank to credit of General Account 38 10 * 

,, Subscripts 

Furniture, painting, books, &c. — value i 
s insured 

University Musical Society 

,, Dr. Renwick 

Mr. H. C. Dangar 
.:■-'■■:' ' I 

, , Rooms due for Survey Examination • 

, Academy of Art— proportion of Gas Account due from 

May, KS79, to Mav, 1S80 . 

Balance in Union Bank to credit of Building Fund Account 
Amount of fixed deposits ,, >» 

£5,115 1 
Liabilities. ~tf~~§~ 

.-Periodicals • ••■ — 

„ By Alexander Dean— Bookcases in Library, and alterations ^ g 
to building, &c 9 oo0 o 

£5,115 1 
H G A. WRIGHT, Honorary Treasurer. 
Examined— W. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 

30th April, 1880. 
The statement was adopted. 

Dr. P. Sydney Jones and Mr. A. S. Webster were elected 
Scrutineers for the election of officers and members of Council. 

A ballot was then taken, and the following gentlemen were 
duly elected officers and members of Council for the current year:— 

Dr. ADOLPH LEU. a-, i .' 

1'IXOX. \Y. V [■' C S MfXTEr -'l L. L. L. 


The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society :_ 

Dixson, Craig, M.B, CM., Edin., M.B.C.S, Eng., Sydney. 
Dixson, Thomas, M.B., CM., Edin., Sydney. 
Moses, David, Forest Lodge. 
Sandy, James, Ashfield. 
Wilkinson, Robt. Bliss, Sydney. 
. The certificates of four new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of ten for the first time. 

i The Chairman announced that a number of copies of two works 
by Br. Schomburgk, of Adelaide, had been received from the 
author for distribution amongst the members upon application, 

1. " On the Naturalized Weeds and other Plants in South 

Australia." ...■»* 

2. -On the TJrari ; the Death Arrow Poison of the Macusis, 

an In : ; kuana." r . 

Also, that a small apparatus the invention of Dr. U roan 

fitchard, intended to facilitate the preparation of animal tissue 

for microscopic examination had been presented to the Society by 

M LR. A. A. Morehead. ' A . ,, 

Three hundred and twelve donations were laid upon the table. 

The following letters from Mr. Darwin and Professor Owen 

Down, Beckenham, Kent. 
Railway Station, Orpington, S.E.R., 
Dear Sir, 28 October, 1879. 

I beg leave to acknowledge the receipt of your courteous letter of 
August 7, in which you announce to me that the Royal Society of New 
South Wales has conferred on me the honour of electing me one of their 
honorary members I as to express to the 

Council my acknowledgments and thanks for this honour. 

Yours faithfully and obliged, 

To A. Liversidge, Esq., Hon. Sec. Royal Society. 

My dear Sir, London, British Museum, 27 October, 1879. 

I have been ; August 7th, 1879, 

conTeymg tomi , election as honorary member of 

the Royal Society of New Soutli Wales. This mark of the sense of the 
general meeting of the Society of the value of my scientific labours I receive 
as an ample reward ; the more encouraging tome as coming 
from which I have received some of the most interesting 
labours. I return my most grateful and respectful acknowledgments. 
Believe me, faithfully yours 

nteresting subject 
:tfnl acknowledgm< 


Professor Liversidge, F.L.S., G.S., &c, Hon. i 

Upon the recommendation of the Council, Sir Joseph Dalton 
Hooker, M.D., K.C.S.I., C.B., F.RS.,&c., Director of the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, was unanimously elected an honorary member of 
the Society. 

The names of the Committee-men of the different Sections of 
the Society were announced, viz. : — 

Microscopy.— Chairman : Dr. Morris. Secretary: P-M e [; 
Committee: H. G. A. Wright, M.RC.S. ; G. D. Hirst, 
W. MacDonnell ; and F. B. Kyngdon. 
Literature and Fin* A rts. -Chairman : B. L. Montefiore. 
Secretary: Percy E. Williams. Committee: Uj^ 
Morell, C.E. ; L. W. Hart ; A. L. Jackson ; and Trevor 

Medical— Chairman: Alfred Roberts, M.RC.S. $ ec [ et *™t 
Drs. Sydney Jones and H. N. M'Lau.-in, MA. - 
mittee • Drs. Cox, Schuette, Fortescue, and H. «• 
Wright, M.RC.S. 
Mr. Chakles Moore, F.L.S., V.-P., then read his address. 

r were read and coniu 


The following gentlemen were duly elected corresponding mem- 
bers of the Society, viz. : — 

Hyde Clarke, Esq., V.-P, Ethnological Institute, London. 
Major-General Sir Edward Ward, K.C.M.G., K.E., London. 
F. B. Miller, Esq., F.C.S., Melbourne Mint. 
And the following as ordinary members, viz. : — 
Bush, Thos. James, Sydney. 
Haege, Hermann, Sydney. 
Hodgson, Wilfred, M.D., Sydney. 
Willis, Rev. Robt. Speir, Manly. 
The certificates of ten new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of five for the first time. 

The Chairman staled that, at the request of the Council, he 
wished to bring before the Society the desirability of lessening tin' 
debt upon the building, and regretted that out of more than four 
hundred (400) members only about one hundred bad subscribed to 
the Building Fund ; he said it was necessary members should more 
generally subscribe to the fund, and that if they did so the 
removal of the debt should be an easy matter, as the Government 
had agreed to grant a pound for every two pounds collected. 

Mr. Clarendon Stuart asked whether the President was aware 
that one of the candidates presided at the ballot box at the election 
of officers and Council on the 12th May last? 

The Chairman in reply t-uxt- <l tl u it ua- part of the business 
of the meeting supposed to be presided ovi-r by the Chairman of 
the evening, but in order that the other business might go on, a 
member of the Council was deputed to preside in place of the 
Chairman at the ballot, which for convenience had to be conducted 
in the library. He saw no impropriety in a member of the 
Council so presiding. <-\vn alt] u h the same member happened to 
have been proposed as a candidate. 

Mr. Stuart explained that he did not intend to suggest that 
there was any im] he did not think 

that the results of the ballot were affected in any way. 

Ninety-one donations were laid upon the table, also a plaster 
bust of Humboldt, ICretschmann. 

«n Ir " JoHN Tebbutt > F.R.A.S., then read two papers, viz. :— 
On the LongitB servatory," and on "The 

Opposition and Mamiitud. s of Uranus and Jupiter.'' 

Professor Liyersidge then read a paper by Mr. E. A. Rennie, 
-ai-A, B.Sc, &c, London, « On the Acids of the Native Currant. 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., then read a paper on 
home New Double Stars, with remarks upon several Binaries. 
Some geological specimens were exhibited by Mr. Makin, of 


Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., V.-P., in the Chair. 
There were between thirty and forty members present. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Beattie, Joseph A., Lie. K. and Q. Coll. Phys., Ireland; Lie. 

R. Coll. Surg., Irel., Parramatta. 
Brown, John Studd, Dubbo. 
Cox, George Henry, M.L.C., Sydney. 
Gardiner, Rev. Andrew, M.A., Sydney. 
Iredale, Lancelot F. TJ., Gunnedah. 
Mackenzie, R, North Shore. 
Marano, G. V., M.D., IXniv. Naples, Sydney. 
Plummer, John, Sydney. 
Winter, Irving, Carroll. 
The certificates of five new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of five for the first time. 

At Professor Huxley's request, Professor Liyersidge apologized 

for the former's non-acknowledgment of his election as an 

honorary member. Professor Liversidge read an extract from a 

letter in which Professor Huxley expressed his regret for the delay 

owing to press of engagements, and begged that his best_ thanks 

be conveyed to the Society for the honour conferred upon him, and 

stated his readiness at all times to give his services to forward the 

objects of the Society. , 

Professor Liversidge then read a paper by Baron Ferdwana 

von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., &c, "On a Catalogue of Wants 

collected during Mr. Alex. Forrest's Geographical Exploration oi 

North-west Australia in 1879." „,, 

Mr. John Tebisi n\ F.G.A.S., th, n read a paper on " ^ eWr °" 

Elements of Comet I, 1880, Great Southern Comet, the sam 

being illustrated by a model. . , , K 

Professor Liversidge then read a paper by Mr. W. E. AbWW 

on " Ringbarking and its Effects." ^ 

Mr. Charles Moore and the President remarked tnai _ 

Abbott's statements were not quite in accordance with the opim 

of certain other ject rip 

Dr. Leibius exhibited one of the cells used by Dr. Warren i jj 

la Rue, and Dr. Hugo Mueller, of London, for their cwonu 

silver battery. 

Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
There were between thirty and forty members V rese f- , 
The minutes of the last meetins were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
he Society : — 

Finlayson, David, Sydney. 

Forbes, Alexander Leith, M.A., Ashfield. 

Hill, John James, J.P., L.R.C.P.E., and L. F.P. and S.G. L. M., 

Lambton, Newcastle. 
Hill, Joseph Highani, M.D., Univ. Brussels, F.IU'.S. Edin., 

<fec, Sydney. 
Rome, Robert, Sydney. 

time, and three for the first time. 

The Hon. Treasurer announced that a circular had Leon issued 
to members in June last, asking for subscriptions to the Building 
Fund, and that in response thereto he had received the sum of 
£67 Ms. from twenty-eight members, also that several gentlemen 
had promised to double their subscriptions until the debt was 
paid off. 

Sixty-two donations were laid upon the table. 

The President, on behalf of the Council, gave notice of motion 
that, at the next general meeting, a resolution would be moved 
that the number of members be limited to 500. 

Dr. Leibius then read the introduction of a paper by Mr. R. 
Etheridge, junr., F.G.S., entitled " Notes on a Collection of Fossils 
from the Palaeozoic Rocks of New South Wales." 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson then read a paper by Dr. Ottaker Feist- 
mantel, "On G, .: made in 1876, in Queens- 
land, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania." 

Mr. H. C. Russell then described " A new method of printing 
Barometer and other Curves." 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson exhibited a piece of flexible sandstone 
found at Agra, in India. 

Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
There were about forty members present. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
°i the Society : — 

Halligan, Gerald H., Marrickville. 
Low, Andrew S., Merry lands. 
McKinney, Hugh Giffen, Newtown 
Manfred, Edmund C, Goulburn. 

Oakes, Arthur W., M.B., Mast. Surg. L.R.C.P. and 
L.R.C.S., Edim, Woollahra. 
The certificates of three new candidates were read for the second 
*"■*, and one for Ae first time. 


Twenty-five donations were laid upon the table. 

It was moved that the number of members be limited to 500. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Prof< asor Liversidge announced that he had received various 
documents from the Committee of Organization for the next Geo- 
logical Congress to be held at Bologna, in Italy, in October, 1881, 
with a request that he would make the arrangements knovrn as 
ssible in Australia In his capacity as repr. 

a the other Colonies, and would be willing to receive the 
names of any who wished to become members of this Conference. 

Mr. Russell I"" 1 ' h Y Mr - T - K - Abbott f 

" Water Supply from Wells" had not been received, and it would 
therefore have to be postponed. 

Professor Liversidge 'read a paper on "Hot Spring Waters 

from New Britain and Fiji"; also one on « The Composition oi 

■rf.-d on by Sea-water." ,„ 

Mr. H. C. Russkli, read a paper on « A new Barometer lable 
and said that the table had that day been brought into operation 
for the first time. . 

Mr. Russell distributed copies of an improved weather map.^ 

Professor Liversidge described and exhibited a col ec 
minerals received from the Balade and other mines m 

Hon. J. Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 

There were about fifty members present. 

TIip minutes of the last meeting were read and connrmea. 

ThefoCving gentlemen wer°e dnly eleeted ordinary members 
of the Society : 

, Robert, Sydney. 

Paling, W. H., South Kingston. ..,,.. gecon d 

The certificates of one new candidate were read for the seco 
time, and of eight for the first time. 

Forty-two donations were laid upon the table ^ 

A l.-tt,r was ,-cad !>v Prof.-ssor Liversidge *™ m / la f " c 0rr e- 
Sir F.dward War<l, H.'R, a .-k....w].,lgin- his election |« a 
M „,ndin- m.-n.b.T of tin- So,i,tv; also one from b <> a 
'.UWh^k,,:, M.I... K.CS.L C.B., *f*r*%& 
(;ard,ns,K,vv,ark 1 , ) wl,«l,dng Ins rdoction as honorary m 

Yelverton, Bournemouth, 9 August 
My dear Sir, , . » a* 7th Ju ne > ir A oi %. 

ing me that the Ro t So I i - N « " ^ h ^^not flatter my** 
elected me one of I mi hers, i ^ 

wlk-li 1 Mt in the i;;f;u:t growth oAhe Hr,;i:-ty, : n !, with, as a 
Swleof "scTencTin NewXutlf^ KM . vey my thanks 

Believe me, yours faithfully, 

To A. Liversidge, Esq., Hon, Sec. Royal Society, N. S. Wales. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 5 July, 1880. 
My dear Sir, 

I have the honour of acta ' JOB* letter erf 

12 May, informing me that the Royal Society of New South \\ feel - 
elected me an honorary member of their body ; and of reqw 
will convey to the President and Fellows of the Society my sincere thanks 
for the distinction whicb they have conferred upon me, t B 
assurance that I feel it to be botb an honour and a privilege t 
with a society of gentlemen representing so high a scientir. position U 
Australia's oldest Colony has at i m>g recognition of 

auce the botany of Australia is very acceptable, and i 
thank them for it. The volume 

Believe me, m ' J y ou ™» rtTrTm 


A. Liversidge, Esq., Hon. Sec. Royal Society of N. S. Wales. 

The President remarked that it was gratifying to find that 
the small honours which the Society was able to give had been so 
much appreciated. 

Professor Liversidge then read a paper on " The Composition of 
Coral Limestone." Some remarks upon the same were made by 
the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., 4c, 

Mr. W. A. Dixon, F.C.S., read a paper upon the " Inorganic 
Constituents of the Coals of New South Wales," 

Dr. Leibius read a paper by Mr. F. B. Gipps, on " A compari- 
son between the Prospect and Kenny Hill Schemes of Water 
Supply for Sydney." 

It was resolved that the discussion upon Mr. Gipps's paper be 
adjourned till the next Wednesday. . , , . 

The Chairman announced that the Council had decided to give 
m the Society's Hall a meeting of a different character from the 
usual form of monthly meet i requested by the 

Council to invite the members to meet them that day fortnight ; 
there would be a notice in the newspapers, but it was not the in- 
tention to send out circulars ; those present would take this 
*rtice. The members of the Council intended to take upon 
themselves the necessary expenses. The meeting would beot an 
informal conversational character. No papers would be read, but 
» few objects of interest would be laid out for inspection. Ihe 
usual annual conversazione would not be held this year, chaeny 

alterations i 

He trusted there would be a good gathering at the proposed 
meeting, and regretted they could not invite the ladies, as the 
Society's rooms would not be large enough. 


Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 

There were about fifty members present. 

The following gentlemen took part in the adjourned discus- 
sion upon Mr. Gipps's paper : — Mr. Trevor Jones, Mr. Clarendon 
Stuart, Dr. Belgrave, Professor Smith, Mr. C+oodlet, Mr. Alexander 
Dean, and Mr. Poolman ; Mr. Gipps replied. 


Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
There were about 100 members present. 

Daily Practical Applications of Electricity in America." 

The President conveyed the thanks of the Society 

Carpenter for his i 

Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
There were about thirty members present. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read, but being incom- 
plete were not signed. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary member 
of the Society : — 

Scrivener, Charles Robert, Middle-street, Marrickville. 
The certificates of eight new candidates were read f or the second 
time, and of five for the first time. 

Thirty donations were laid upon the table. ., 

A letter was received from the Ashfield Municipal Council, 

thanking the Society for the action it had taken with respect w 

Mr. F. B. Gipps's paper upon "The Water Supply for Sydney. 

Professor Livebsidge read a paper on « Some New South Wal« 

•" atrated bj 

paper c 

Mii ! i •!<!.> The papers w 

and preparations of " Piturine" and of its salts. 


Some remarks upon the latter were made by Mr. Chark i Ma n\ 
F.C.S., and the Chairman. 

Mr. W. A. Dixox, F.C.S., then read a paper on " Salt-bush and 
Native Fodder Plants." 

Mr. Russell then read a paper by Mr. T. K. Abbott, P.M., 
Gunnedah, on "Wells in the Liverpool Plains." 

Two specimens of serpentine rock from Port Macquarie, pre- 
sented to the Society by Mr. P. N. Trebeck, were exhibited. 

Hon. J. Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
There were about forty members present. 

The minutes of the monthly meeting, held October 6, the ad- 
journed meeting, October 13, the special meeting, October 27, and 
the last meeting, November 3, were read and signed. 

Mr. W. G. V the minutes of discussions 

should be limited to the mere record of the names of speakers, but 
resolutions and notices of motion to be entered in extenso. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society :_ 

Blackmann, C. H. E., Sydney. 
Caird, George C, Woollahra. 
Colyer, Henry Cox, Sydney. 
Hern, Charles K, Woollahra. 
Leask, John L., M.B., CM. (Edin.), Sydney. 
Morris, Alfred, Sydney. 
Palmer, Joseph, Sydney. 
Riddell, C. E., Union Club, Sydney. 
lae certificates of five new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of four for the first time. 

Messrs. \V. G. Murray and P. N. Trebeck were appointed 
Auditors of the accounts to be laid before the Society at the annual 
Fifty-six donations were laid upon the table, and the thanks of 
- J " 1 for the s 

The Chairman announced that a draft Act of Incorporation had 
^n prepared, and would be submitted to the consideration of the 

t5 *L at an adjourned meeting. 

? ir - H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., then read a paper en 
«S? me decent Changes on the Surface of Jupiter," also one upon 

^nder and Hail Storms." 
Col* - - HmsT tnen read a paper entitled " Remarks on the 
duri *i° J «piter's Belts, and some changes observed thereon 

"J"* the Opposition of 1880." 
i Dst ; * as resolved that the meeting be adjourned to the 8th 




Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
The certificates of four new candidates were read for the first 

Professor Liversidge read a paper on " A specimen of fossilized 
Vood," from Inverell, N.S.W. 

Some remarks upon the same were made by Messrs. C. S. 
ViLKix.-ux and W. A. Dixon. 
Professor Live <[ or on " The Composition of 

nuv Xev.- South Wales Coals." 

followed, in which the following gentlemen took 
3ssrs. A. Dean, C. S. Wilkinson, Alexander 
Dixon, Hon. E. A. Baker, and the Chairman. 
The titles of the following papers by Professor Liversidge 

1. On "The Coin; losiriuii and .Microscopic Structure of some 
New South Wales Rocks." 

2. " The Barratta and Bingera Meteorites." 

The draft Act for the incorporation of the Society was read by 
Professor Liversidge. 

It was moved by Mr. C. Rolleston, C.M.G., seconded by Mr. 
H. C. Russell, and duly carried, that the draft as read be approved. 

The proof of a geological sketch map of New South Wales, com- 
piled from the original map of the late Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., 
F.R.S., by Mr. C. s. Wilkinson, was exhibited to the Society by 
the Hon. E. A. Baker, Minister for Mines. 

A new electric constant bichromate battery was exhibited by 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. ; five cells were shown in 
action, these wi a I x inches of No ; 20 pk*^ 

wire at a white heat. Mr. Russell exp" 
of the battery is obtained by allowing i 
into the cells at the top whilst the exhausted solution is drawn 
at the bottom ; the solution is thus kept constantly renewed. 



The names of the Donors are in Italics. 

Transactions, Journals, Reports, &t. 

Aberdeen :-The Aberdeen University Calendar, 1880-81. 

The University. 
Adelaide :— Addresses delivered at the laying of the Foundation Stone of 

. i ■>;■.' 

art of the Philosophical Society 
of Adelaide, L878-79. 

1 Society of South 

Australia. VoL LI I, lift B0. The Society 

Report on the km of the Botanic Garden and 

Government year 1S79. 

Mete ol 1 Observations Observatory during 

_ the year 1878. The Ooverni 

The Adelaide L A 'adeini 1 V, ir 1881. 

Albany :— Eightj -rirst.andNinety- 

second Reg State of NewYork. 

first Annual Report of t *eum of Natural 


I sixty-first Annual Report of the 
Trustees State Library. . „ , , 

Report of the 8 I he Normal School. 

Th> Tr>«: . * <>/ the State Library, Alhany, .\.w i ork. 

-Amsterdam :-Jaarhock van de K..ninklijke Akademie 

„ gevestig-d in Amsterdam, 1S7S. 


ckappen Afdeeling Natuurkunde T. 

BoyalAcad'my o/Seknos, A.^'-r 

tU TJZ 0eolo Sy of Wisconsin. Vol. II, 1*7*- 1877. 

•atias accompanying above. The Ch ief (hefogmt, Wm* 

— Monatsbericht der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie 
schaften zu Berlin. 

ber, November, December, 187 
lary, February, M ae, August, 1880. 


Bistkitz :— VI. Jahresbericht der Gewerbeschule zu Bistritz in Sieben 
bfirgen. The Directors 

Boston :— Proceedings of the American Ac* I 

„ VI. „ „ XIV. The Academy. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Vol. XIX, Parts III and IV. 
„ XX, Part I. 
Memoirs of ti mil History. 

Vol. Ill, Part I. Numbers 1 and 2. The Society. 

Braunschweig : — Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Natur 

Braunschweig, 1879-80. The Society. 

Brisbane :-Keport of the Acclimatization Society of Queensland, for the 
year 1879. 
Report upon Economic Tropical Horticulture in Northern Queensland, 
by LA. Bernays, F. L. S. The Society. 

Caen :— Momoires de l'Academie Nationale des Sciences, Arts, et Belles 
Lettres de Caen, 1879. The Acadenv: 

Calcutta :— Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India— 
Vol. XVI. Part 1. 
XV. „ 2. 
XVII. Parts 1 and 2. 
Do. (Paheontologia Indica) Series XIII Parti. 

" XIV " L Jff 

X Parts 4 and 5. 
Records of the Geological Survey of India— 
Vol. XIH. Parts 2 and 3 and 4. 

XII. „ land 2. . , w 

! Results of the Second Yarkand Mission Rhyncnota, dv • 


of new Indian Lepidopterous Insects. Part L^ ^^ 

s.), U.S.A. :-Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 

vW^t- liandlude, 

VI. „ 1 and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Annual Report of the Curator of the Museum, J87JMW. d the 

The Terrestrial Air-breathing Mojlusks of the United Mates ^^ 

adjacent territories of North America. .oy 
PsycU (organ of the Cambridge Entomological Club, Mass^ .^ orS# 
Vol. 3- N,-. n-K 7-i. 71 72. 73. 7* .-»• ■"■ "■ L , o n „ ie tT 

Cu-e Town :-The Transactions of the South African Philosophical boc 

Vol. I. 1877-80. _ Tfo SoeUty. 

I. Parts laud II. 1877-78. 1M ° 


XXVI and XXVII. The Sockty. 

penhagen •— Memoires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du North 
tea. 1866. 

ie. 1866. 

Th. Soddg. 

nm :-Memories de l'Academie des Sciences, Arts, et Belles-Lettres de 

3 Seric, Tome V, 1878-9. The Society. 

isden :— Archiv fur Literaturgeschichte. By Dr. Franz Schnorr von 


ft 3 and 4. 
.. VI II. Beftl, 2,3,4. 

'• ' : 

Dr. Wilhelm Rossmann! 

■ ratur, 1877. 

I • Albrechtsburg zu Meissen. 

erwaltxmgderKoniglichenSammlungen fiir Kunst 

Jahrgang. ^ 

:...' , ' .. .■■■.:.<.. ' 

Wissenschaften Erster Jahrgang. 
Ergebnisse von funfzigjahrigen Beobacbtungen der 

Mittheilungen ans dem K. Zoologiscben Museum zu Dresden Heft III. 
KunstgewL.' ■ -kites ) 

XXV 1879 Heft 1 2 3,4- 'ltie&urtav. 

Corresponds, I ;«=ellscbaft— , 

No. 31. 1 April, 1878. The bOC ^ n 

Dcbust ^Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy— 
Vol. I. Ser. 2. Nos. 3 to 10 inclusive. 
Ine Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy— 
Vol. XXIV. Science, Parts 9 to 15, inclusive. 
Polite Literature, Part 4. 

Parts 9, 16, 17. ™, Arndrmu. 

XXV. Parts 1 to 9 inclusive. The Academy. 

EDCfBram :-Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society- 

r Vo1 i?i. ass I874 - »*-* 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh— ^ SociHy ^ 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society, Ed ^ r |^r 

VoLXIH. Part3. * ^ T£ 

^^nrHxa. Jf. : _Bericht ubcr die Senckenbergische naturforschende 

Gesellschaft, 1878-79. 

Abhandlungen. 1S7S-79. Band XL Heft 4. The Society- 

der K. Gesellschaft 
i-Universitat, for year 
Gesellschaft der Wisst 
Halifax (Nova Scotia) : - Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotiar 
Institute of Natural Science. 

Vol. V. Part I. 1878-79. The Institute, 

Halle (A. S.) :— Nova Acta Academia C.L.C.G. Nature Curiosorum- 
Vols. XXXIX and XL. 
Leopoldina. Heft XIII, XIV, XX. 

der Naturforsch er m Halle, A.S., Prussia. 
H vm n Ha • -A! t 1 Iniiir n der Geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg. 

Heft II. 1878-79. The Society. 

Hanover (Pip 

kopie zv. I 
Harlem :— Archives Neerlan 

Tome X : i 

Archives du Mus<5e Teyh 

Sciences Exactes et Naturelies. 

Tlie. Directors. 

Th S rrrtnry to the Comm 
Iowa :— Report of the Iowa Weather Service. 
Jan. to Dec, 1878 (incl.) 
Jan. to April, 1879 (incl.) 
St o B l e - nnial ^P 01 ^ of tne Central Station of the Iowa Wi 
by Years of Results of nhsmu-atioiiK made at the C 

Flag Signals 

tor Crop Report 

Advancement c 

for Crop Reporters of 
Science against the Report of Professor Loomis, re Signal Service oi 
IT. S. Army. . The Din <•><>•: h>v„ W<«fh<, A.i v 

Jena :— Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaft. herausgegeben von der 
M I„ AzuJena. 

XIV. Bd., NF VII. Bd. 1, 2, 3, 4, Heft. , „ . 

Sitzungsberichte der Jena Median und Natur- 

wissenschaft fur das Jahr 1879. The Society - 

Konigsberg :— Schriften der Physikalisch-bkonomischen GeseUschaft zu 
Abthlg., 1 and 2. Jahrgang, 1876, 1877, 1S7S, 1879. m „ . . , 

„ 1 1880. The Society. 

Lausanne :— Bulletin de la Soci^te" Vaudoise des Sciences NatoreU«. 
Vol. XVI. No. 83. The Society. 

Leeds :— Annual Report of the Leeds Philosophical and literary |ocie|r 

Liege :— Annates de la Soctete" G<5oIogique do Belgique. Society. 

I Geologique du Nord. 
s VI, 1878-79. 

Vol. XXIX. Nos. 198, 
„ XXX. „ 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, i 

L - . 

a volume. 

169. Parts 1 and 2. 1878. 

170. „ land 2. 1S79. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 
Vol. II. Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 7a. 

III. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6a. . 

Vol. XI. Part 3. 

XII. Part 1, 2, 3, 4. 
The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of GreatBritain 
Vol. IX. Nos. 2, ? ' 
X. No. 1. 
Report of the proceedings of the Secoi 

3 Pacific, No. III. 

R< gions 



Report of the Meteorology of Kerguelen Island. By I 
S.J., F.R.S. n „ 

Aids to the Study and Forecast of W< 

Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects. 

->•■-■■■■■■■ : 

Vol. XLI. 1879. (18 plates.) 
" . I. Nos. 11 and 12. ! 

Lev. S. J. Perry. 

The Pharmaceutical Journal a 

Nos. 449 to-;. . I incbwim 

Parts 113, 114, 1879 , in „, ,„- , 

_. Parts 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120. 121, 122, 123. 1-4, 1- .J 

Historical Sketch if the Progress of Pharmacy m Great Bntam 
Jacob Bell and Theo. Redwood. J "' - y 

Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. 

_. XXIV. ? 

Distribution List of Members on Active Service. 1 April, I860. 

s of the Royal Historical Society. 


Loxi.ox (continual) 

Part 2." July-Octol 



Vol. III. Part 2. July-October, 187J 

. lS79-February, 1880. 
T- f f -°„ The Society. 

List of Fello k t€8, &c, of the Royal College of 

Physiciana The College. 

lne Journal of the Lmnean Society. 

Zoology 2, S3, 84. 

Botany- Vol. : 10g> 106 107 

Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society. 

Vol. VII. Nos. 33, 34, 35. 
List of Fellows of the Meteorological Society. 21 January, 1880. 

Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 
Vol. IX. Part I. No. 70. 

„ Part II. No. 71. The Institution. 

Keportof th. .■« :;te , 30 June, 18S0. 

Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute. 

Vol. XL 1879-80. The Institute. 

Maeburg :— Forty-three (43) Pamphlets, Medical Theses, &c. 

„ . The Universihi. 

:■ Beforderang der gesammten 
Natunvis,, 1878 and 1879. 

" ' leische Polyeder hoherer Art. By Dr. Edmund 

Zur Actiologie einfacher Kehlkopfgeschwiire und deren Verhaltniss 
•lumen des Herzens, &c, &c. By F. W. Beneke. 

Leber die Weite der Iliacae communes subclaviae und Carotides 

treifen bei Vogelembryonen (Hahn and Gans). By Dr. 

Gesellschijf P t , ' , >j - 7 r < ■ <am» I n X :' r- 

vUicnsrha/ti'ii in Marbunj. 
lbouene : _Reports of the Mining Surveyor n 1 Rcgi tror 
Quarter ended 31st Dec, 1879. 

E Progress, by th 

* ria, for the year 1879. 
Report of the Chief Inspector of Mines, for 1 879. 

IK 1h>n. th Mhu^r /V- 
oal Report of the Government Statist of the proceedings o 

Friendh s u,'-,, \ „*.,,-[,, lsj'.). 

Report on Aust ,, year 1879. 

Victorian Year Book for 1879-80. 

Part VIII. Interchange. 

IX. Religious, Moral, and Intellectual Progress. 


of the Colony of "\ 
I. Blue Book. 
II. Population. 
III. Finance. 

IX. Religious, Moral, and Intellectual Progress. _ 

University oi , 1879. 

Th, Comal of lh< Irons,!,, 
Astronomical Observations at Melbourne I 

Catalogue of theStatues and Busts in Marble and Casts, in the National 

CatalogueTAhe^bjects of Ethnotypical Art in the National Gallery 

■The, To >'/■'• Mmaemu, and 

National Gall, -ry of Victoria. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of '^ 1 ' t y .;'; i ; ! ',| 

Official Catalogue of Exhibits, Melbourne International Bxj 1 tti n 

1880. Vols. I and II. The Executive. 

Patents and Patentees (Victoria). Vol. XI. l %\ & Begigtrar Gmeral . 

Metz :-Zweiter Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Erdkunde zu *****%££*[ 

MmnuiOLtS -Bulletin of the Minnesota Academy of NaWWjJJJ, 

for the years 1876 and 1877. ■* ht . . * 

WA £SrsffiSP " ia di Scienze ' "~ 

Mostreal :-Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Natural History Society 

Annuake de Vffle-Marie. Vol. II. Liv. 1, 2, 3, and Suppje ment - A 

ChevalkrL.A.Hu<jndLotvur : M.A. 

^oktpeluer :_Memoires de la Section des Sou u . <. Ata-I, m,.jb ^ ' ~ 

et Lettres de Montpellier. Tome IX. 11 Fane. I n 
Moscow :-Bulletm de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscow. 

No Tis 1 ^ 79 ' The Sockty ' 

MrLiiorsE :— Bulletin de la Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse. 

October, Nov. -Dec, 1879. . _ ,050 

Jan.-Feb., Maivh, April Vay, Jui Jul}', Aug.-bep , 1 — ^. f / 

^^E^-Sitzungsberichte der Mathemat^sch-physik Classe der K. B 
Heft 1, 2, 3, 4, SS* The Academy. 

Naples : — Mil ' i°n zu Neapel. 

Band I. Heft 1, 2, 3, 4. 
„ n. „ 1. D; 

Neuchatel : 

E : — Proceedings of the A 

Oxford :— Catalogue of Books added to the Radcliffe Library during 1879. 
Radcliffe Obw 1- 1876. 


Paris :— Annuaire des Marees des Cotes de France, for tl 

i <les Marees de la Basse Cochinchine et du Tong- 

3s of the South Indian 

Catalogues des Cartes, Plans, Vues de Cotes, Memoires, Instructions 
nautiques, &c. (by l'Hydrographie Francaise). 

and Japan (by M. 
J. Revertegat). 

ui Sea. 2nd Feuille. One c 
The Pacific Ocean. One c 

L Dirrrt urGtniraldu Dqv't t, 

.,'.. la Jf.7r:--. 

e Naturelle. 
Tome 1 Fasc 1 and 2, 1878. 
„ 2 „ land 2, 1879. . v onV eIle 

Notice sur la T m Francaise et a la JNouw 

Caledonie, &c. de 1868 a 1875. 

Progres des Etudes Classiques du Moyen Age. __ n Af 

Rapport sur le progre 

Rapport au President de la Republique sur l'Enseignement ou pe - 

Progres des Etudes relatives a l'Egypt et a l'Orient. 

Rapport sur le Progres de la Stratigraphie. _ at,™ Annie des 

ComVteenmatierelet en deniers de l'exploitation du Monopoie 

Compte-General du Materiel du Bepartement de la Manne e 
Colonies, 1874. 

ral du Commerce de la France, 1878. n f Paris. 

Annuaire de la Societe Philotechnique, 1876 and 18/8. 2 >* ° 

Journal de 1'Ecole £olgrfm£«e. ^.^ ^^ p olyUchn ^ 


ia : -Journal of the I 
. CVIII, No. 648. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 

XVIII, Nos. 102 and 103. , , 

' >^ ces of ri"ladelphia. 
Parti. Jan., Feb., Mar., 1879. 

II. April to Octr. „ » , . M , 

ta. Nov. and Dec. „ .. ^ t Z e ?t7L 

of the Board of Directors of ^e Zoological 

Society of Philadelphia, 22 April, 1880. The Society. 

Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali. 

- Vol. II. „ - JT T 

HGennaio. 14 Mar. 9 Mai. 4 Luglio. 
,; Vol. IV. Fasc. 2. ™< 5oc <^- 

.ymotjth :-Annual Report and Transactions of the Plymouth Institution, 
■nd Devon an tory Society. 

Vol. VII, Part II. 1879-80. r ^ Soa ^' 

)MK :-R. Comitate Geologico d'ltalia Bollettino. No. 
Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei. Vol. IV. Fasc 1, 2 3 ,4 5, 

fi 7 Vol V Fasc 1 
Bollettino della Societa Geografica Italiana. Ser. II. ' 

1880. Anno XIV. Fasc. 9. The boCtety - 

ILEM :-Proceedings of the American Assoc iu 

Science. V !&■ _ The A»0C**O*. 

Essex Institute Historical Collections. Vol. XV. 

Bulletin of the Essex Institute. „ 10- m institute. 

" periale des Sciences de 

2 ' ' ' The Academy. 

STUTr GART :-Wiirttembergische Jahrbiicher fiir Statistik und Landeskunde 

1877. lleft 1,2,4,5. 

1880. Band I. Halfte 1. ~ B ((m 

1880. Band II. Heft 1. The Bureau. 

:-Fragmenta Silurica e dono Caroli Henrici Wegelin. 

(Holmiffi, 1880) with 20 plates. 

-Pr....-r. L , 
Vol. LV. 

The Royal Swedish Acader 
QKBT : -Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South 1 

. „ V. Part 1, 2, 3. 

Minutes of the Intercolonial Meteorological C< 

Nov. 11, 13, and 14, 1879. 
Results of Pain and River Observations in * 

byH. C. RusseU, B.A., F.R.A.S., F.M.S 

Prof. Liversidge. 
issao Central Brazileira de Per* 
Lieut-Col. R. Peel Raymond, Brazdim Consulate. 

. Society of N 
Kules and List of Members. 
Report of the Trustees, Sydney Free Public Library, for 1 
Forty (40) Miscellaneous Pamphlets. 

The Principal 1 
Annual Report of the Departmei 

The Hon. the Minister of Mine*. 
Toronto :— Proceedings of the Canadian Institute. 
New Series. Vol. I. Part 1. 
TheCanadi ad History. 

Vol. XV. Nob. 7 and 8. The Institute. 

Tre\ an dru m — Trevandrum Magnetical Observations. Vol.1. By John 

Allan Broun, F.R.S. The Maharajah of Travancore, Q.C.S.I. 

Trieste :— Bollettino della Societa Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste. 

, 16, 17, 18. Th 

i , Lettere ed Ai 
conda, Terza. 

. i. 

„ 1. „ LXXX. „ I, II, III, IV, V. 

.. -If. „ IV, V. 

., 2. ., LXXVIII. „ I, II, HI. IV, V. 
.. I. ii, in, iv> * 
, 2. „ LXXX. „ 1, II, HI, IV, V. 
„ 2. „ LXXXI. „ I, II, HI. 
„ 3. „ LXXVII. ,, I-V. 
„ 3. „ LXXVIII. „ I-V. 
„ 3. „ LXXIX. „ i-ii, m-v 

3. LXXX. „ I, II, HI, IV, V. 

„ 3. „ LXXXI. ., I, II, III. The Academy. 
I-Yl... Mar., April, May, June, July, Aug., 
The Society 
K. K. Geographischen Gesellschaft i 

Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec, 1880. 
AllgenieiiK (iesdii lit. des Zinnes. By E. Reyer. 


nig.'ii <l.-r Authropologischen( 
L X. Nos. 1-4, 5-7. 

Band XXIX. Nos. 3 and 4. 1S7M. 
XXX. Nos. 1,2, 3. 1880. 

Nos. 10," 11, 12, 13, 14, If,, Hi, 17. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. 


cher der K. K. Central- Anstalt fur Meteorologie und Erdmag- 

mjf. Band XIV. 1877. 
XV. 1878. 
XVI. 1879. 

The Society. 


>N s — XT. S. Geological Exploration of th 
matic Geology, 1. 

Atlanta, Operations in front of. 

Franklin. ' 

40th Parallel. Sya- 

i: ;: 


2, and 3. 

Transactions of the American Medical Association— 

Vol. 29, 1878. The Association. 

War of the Rebellion. 
Medical Volume. Part Second. 

Sur.-t'Qii General U. ••>'. Armn. 
List of Lights of 1 - , corrected to 

December 12, 1879. 

- : 
-78 and 1879. 
Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, ! s7!>. 

Researches on the Motion of the Moon, m 

servatory, Washington, by Professor Newcomb. Part 1 


Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 3, 4. 
Catalogue of the Publications of the U. S. Geological and Geographical 
~~ Tiitories. 


territory, 1876. 

Bibliography of North American Invertebrate Paleontology. By Drs. C. 
T11 A. White and H. A. Nicholson. _ m . 

Castrations of Cretaceous and Tertiary Plants of the Western Tern- 
ad Survey of the Territories. 
^Wl Report of the U. S. Entomological Commission on the Rocky 

Mountain Locust 1877 Th 

Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1877. _ r _„.,.,„._ 

B «Uetin f the Philosophy 
VoL I. M 

IL October 10, 16 
Hi. November 9, 1 

bical Society of Wa« 
L March, isti 
• October lu, 1S74. November 2, 

Vol. V. No. 4. 

Report of tho Inf. .■; ' . rtment, l!>77. 

-. . : 

November and December, 

January, 1875. 

January, February, and March, 

-. Survey, 1675. 
United States Coast JSu.-vev Report, 
1 Vol. Text. 
1 Vol. Progress Sketches. 

the Indigenous G 


, F.L.S. 

A Uollusca. By Professor T. W. Hutton, 

. J. E. Tenison- Woods, 

Fifteenth Annual Report of the Colonial M 

The Director, Colo 
Transactions and Proceedings of the New Z 

Vol. XII. 1S79. 
Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. By Captain Tho 

11. „ i,' 2,' 3,' 4. 

Irvojesce hrvatskoga Arkeologickoga Druztva za ( 

(Names of Donors in Italics. ) 

American Mail, Vol. V. No. 1. Ilotmrd Lochcood- 

Autograph Letters from Eminent Persons (17) seventeen. H. H. naier. 

Buchanan, D., M.L.A. -. , „ 

Speech on necessity of adopting a Fiscal Policy. J° hn ¥K ™ 

dr., F.c.s. 
Notes on the Bivalves in the Gilbertson Collection. 
On an Adherent Productus and a small Spiniferina. 
On the Remains of a Large Crustacean, &c. 

■ " Reports and Papers 


tieridge, R., junr., F.G.S.— continued. 
V.tes, 1 and 2. 
to British Palaeontology. 
. I 
f a New Species of the Genua 
Notes on Carboniferous Mollusca. 
Notes on Carboniferous Polyzoa. 
Further Remarks on Adherent Carboniferous Producl 
On our present Knowledge of the Inv< 1 1 

Carboniferous or Calciferous Sandstone Series o 

3 Corals from Northern Queensland. 

- atalogue of. The Author, 

Gibson, Geo. A., M.B., D.Sc, Edin :— , , 

The Sequence and Duration of the Cardiac Movements. The Author. 
Henry, Dr. James :— 

-EiiL-idcr, Vol. II. continued. The Trustees of the Author. 


Jack, Robert L., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. :— 

Report on the Bowen River Coal-field. . , m 

Report on the Geology and Mineral Resources of the District between 


al Features of part c 

•Joint, Wuhai 

s for the Arterial Drainage Laws 

Treatise on the Motion of Fluids. T ' ie ^nmor. 

^eon. Don Juan Nepomuceno Gonzalez de, . . , 

T . El Poeta Filosofo. 1775. Professor 

Wsidge, Professor : 

The International Congress of Geologists. Paris. 1878. 
Report upon Museums for Technology, Science, and Art, &c^ ^^ 
Manuel du Voyageur. Messrs. J. Wurster I 

Monthly Bulletin, vol. 2. Nos. 11 and 12. ^ R ^^ 

M «eUer, Baron F««l' JL vr. iaM^R a &c. 

pts of Australia and the adjouung 
renth Decades. The Author. 

j in the Colony of Victoria 

manac for the years (11 \ 
1868 to 1875 inclusive. 
1877 to 1879 „ 


Programme and Wood-cut representing the Ceremony of the Turning of 
the Pmst Sod of the First Australian Railway. James Comrie. 

Rath, Professor G. vom : 

Natonri » *rungen an die Pariser Weltaus- 

stelluing. 1878. (Sections 6trangeres.) The Author. 

Sedgwick, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. : 

Remarks on a Passage in 1 ■, delivered at the 

Anniversary Meeting of the Geological Society of London, 15th 

February, 1856. Professor /.->,.// . 

Sydney Morning Herald, from 1st August, 1879, to 31st December, 1880. 

(inclusive). The Hon. James Norton, M.L.G. 

Victorian Court. Official Catalogue of Exhibits. 
Queensland (' >urt. ( it ilo_ruo and Essay on Queensland. 
I Court. Official Catalogue. 

' . 
Reports of Ld., N. Z. 

A Brief Account of the Natives of Western Australia, to Ulustrate 
collection of Weapons, &c, sent to Sydney Exhibition. 

John Brazier, C.M.Z/. 

„ VI. No. 2. 

Thorpe, James. Tli>- V*' - . il. Win 
Uhlworm, Dr. Oscar : Probenumme 

1SS0. TMW»- 

On the Terms Bryozoa and Polyzoa. , . 

On the 1 1 itropora. The Author. 

List of Works on the Geology, Mineralogy, and Paleontology of tne 

Prof^vi- L'i>- '•• 

i special reference 

d, Henry, F.R.S., F.G.S 

New Foss :i r, - v c " 

Dr. Hectoi 

l Journal of Science and 

del Mines." iSiq}1G ' 

Chemical News. 
Comptes Rendus. 

lytechnisches J 

j Neighbourhood of Sydney. 

o the Flora 

'he Author- 

•. . . I i i . 


and Transactions of the Photographic Society. 

L'Art. ' 

Mining Journal. 




• - pica 

Scientific American. 
Telegraphic Journal. 


1 to 8 4t Sci9Utific Pa P ers P ublished h V the Koy^ 
lemiatry and Geology, by John 

ments of Great Britain. 
Ice Age. 

» Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature. 
» Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals. 

" Y^ rtebra te Fossils from the Panchet Rocks. 
Me* nf 4-if ^? of Com parative Osteology. 

1^76 and 1880 
fcS?£ a P hical Moiety, Vols. 33 and 34. 
SdL^ ey , Director y- 1880. 

" • \' ■ ' ...■.:..:■■-' '"■ 

"rtraits of Scientific Men, proofs on India paper (16) six 
' f 25 Por traits of Eminent Men of Science, framed. 



-Journal of the Royal Society of 

-Report of the Council of Education of New Sou 

Report f tin U miu 1 > partment of New Soutl 
-Report of the Mining Department of New Sou 

also Portfolio of Maps. 
-Report by Professor Liversidge upon Museum 


axuuunsA (UNITED STATES). 
Albany.— *New York State Library, Albany. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Annapolis (Md.)— Naval Academy. No. 1. 
Baltimore —John S. Hopkins' University. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Beloit (Wis.)— *Chief Geologist. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Boston.— *American Academy of Science. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

„ *Boston Society of Natural History. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Buffalo— 'Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Cambridge.-*The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College. 

„ 'Editor of "Psyche." Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

Chicago. — Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Coldwater.— Michigan Library Association. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Davenport (Iowa)-*Academy of Natural Sciences. No,. 1, 3, 
Hoboken (N.J.)-The Stevens' Institute of Technology. Nos. 1, *, ^ 
Minneapolis.— 'Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, * 
Newbaven (Conn.)— "Connecticut Academy of Arts. Nos. 1, 3. > 

New *«^-^*^*£&*i I ] ^.*. Ho*. U 

" School of Mines, Columbia College. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. ^ 

Penikese Island -Anderson School of Natural History. Nos. , i 

1 . 2, 3, 4, 5. 

„ *Zoological Society of Philadelphia. Nos. 1, 3, < 

1 (Mass.)— Peabody Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1. 3. 4, 5. 

St. Louis —*Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 3, 3, 5. 

oner for Agriculture. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
. Hayden, Director of the Geological Survey of 
tne Territories. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Office. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
*Smithsonian Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Chief Signal™ ffic'er (War Department). Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Director of the Mint (Treasury Department). Nos, 1, 2, 

A. Coast So at)! Nos. 1,3,4. 

Bureau of Navigation (Navy Department). Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
The Secretary (Department of the Interior), ^os. 1, 2, 

U. S. National Museum (Department of the Interior). 
_Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Education (Department of the Interior). 

Surgeon General (U. S. Army). Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

Chief of Engineers (U. S. Army). Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 


American Medical Association, Pennsylvania A 

United States Patent Office. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

Ileiehsan.stalt. Nos. 1, 3,4. 
Vk 1 1. ■ n, ,1, i Wiss. ns haft. n. Nos 1, 2, 3, 4 
fur Meteorologie. No. 1. 

^d£Ue.-*kdnighch bohmische Gesellschaft. der Wissenschaften. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Tneste.-*Societa Ariatica di Scienze Naturale. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 


» *Geographia. 
» *Geologisch t 


•;'.■ ■ '■ ■ ■ , .. ;.. .. .; ■ . •■ - 

" N ' i; ; tr:d - AiUt - k Ilir Meteorologie 


B ni8Bel8.-*Aca,V, 1! ie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres, etdes Beaux Arte. 

T . N <>s. i,o, 3,4,5. 

-"^ - - noes. Nos. 1,3,4,5. 

» *Societ<5 Geologique de Belgique. ' Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
^ eml)0 ^rg.-Institut R, yal Grand-ducal de Luxembourg. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4,5. 

:, 3, 4, 5. 

Dudley.— Dudley and Midland Geological and Scientific Society. 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Leeds.— 'Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

„ *The College of Science. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

,, Journal of Conchology (Office St. Ann Street). No. 1, 3, 4. 
Liverpool.— *Literary and Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
London.— El ' Nob. i, 2, 3, 4. 

Editor, P,,,,,,/.,,* s,i, U r, Prvlew. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
•Qtoketl Vos. 1, 3, 4. 

*The Admiralty Library. No. 1. 
„ Th<- ' >ies). Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

•The tte of Great Britain and Irel 

l Association. Nos. 1. 3, • 

Nos. 1 

Th. Mu . um of !' .rti. ,11, . 1 ._ 
*The Institution of Civil Knginee 
*The Institution 
♦The Liunean Society. Xos. 1, 3 

The London Institution. Nos. 1 

The Physical Society, South Kensington Museum. Nos. 1,* *■ 

*The Royal Asiatic 

*The Royal Astronomical Society. No. 1. 
*The Royal Colonial Institute. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
*The Royal College of Physicians. Nos. 1, 3, 4 

*The Royal Geographical Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
*The Royal Historical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 5. 
*The Royal Institution of < ireat Britain. Nos. 
-J'i.. I; val Mi n opi ii Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4 
•Tin.- K.,\.-il School of Mines. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
*The Royal Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 5. 
The Royal Society of Lit ' 


Nos. 1 

. 3, 4, 5. 

! ■ 

3 wety. No. I. 
*Lord Lindsay's Observatory. Nos. I, 

Tiie Library, So : 

ty of Great Brita 


. -Literary and Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3 

The Owens College. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
•The Geological Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
MiddlesbOTO .— *Iron and Steel Institute. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne.— Natural History Society c 

and Durham. Nos. 1, 3, t. 
The Museum. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

„ North of] Kning Engineers. 

Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Oxford,— *The Ashmolean Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
,, *The Bodleian Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
•TheRj.l.' .: I i"v. \ . I, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
„ *The Radcliffe Observatory. No. 1. 
Penzance— Geological Society of Cornwall. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Plym<rath.-*Devon and Cornwall Natural History Society. Nos. 1, 3, 

4, 5. 
Truro— 'Miners' Association of Cornwall and Devon. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

m *Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. boa. 1, S, 4. 
Wisbech.— *Mem*. Leach and Son. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Windsor —The Queen's Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Aberdeen.— The University. Nos. I, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Edinburgh— *Geological Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

•Royal Physical Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

xriety. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
*The Royal Observatory. No. 1. 
The University. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
•Botanical Society. No. 1. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4T 
GlasgOW.-Geological Society. No. 1, 3, 4. 

Dttblin.-Geological Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

Royal Irish Academy. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Cape o? Good Hope. 
Ca Pe Town.-*The Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

ff The Dominion of Canada. 

Halifax (Nova Scotia).-*Nova Scotian Institute of Natur 

j. . Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

janulton (Canada West).-Scientific Association. Nos. 1, : 

*Ontreal.~Geological Survey of Canada. Nos. 1, 3 4. 

" Natural Hist.-rySorietj vf Montreal. Nos. 1, 3,4 

^awa.-Academy of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Oronto.-»Canadian Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 


Calcutta. — *The Asiatic Society 

:iety of Bengal. 
Museum. Nos. 

New South 
Sydney.— The Australian Club. No. 1. 
The Austral . 
*The Free Pub!: 

The Union Clu 
The Universitj 

Editor, Sydney Daily Teh 

; Sydney Daily felcgrapi 

Auckland.—* Auckland Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Christchurch— Philosophical Society of Canterbury. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
OtagO.— Otago Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Wellington.-The Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

-*The Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, ■ 
— -~u Society. No. 1. 

Adelaide.-*The Observatory. Nos. 1, 3, 4 

„ *The South Australian Institute. Nos. 1, 2, < 

*The University. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
•The Government Botanist. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Royal Society of South Australia. Nos. 1, 3 

Eobart Town.— *The Royal Society of Tasmania. Nos. 1 
— *The Government Statist. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
•The Observatory. No, 1. v, 

•Department. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
The Public Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
•The Royal Society of Victoria. Nos. 1, «*, 
•The University. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

Association. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
•The Government Botanist. No. 1. 
♦The Registrar-General. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 0. 
Editor, Argus. No. 1. 


Bordeaux.— Acad^mie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
CaeiL— Acad6mie dea Sciences. iNos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
DijOtt.— *Acad<5mie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Lfll e -*Soci<§te G6ologique du Nord. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Montpellier— *Academie des Sciences et Lettres. Nos. \ 
Paris — Academie des Sciences de l'Institut. Nos. 1, 3, 4 
The Editor, Cosmos. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
*Dep6t des Cartes et Plans de la Marine. Nos. 1 
Minos "NTns. 1- 3, 4, 5. 

Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

Faculty du M6decine. Nos. '. 

Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

The Editor Revue des C 

i-ographie. Nos 

„ ,. .^ens'chaften. Nos. 1, % 3, 4, 5. 
Bonn.-Naturhistorischer Verein der Preussischen Rheinlande und West- 

phalens in Bonn. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
BramiscliWeig.-*Verein fur Naturwissenschaft zu Braunschweig. Nos. 

Carl B rulie.-Naturwi' 8 sen S chaftlicher Verein zu Carlsruhe. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
US8eL-*Verein fur Naturkunde. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. ^ 

^emiut z .-*Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft zu Chemnitz. tf os. l, 
Dresaen.~*Das' Statistische Bureau des Mmisteriums des Innern zu 
Dresden. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
'• "Die A: No. 1. ( K t 

'General-Direction der Kbniglichen Sammlungen fur Huns* 
und Wissenschaft zu Dresden. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
'» KonigUch Geologisches Museum. Nos, 1, 3, 4. 


Frankfurt a/M — *Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft in 

Frankfurt a/M. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Freiberg (Saxony).— *Die Berg Akademie zu Freiberg. Noe. 1, 2, 

,, Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu F: 

1, 3, 4. 
Gottigen.— *Konigii c he Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Gottingen. 

Gorlitz.— "Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Gbrlitz. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Halle A.S.— *IKe K I >...-utsehe Akademie 

der Naturforscher zu Halle A.S. (Prussia). Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Hamburg.— *Die Geographische Gesellschaft in Hamburg. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
*Verein fiir Naturwissenschaftliche Unterhaltung in Ham- 
burg. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Heidelberg.— *Naturhistorisch Medicinische Gesellschaft zu Heidelberg. 

Leipzig (Saxony).— University Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 
Metz— *Verein fiir Erdkunde zu Metz. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Marburg.— *Gesellschaft zur Beforderung der Gesamm 
schaften in Marburg. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
♦The University. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
MulhoUSe— *Industrial Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Mlinchen.— *Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Munchen. Nos. 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Stuttgart.— *Kbnigliches Statistich-Topographisches Bureau zu Stuttgart. 

Wurttemberg.— *Der Verein fiir Vaterlandische Naturkunde in Wiirt- 
temberg. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Zagreb (Agram).— *Soci£te' Aroheologique. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

Bologna.— Accademia delle Scienze dell' Istituto. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5 

University. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Florence.— Societa di Anthropologia e di Ethnologia. No. 1. 

,, Societa Entomologica Italiano. No. 1. 

Genoa- — Museo Civico di Storia Naturale. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 
Milan.— Eeale Istituto Lombardodi Scienze LettereedArti. Nos. 

Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Modena.— *Acad6mie Eoyale des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de 

Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Naples —Societa Reale Accademia delle Scienze. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 

♦Zoological Station (Dr. Dohrn). No. 1. 
Palermo-— Accademia Palermitana di Scienze Lettere ed Arti. N 

i Naturale. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 

Rome-— Accademia Pontificia de 'Nuovi Lincei.— Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
„ Circolo Geographico d'ltalia. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

„ *R. Accademia die Lincei. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
„ *R. Comitato Geologico Italiano. N03. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Sieiia.— R. Accademia de Fisiocritici. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Turin.— Reale A. \os. 1, 3, 4, 5. 

„ Regie- Osservatorio della Regio Universita. No. 1. 

Venice.— *Reale Istituto Yeneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 

Yokohama.— * Asiatic Society. ]Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Amsterdam-— *Academie Royale des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Haarlem.— *Societ6 Hollandaise des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
*La Bibliotheipie du Musee Teyler. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 6. 

JB.0SC0W.— *La Societc Imp6rial 

St. Petersburg.—* L/ Academic Imperiale des Sciences. 

Madrid— Institute geografico y Estadistico. Nos. 1, 2, J 

Stockholm— *Kongliga Svenska Ventenskapo-Akademie 

Uusanne.— *De la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Natu 
Neuchatel.-*Societ6 des Sciences Naturelles. Nos. 1, 

of Periodicals .. 

. a...... Tr A. L1V 

N^ti* House > s y*™y, A. LEIBIUS, \ 

. isso. 





Sections A, B, C, D, and F, did not meet in 1880. 

U APRIL, 1880. 

Mr. H. G. 

Ihe minutes of the previous meeting i 

The following Committee was elected for the ensuing year :— 
Chairman: Dr. Morris. Secretary: Mr. P. R. Pedley. Com- 
mittee : Messrs. H. G. A. Wright, G. D. Hirst, W. Macdoxnell, 
F. B. Kyngdok. 

It was resolved to hold the meetings of the Section on the evening 
of the second Wednesday in each month. 

The meeting then adjourned. 


Dr. Morris in the Chair. 

m It was resolved that application he made to the General Council 

for the purchase of a microscopical object cabinet to hold 1,0UU 

Mr. T. E. Hewett exhibited a series of eighteen (18) slides of 

science. , 

Dr. Morris called the attention of the meeting to two slides ot 
^croscopic tracings of Lissajous' curves, engraved by Mr. J* . rj. 
?«t, of London. These slides constitute very beautl ul J*7 
Ejects for medium power objectives, affording studies in ulumina- 
konandin certain paradoxical and deceptive appearances even 
surpassing in beauty and brilliancy, and stereoscopic effect, the 
krger curves which are so well known and so much admired. 

"~ Macdokkell exhibited a new and improved form ot 

f-pamp and Swift's new form of camera lucida. 

e black 

Dr. MOBJUS in tlie Chair. 
Mr. H. G. A. Wright exhibited Tolles' ^-th duplex front 
objective, which had been made to his special order. With 
this objective Mr. Wright resolved a number of the most difficult 
diatom test obje< Ida and X. oyyphiUum in 

balsam. Mr. H. O. Walker exhibited specimens of Volvox globator 
from the Botany Swamp. Mr. T. E. Hewett exhibited a piece of 
colonial selenite, a remarkably fine specimen, and also drew the 
attention of the meeting to an improved form of Bramhall'a 
illuminator, with a highly polished silver reflecting surface. Mr. 
Brindley exhibited a series of polariscopic objects, and Mr. 
Pedley a rich and varied collection of aqi 

Among the objects exhibited by the members present was a 
preparation of fossil diatoms from a recently discovered deposit 
near Tamworth, by Mr. H. O. Walker, and beetle by Mr. F. B. 
Kyngdon, a species of Atractus, in its larval and pupal forms, and 
as a perfect insect, badly afflicted with acaridie. Mr. G. D. HlBST 
exhibited Prof. Smith's vertical illuminator, which he recommended 
as a very desirable form of illumination for high-angled immersion 
objectives. The performance of this illuminator on F. saxonka 
and other difficult test objects was most gratifying. 


Dr. Morris in the Chair. 

Mr. H. Sharp exhibited photographs of A. pellucida, executed 

by Mr. Tolles of Boston, showing the transverse strise resolved 

from end to end of valves by |th and f&th inch objectives of his 

own construction. 

The Chairman exhibited a preparation of Odium albicans from 
a patient's tonsil. This fungoid growth possesses considerable inte- 
> the unaided eye it presents a ' 

rhomboides from Manly. 
resting collection of mites 


Dr. Morris in the Chair. 

Professor Liversidge presented for distribution amongst t e 

members of the Section two samples of diatomaceous deposits, to 

one from the Richmond River, N.S.W., and the other from 
Santa Maria, California. Dr. Mokris read come notes on tea 
' in isti cl F /aria, found in the flesh of the bullock, and exhibited 
the cyst and portions of the mature and embryo worm under the 
microscope. The cyst is formed of dense white fibrous 1 

about the size of a large Barcelona r 
than one mature worm, which worm is completely filled with 
encapsuled and free embryos. It is impossible to ascertain with 
any degree of certainty how many embryotic worms each mature 
Filaria may contain, but they may be numbered by hundreds of 
Mr. Pedley exhibited a number of slides of parasitic Ixodes. 

nne. Mr. T. E. Hewett read a r 

remarkable for showing a phosphorescent light when irri 
had found this species in Port Jackson, and proposed 
Cyperidium phosplwrescem. 

Dr. Morris exhibited a m 

boides mounted in different media. 

sties of ex] 

markings c 

i the medium used for mounting j mounted dry, and m Uana i 
balsam, the highest angled lenses of Tolles and Zeiss resolved them 
only with the greatest difficulty and but very faintly, wiereas 
^hen using as a medium various combinations of ta«W] ■" ■ 
carbon with phosphorus, oil of cassia, and sulphur, the valves were 
resolved with the greatest ease. The meeting had an opportunity 
°f testing the accuracy of Dr. Morris's observations by direct com- 
parison of valves of this rhomboid** mounted dry, and in I Sanada 
balsam, with preparations of the same valves in the medium pro- 
Posed by him ; that particularly recommended being bisulphide 
°* carbon, oil of cassia, and phosphorus, as safest to work ^ ith. Ine 
superior definition of the markings in this medium was acknow- 
le %edby a ll present . 


Dr. Morris in the Chair. 

JO. T^ey presented six slides for the Society's Cabinet, and 

ported a further donation • H - °- Walker ' 


Dr. Wright called the attention of the meeting to a & of an 
inch objective of Mr. Tolles' construction, of 100° angular aperture, 
and claimed that no amount of deep eye-piecing could break it down 
He exhibited a Podura scale amplified to 2,000 diameters without 
in any way impairing the defining power of the objective. 

Dr. Morris exhibited A. pellucida resolved in Canada balsam 
medium, and also in a preparation of bisulphide of carbon and 

Mr. Brindley exhibited some slides of local Foraminifera. 
Donations to the Society's Cabinet. 

Mr. T. E. Hewett :— Spiracle of larva of moth; antenna of moth; 
Malophagus ovinus ; Sp., caprella ; Limnardia sorida ; parasite of 

Mr. H. O. Walker -.—Achnanthes loitgipes ; palate of slug. 

Mr. P. R,. Pedley : — Nervous membrane investing spinal cord 
of cow ; section of human scalp ; section of rush, fungus, spiracles 
of caterpillar, and gizzard of black cricket. 

FRIDAY, 16 APRIL, 1880. 
E. L. Montefiore in the Chair. 
The minutes of the previous meeting we: 
" ng <~ 

Seci __ - 
Messrs. L. W. Hart, A. L. Jackson, Trevor Jones, and G. 

The following officers man : Mr. E. L. 

Montefiore. Secretary : Mr. Percy E. Williams. Committee : 

N. ~ 
A. Morrell. 

FRIDA Y, 28, MA Y, 1880. 
Mr. E. L. Montefiore in the Chair. 

Mr. Montefiore laid on the table etchings by Vion, Faruffim, 
Ballin, and others ; an original landscape in black and white by 
Gainsborough ; and studies in chalk by Domenico, Pellegrino 
Tebaldi, and Padouanino. 

Rev. Mr. Horton exhibited a rare German work on Heraldry, 
published at Nurenberg in 1696. - 

Mr. L. W. Hart produced photo-types of the Katoomba Fails, 
Weatherboard, and general mountain scenery. . 

Mr. Clarendon Stuart exhibited several chromo-lithos by bpu> 
hover, of Milan, representing pavements, basilicas, ifcc, of public 

L- - 
which Mr. 

Stuart drew attention to a work on " The Bronze Ornaments 
of the Palace Gates from Balawat," published under the sanction 
of the Trustees of the British Museum. 

It was resolved that the Council should be applied to for a 
copy of the work for the use of the Section. 

FRIDAY, 30 JULY, 1880. 
Mr. E. L. Montefiore in the Chair. 

The Secretary read a letter from the Council declining to accede 

i ui of the Section to procure a copy of the work on 

the Bronze Gates of Balawat, whereupon Mr. Stuart stated he 

would present his own copy to the Section on its arrival from 


The Secretary laid on the table the first number of a work on 
Decorative Art. 

Mr. Montefiore exhibited some curious and interesting works, 
including an illustrated edition of Butler's Hudibras, published in 
1709; an essay on Comic Painting, 1788; and fifteen drawings 
ty Henri Regnault. 

Mr. Trevor Jones read an interesting paper on " Light and 
Colour, a treatise on some of their properties, physical, and 
artistic," illustrated by diagrams and experiments. 


188* I)reliminai 7 meeting of this Section was held on 16th April, 
!«80, at which the following officers were appointed :— Chairman : 
« Alp red Roberts. Secretaries : Dr. Jones, Dr. Maclaumn. 
Committee : Messrs. Wright, Fortescue, Cox, and Schuette. 

Meetings of the Section were held on the second Friday in each 
m °ath, at which specimens were exhibited, papers read, and 
Ejects of professional interest discussed. 

^ Paper by Dr. Manning on the Causation of Insanity, 
read, on August 13th, 1880, was recommended for publication m 
tbe Soci ety's Journal. 



: Cam 

sation and Preve: 

ation « 

Df Insanity. 

fihr F. 

Norton Manning 

, M.D., 

Ac., ftc. 

[Bead bef 

we the 

ion of the Boy a 

10 September. 1SS0.} 

Z Some* of m 

It is one of the glories of our profession that its members have 
not only been foremost in recognising the importance — but have 
been the chief workers m tin* ii».-l«l -of preventive medicine, that 
they have discerned that prophylaxis has a higher aim than the- 
rapeutics, and that " there is a larger and loftier success in pre- 
venting the diseases of c: ing the diseases of 
individuals." In mental, as in physical disease, there is more 
scope for the physician in prevention than in cure, and it is in this 
direction I would this evening. The causation 
and prevention of insanity is a subject of such importance that I 
need not apologise for its introduction. 

As a text for my observations, I place before you two tables 
which have been prepared with some care, and concerning which 
some explanatory rem rk- ar n. .-• -ary. The first of these shows 
the assigned can admitted into the 

Hospital for the Insane at Gladesville, from January 1st, 1869, to 
December 31st, 1878, a period of ten years. This table has been 
prepared from the case books of the Hospital, and I have to thank 
my friend Dr. Beattie for placing it in its present shape. The 
causes assigned in the papers forwarded with the patients, often 
conjectural, and sometimes absurd, have been supplemented by 
inquiries from relatives and from the patients themselves, and 
corrected by the light thrown on the cases by their subsequent 
history and progress. The second table is more elaborate and 
more important, not only as embracing larger numbers, but as 
based on an improved elawtiratmn. It sets forth th- ^-J!"' 
causes of insanity in 13,309 patients admitted into Unp 
«»rl„ mo «* „n „w. Q _ during the year 1878, and is the nrst 

,, . . ,- , • ■:■ :■: ..'• 

acKnowledge their indebtedness to the -Mi 
oupei-mttmdents of Institutions for the Insane throughout , tne 
Kingdom. The percentages for both tables have been calculates. 
in my office. ... 

It will be seen that in the Gladesville table there is no £*?" 
tion between predisposing and exciting causes, whilst m tiie ij « 
lish table these are distinguished, and are both tabulated wn 
both are found to exist, with a result that the aggregate oi 
total causes, incl , exceeds the whole number 

of patients by exactly 30 per cent. In comparing the percen B 

in the Gladesville and English tables, it should therefore be 
remembered that the latter are greater than the former by 30 
per cent, or | from this cause. With this in mind, ami with 
some corrections necessary, owing to the somewhat different 
method of classification, it will be seen that though some causes 
are more potent in this than in the mother country, in others 
there is a singular agreement in the percentages. Taking the 
main divisions moral and physical, it appears that in New South 
Wales 16-9 per cent, of the insanity was due to moral, and 57 6 
per cent, to physical causes; an addition of 30 per cent, to 
each of these brings the figures very near the English percentages. 
It is not my intention to analyse minutely these epitomes of 
human misery, or to take up seriatim each of the causes of mental 
•hsturbann her, sei forth still less is it nn desire to dogmatise 
on a subject so intricate. Deep set hereditary predisposition, 
,1 the marvellous ingrained 
weakness of human nature, go ' " 

hysical, to make i ± 
llltl ons which results in insanity. The < 

vestigation, and ( 
e. A patient 

extensive series of data is required for the proper elucidation 

ot this question. The tables I have placed before you are a 

■■§ m this direction, and such evidence as can be deduced from 

them must be regarded as a small contribution towards a large 

subject. I s l ia n pass over at once t ^ e majority of the so-called 

moral causes of insanity, because these come "but little within 

our province as physicians, because I believe that in the majority 

cases it is only when there is physical predisposition that these 

pauses become operative, and because it is certain that w-ith 

-hied under these headings 

" Domestic trouble" is no uncommon experience, 

fey" falls to the lot of most men and women, and 

' ' ' - ' ' nees" to not a few. The strain falls on almost 

««» .• Weak S ive wav > and ^ is this weakness which, in reality, 

'-chief cause of the insanity. 

r.. which 1 would direct your attention appear 

. Ule< ^<I>>vi!l,. |„it n,,t i„ the Kn dish table. They are isola- 

!J««inobtal}ri;i, ,„ which, cnnjninlly, 3-9 of the cases are 

attnbuted. I mention the tw ' Q togethe / Decause they have some- 

ail(1 V u cr "»i'">u. The eases of pure nostalgia have been few 

Deorfo o 0cculTed entirely among other than English-speaking 

...s. Italians, and Chinese. All spoke English 

• and were isolated in this respect, as well as in 

iaffin • i home and in a strange country. The cases due to 

of tW includecl shepherds whose occupation some years ago was 

"» most lonely character in all, and is still so in some 


districts of the Colony. Happily, however, with the increase of 
fencing, and with increasing population, this form of isolation, 
which was formerly a fruitful cause of insanity, is rapidly decreas- 
ing. Isolation in another form was first brought under my notice 
"by observing that a large proportion of the patients admitted had 
no relatives or friends nearer than the old country. By a return, 
which I have had prepared during the last few weeks, I find that 

institutions for the insane on June 30 last were, so far as is 
known, absolutely friendless ; that upwards of 200, or 10 percent, 
are foreigners ; and that only about 900 are known to have friends 
or relatives in this Colony. This isolation, which is something 
terrible to a new emigrant, and which lasts often for years, is 
kept up by the disparity of the sexes, which at the close of 1879 
stood at 409,665 males and 324,617 females, and to some extent 
prevents marriage ; and it is fostered by the peculiar mode of life 
both of the miner and the bushman, by the shifting from place to 
place with the seasons in search of work, and by the restlessness 
which seems an inherent feature of colonial existence at present. 

The absence of all near home ties and all active sympathy, 
together with the constant change of associates, leads on the one 
hand to a dwarfing of all those better feelings which are fostered 
and flourish in home life, and on the other to the development of 
a miserable selfishness, to a concentration of all thought m one 
unwholesome direction, to a suspicion and distrust of ever-chang- 
ing comrades, and at last to evil habits, to introspection, _ to 
hypochondriasis, and to the development of delusions of suspicion 
and fear, which are prominent symptoms in this class of cases. 
Isolation is most potent as a cause of insanity, as might be ex- 
pected among men, but it is found among women also, many ot 
whom have landed in this country quite friendless, and a large 
number of whom, in ,m ufr, ,■ >t.^- U lit,-, li ■ - in terrible isolation, 
surrounded by some real and some imaginary dangers, in home- 
steads in the distant bush, from which their husbands 
fr< j e tlv 1 :nt as shearei 

A system of family, instead of isola 
much to prevent this cause of insanity, 
immigration, by which persor 
and partly at the expense of friends, is decidedly better in tws 
regard than one which lands on our shores a number of fiiencue^ 
strangers. With increasing population, with less " v l! . > , 
numbers between the sexes, with more settled modes of life, ana 
with the growth of a native-born population, this cause ot msaiu j- 
will no doubt lessen and in time disappear. 

Intemperance in drink ;.,,[,-,- in ti..- Ki.ulM. ^' ^ ' 
causing a percentage of 14-6, and in the Gladesville the v 
centage stands at 8 '3. It must be remembered that .30 per 


must be subtracted from the former to make these proportions of 
equal value in the two tables. This will give nearly 10 per cent, 
as the English rate, and represents, I believe, fairly the proportion 
of insanity due directly or indirectly to this cause. I attach the 
more value to these statistics because they have been collected by 
a number of independent observers, and are therefore five from 
the chance of error due to individual and unconscious l.ias winch 
besets all statistics drawn up by one person. For some years past 
I have read evervtl iug 1 < dd tind to read on this subject, 
have now no small personal experience bearing on this question, 
and have come to the conclusion that the effect of intemperance 
as a cause of insanity has been largely exaggerated. I put aside 
at once all that intemperance of statement which seems to be 
inseparable from the habiti ■.mpettui.v ,n 

drink. There is in this nothing but vague and sensational 
declamation unsupported by any attempt at proof, lo a certain 
class of mind drunkenness is the root of all evil, and some ot our 
professional brethren have 'not been free from 
exaggeration of statement on this subject. The earlier statis k>, 
which set down at least 25 per cent, of all insanity as caused by 
intemperance in drink, have been proved to be erroneous y 
tofeties taken over a wider field, and by many unprejudiced 
observers, and the startling statements of Dr. Howe, that almost all 
cases of idiocy w< ,-, d ,, to dninl - m, - i • the parents, which to 
some extent shifted ti ,,oui 1 and u r l M tl» i. that dunk 
was an enormous indirect factor of insanity, have been disprovea 
by the researches of Dr. Grabhan, of the Earlswood Asylum D*. 
Bucknill, and other writers. To quote the words ot an ;.-, urn 
physician in a m Labouring Colony, "intemperance is a ^use ' 
readily seized, so easily packed into a word, comes so easily unaer 
the notice of a patient's family, his friends, or the P ub \ tha ^ 
few striking instances en- ■ ' '^^I e X 

for many a dozen others, which without oIaious ca 

unnoticed into the asylum." In not a tew mffl 
exn«riPT,«, +i„, | bo be a cause ' 

, „t *£ „ ;,l,n^ of a loss of self-control -due 
antecedent date to the 

experience, the intemperance stated 1 
a symptom — one of the evidences of £ 
to brain disease manifestly < ''"" 

ngest argument n 

' ' 'emperance 

?f»i-i-u>... .,. <» «7 *f"^S5 go 

»*«%), but that theyrfo not in any e-n-hl 

a 'A- The proliferation of connective tasue is one 


prominent pathological changes produced by alcohol in the struc- 
ture of numerous organs where its effects have been carefully 
studied. The brain and nerve structure of lunatics should present 
a corresponding condition if the cause of insanity were drink. 
The post-mortem rooms of hospitals for the insane afford little or no 
evidence of this except in one or two special forms of disease, and 
it is rare in my experience to find in patients dying in these 
institutions the peculiar changes in liver and kidney which are 
known to be due to alcoholism, and which should be abundantly 
frequent if these patients had been drunkards. The quality of 
the drink and the mode in which it is taken has perhaps a larger 
share in the production of i - in this Colony, 

than the quantity. The quality of the beverages supplied in 
roadside and up-country public-houses, and even in Sydney and 
the larger towns is, as I need hardly remind you, abominably bad. 
Apart from fusel oil and other products of recent and imperfect 
distillation, direct adulteration is largely practised. Kerosene, 
tobacco, cocculus indicus, and other deleterious substances, are 
freely used, and there can be no doubt that these poisons, to use 
the language of the Laureate : 

"Confuse the chemic labour of the blood, 
And ticklu, , fch« man's, 

Make havock among those tender cells." 
The system of drinking which is almost unknown in older countries 
has also not a little to answer for. Short and reckless outbursts of 
drinking, altera** ad often compulsory periods 

of abstinence. These horrible orgies on bad liquor may, and no 
doubt not unfrequently do, result in insanity. . 

Though I believe that the amount of insanity caused by drink 
has been exaggerated, still the amount given in these statistics 
calls for earnest consideration. In round numbers 10 per cent, is 
set down as due to this cause, and 200 out of the 2,000 persons 
now under care must be considered to have become insane from 
intemperance in drink. Calculating the cost of construction in 
our hospitals for the insane at from £150 to £200 per bed, ana 
with the high price of labour it has not been much less, we have a 
primary outlay for these 200 cases of from £30,000 to £40,UW, 
and an annual maintenance rate of upwards of £6,000 a-year. 
The prevention of ii^-min du- t- drink becomes in this aspect 
a vast social as well as a medical problem— the solution of vrtaca 
is, I think, to be largely found — , 

1st. In the reduction of the number of public-houses, so asw 
lessen unwholesome competition ; r m ,ors 

2nd. In the thorough and frequent inspection of all Uqno 
sold; ,. U-S-M 


! ;:r 

all of ice. The common use of ic-hvafr in America, 
where it can be obtained in every railway carriage ami 
in every village, has done more I believe to reduce inteni- 
ince than anything else ; 

better and more wholesome modes of preparing food, 

which even in our hotels is often so maasmti&g and 

monotonous s to di _u t in 1 h I imt only to drinking 

habits, but to dyspepsia and chronic ill health, of which 

I shall have something to say further on. 

Sexual intemperance appears in the English table as responsible 

for about 1 per cent, of the cases, and though it is not perhaps a 

veryfrequent cause of insani \ it elf, it is worth the consideration of 

mediuilpr.i in- is , I r aou i i us affections which 

may conduce to insanity, either in the individual or his offspring. 

In my position as Medical Superintendent of Gladesville I was not 

unfrequently consulted by persons suffering from hypochondriasis 

and other forms of m r\ n affection, and in; considerable proportion 

I ascertained that there was sexual intemperance. In some cases of 

insanity admitted into the Hospital, and especially in elderly men 

with young wives, I have with good reason attributed recovery to 

the temporary and enforced continence. 

Lallemand was the first to point out the influence of seminal 
discharges on certain forms of vesania, and though like almost all 
specialists he no d„ubt exaggerated their influence, he did good 
service in showini ■ moral prostration, and true 

melancholy were sometimes due to this cause. The effects of 
sexual intemperance in lawful or unlawful channels must be 
differentiated from masturbation, because to the latter is added a 
secret, shameful, and moral cause of degradation, and the form of 
insanity due to ilii. aus. litFw in some respects from that due 
to sexual intemperance only. You will perceive that masturba- 
tion is credited with 1 7 per cent, in the Gladesville and 1-2 per 
cent, in the English tables, and these rates will doubtless seem 
small to all who I ind of sensational literature, 

vhich itself bv the way has done more to cause insanity than the 
practices which it denounces. There is little doubt but that 
masturbation has been too fre M , nth cit. I us a cause of insanity 
by observers who are without the breadth of view which can only 
^ gathered by a complete scffntiiie and medical education. It is 

frequently seen in the is, «.f insanity as a symptom, especially 

111 a ' '"" !■ ania ,ii ,-, u It 1, the evanescence of reason and its con- 
trolling p,v.v,r ,„ lm . s :l „ ,„,„„,„., subservience to animal pro- 
pensities and seminal Inlet < lint the practice ceases with the re- 
enthronement ot i h . -, i, p.,wer I have repeatedly known 
lt to exist m th» ,, U rs, ,, r .i ;s of lenial ah, i ration, and ascer- 
^ that it was not onU di ml d but regarded with due 
»onorrence after recovery. 


A reference to the tables will show you the small amount of 
insanity said to be due to venereal disease — 04 per cent, in one and 
# 6 per cent, in the other. 1 1 I | neat wonder that 

more cases of insanity were not due to syphilis, and it is certainly 
curious that in 4,000 admissions primary syphilis was only seen 
in three cases. 

in the English table as causing 1*3 per 
remembered that this includes mum ;<>. -, , -,-., s where the attack 
has occurred abroad ; soldiers sent from India to the wards for the 
Army Department at Grove House, Bow ; sailors invalided from 
foreign stations, and admitted to the Hospital for the Insane at 
Yarmouth; besides isolated cases sent from hot countries under 
medical advice. Practically sunstroke, as a cause of insanity, in 
England, is almost unknown. It is far otherwise in this Colony. 
Five per cent, of the total number of cases are accredited to it, and 
I think with good reason. The effect of sun- or heat-stroke in the 
production of disease is not sufficiently appreciated. Many slight 
attacks of illness assigned to other causes are I believe due to the 
effect of heat and glare on the •■. . n ion. The enormous 
power of the sun's rays is well shown by the observation of Mr. 
Russell, the Government Astronomer. The thermometer with a 
black bulb placed in black cotton wool not infrequently in the 
summer-time reaches the boiling point, and on one occasion a ther- 
mometer graduated to 234 burst under these conditions. It is in 
the power of physicians to prevent much mischief by inculcating 
greater care in avoiding exposure, by indstino- on a more ratic 
head covering for the summer 
and by pointing out that after 
absolute poison, and cannot be taken with impunity in even small 
quantities. A person who has once suffered from sunstroke must 
be either a teetotaller or a lunatic. There is, I believe, no middle 

Accident or injury to the head is mentioned in both tables as a 
cause of insanity. In some cases it is a direct, but it is more often 
a predisposing, cause. It is in cases predisposed by injury that 
sunstroke, intemperance, excitement, and other causes light the 
fire which has been already laid. Where injury to the skull exists 
a caution as to the avoidance of exciting causes may not infre- 
quently save from further danger. During the year 1872 1 too 
some trouble to examine every patient admitted, and found marus 
of injury to the head more or less severe in 30 per 

propose to dwell on the puerperal state— pregnancy, 
., and lactation— as a cause of insanity, but I thmk * 
may be well to put on record my opinion that lactation prolongs 
beyond the ordinary time, or continued by delicate women evenui 

to the ordinary period, is more frequently a cause of insanity in this 
country than in England. In the English table it is set down 
as causing less than 1 per cent. Unfortunately in the Gladesville 
tables the causation is not so fully differentiated. Lactation is 
included under the general to *»1 state, and I 

have not found time to re-ex! « lt h a view °* 

ascertaining the exact proportion attributed to this cause alone. 
I feel sure, however, from the prominence which it has assumed 
in my mind as a cause of insanity, that the proportion is greater 
here than in England. Probably the enervating climate and the 
want of milk and good digestible food in the up-country districts 
help to render lactation more depressing than in England, and 
suggest a shortening of the period and greater attention to diet as 

From this point the tables having been prepared on a somewhat 
different plan become more difficult to compare, though on close 
examination and on grouping the causes, there is seen to be a close 
agreement in some of the percentages. For instance, fevers, pri- 
vation, uterine a ad i other bodily disorders, in 
the English table, give together a percentage of 137, whilst fever, 
chronic ill health, ns u t. , Vh -is, i id epilepsy, in the Gladesville 
tables, give together exactly the same figures. 

It is only during comparatively late years that progress Has 
been made in the idea of an intimate correlation, of a relation of 
cause and effect between affections of organs far removed from 
the encephalon and disorders of the mind. The influence ot uterine 
and ovarian affections, disorders of the digestive functions, lesions 
of the stomach a lections of the liver, nea 

disease, pulmonary phthisis, are now among the best recognised 
causes of mental aberration; and we know to-day that there is 
not a single part of the economy, lesions of which may not biing 
about psychical disorder in predisposed subjects. The ascending 
course of some diseases of the spinal cord towards the brain oy 
which ataxic and paraplegic subjects become in time Omenta 
» also almost universally Recognised, and to use the language 
of a distinguished French professor of mental medicine-- Wtmcai 
observers have, so to speak, shifted the axis of mental medicine 
and we no longer gravitate round psychology. The peases o 
«* body and brain, and not merely the perturbations of the under- 
^ding, command our attention and treatment." a - Hp a 

. ! nave been greatly struck v. it). ili.Mmmb.-r of cases admitted 
^oGladesvdle with symptoms of dyspepsia, and with what for 
want of a beit, : Jf ° h W of 

Jealth," aud I cannot l)ut attribute a considerable proportion ot 
these to the want of varied and properly cooked meals. L douut 
f there is any country in the world «1 n « itU /'"" ." " 
food there is less variety or less evidence of civilization in its 


preparation. Salt meat and damper are still a frequent if not the 
continuous dietary of large miielx rs. Fresh meat is cooked in a 
manner glaringly monotonous ; milk is untasted by a large pro- 
portion of the up-country population for months together, and 
vegetables except potatoes are an infrequent luxury for which 
numbers have to thank the itinerant Chinaman ; whilst tea, black, 
milkless, and often sugarless, is drunk at every meal and in 
quantities which take away appetite for the more solid and too 
often unappetising viands. 

It is no wonder that women, especially during lactation, break 
down under such a regimen, that men feel a crying, physical, or 
physiological want which drives them to bursts of hard drinking, 
or that the digestive powers fail, and with them the nourishment 
of the brain as well as other organs. 

A bountiful, a varied, and a nutritious diet is in many cases of 
service in warding off threatened attacks of insanity, or arresting 
in its early stages, and this with attention to special symptoms 
denoting bodily ailment is the main agent in the recovery in not a 
few advanced cases. With better modes of carriage and with 
denser population we shall in time no doubt get a more varied 
dietary, and it is to be hoped that cookery will be taught as a 
special and compulsory subject in the projected High Schools for 
Girls, and in the higher classes of our public schools. 

In the Gladesville table epil<-| >-.\ i- J \ .n i- a factor to the extent 
of 5-9 per cent., but in the ] - is grouped, as 

it seems to me unwisely, among other bodily diseases or disorders. 
I find, however, from - >me statistics given by the English Com- 
missioners in 1876. tluu h G-5 per cent., so 
that probably the potency of this affection in the production of 
insanity is about the same in both countries. An interesting 
point in connection with this affection is its stron- h> ivdifiry 
character, and its tendency to run off in offspring into kindred 
neuroses or even into idiocy or insanity. In the January num- 
ber of « Brain" for 1880 is an elaborate article by Mr. Henry 
Clarke, surgeon to the Wakefield Prison, on heredity in epileptic 
criminals, and though possibly the hereditary nature of the malady 
may be more marked in criminal than in other classes, this paper 
shows its extreme character and potency. In 119 epileptics, par- 
ticulars of whose cases were inquired into with the most pains- 
taking diligence, 54, or 45 per cent, showed hereditary influence 
direct or collateral, and these 54 epileptics were proved to have no 
less than 1 24 epileptic relatives, one having as many as eleven, an 
several four or five each. Dr. Cowers, in his Gulstonian lectures, 
published in the Lancet during the current year, states that 
out of 1,250 epileptics who came under his care at the National 
Hospital for Epih-,,.-, u ,| i\ ir: , , .j„. i„. found distinct hereditary 
influence in 452, or 36 per cent. Mr. Clarke's researches at 


Wakefield further showed that the number of direct hereditary 
epileptics is much greater among women than men, and that the 
epileptic strain is transmitted more strongly hy the female sex, 
thus hearing out the statements of Trousseau on this sul.jeet. 

With regard to the connection between epilepsy and insanity, no 
less than 24 percent, of Mr. Clarke's non-insane epileptics had 
insane relatives, whilst 41 per cent, of the whole and 66 per cent, 
of the women were descende fca Out of Dr. 

Cowers' 1,250 cases 157 were known to have insane relations. 
The question of the marriage of epileptics is sometimes submitted 
to medical practitioners, and in my opinion should he invariably 
answered in the negative. 

The hereditary transmission of insanity is a subject of the 
most profound interest, both from a medical and social stand- 
point, and to a medical -superintendent of a hospital for the 
insane it is a duty increasing in interest with each year's ex- 
perience to trace out the relationships of present and former 
patients. I have had under my care at various times five sons of 
a mother who died at (.Ihidesville under my predecessor ; abrother 
and sister, two children of the former, and one of the latter have 
passed through my wards ; tlm <ist. ■* : two sisters, and a child of 
one of them ; a mother and two children have at different times been 
jwder treatment. And the instances in which two of a family have 
been under care are innumerable. Even the relatives who come to 
yisit patients fr ed forms of neurosis and are 

jnthis respect an mi. ... _ . i i tot! em. b'.-.,-] .ychologist. The 
Gladesville statistics are however, as might be expected, much less 
complete in this ] English ones, and give only 

7-2 per cent, as due to hereditary influence. The reason of 
this is not far to seek. In a former part of this paper I have 
stated that nothing whatever is known of the relatives of upwards 
« 1,000 out of 2,000 patients now under care, and, as might 
?E Cted ' in a vei 7 lar ge proportion of those who have Mends, 
■jej friends have little or no knowledge of the family history or 
oi relatives in far-away lands. In many cases husbands know 
er of the families of their wives, and in not a few 
J 8 * 8 I have found that neither patients nor their friends could 
*U me even the nationality of the grand-parents. The statistics 
gained in England, where the family history of almost every 
Patient can be traced, afford much more complete and conclusive 
^denceas to the her.-litarv character of the malady. In the 
in 17? ^ bleS now beforp vmi hereditary influence was ascertained 
*' of the cases admitted, and some medical suporintendentswho 
ohu S P ecia % inquired into and studied this subject place the per- 
™age as much higher. I >,-. Savage, of Bethlehem, shows a per- 


334 out of 1,029 admissions; whilst in Dr. Thurnam's well- 
known statistics of the "Retreat," 153 cases were known to be due 
to heredity out of 469, or nearly one-third. Similar statistics 
have been published in Scotland, and tin- inspectors of Lunatic 
Asyluma in Ireland, in their 27th Report, call attention to and 
give statistics on this subject. This intense hereditary influence 
has been noticed abroad as well as in Great Britain and Ireland. 
Esquirol observes, that oi is the most heredi- 

tary, and gives figures showing that in one-fourth of the total 
number of cases coming under his care this influence was ascer- 
tained. Guislain estimates it at one-fourth in Belgium, and 
Damerou in Holland traced it in 187 cases out of 773 admissions, 
or about one-fourth. There is reason to fear that the pro- 
portion of insaxu fcaiy influence is steadily in- 
creasing. Dr. Ball, Professor of .Mental Medicine at the Univer- 
sity of Paris, in a lecture recently published in the Lancet, speaks 
confidently of " the greater and greater preponderance of heredity 
in mental aberration," and so long ago as 1872 the Inspectors of 
Lunatic Asylums in Ireland, in an elaborate report, after pointing 
out that there v. jeif not larger aggregate of insanity 
among a population of little more than five millions as there 
was in 1864, when the population numbered six millions, go on to 
say, "it is idle to disguise the fact that it is an affection of 
hereditary and progressive tendency, and to no inconsiderable ex- 
■ . e humbler classes 
of society." It is a sad an. I in sanity itself, or 
a condition of brain strongly predisposing to it, is a legacy left 
to hundreds by their progenitors, and it is no small part of the 
benefit which institutions for the insane confer upon the com- 
munity that they check in a very large degree the propagation of 
a malady so In i « • ;■". A diffusion of a knowledge 
of the terrible b t insanity may do something 
to prevent imprudent marriages, but unfortunately it is not with 
the prudent and thoughtful that we have to deal. It is with the 
wayward, the impulsive, and the improvident, with brains bearing 
subtle mischief in their recesses, and but little likely to look 
beyond selfish gratification. The time has not yet arrived for legisla- 
tive interference. In time to come however, when the liberty of 
the subject is made more subordinate to the welfare of the com- 
munity, it will perhaps be found expedient in the interest oi 
future generations to insist on prolonged isolation or operative 
interference in the case of all persons who have been afflicted witn 
mental disease. In the meantime, to quote the words of vr. 
Blandford, "it behoves a physician before whom the terrible 
results of imprudence in this direction are paraded day by day to 
hold out a warning and to point out the evils which result trom 
imprudent union, and the immense amount of insanity itsell, a 

well as epilepsy, chorea, neuralgia, and other nerve disorders, 
transmitted from parent to offspring." It is, m my opinion, not 
too much to say that any person who marries, except under very 
• ittack 

, after such a marked and prolonged attack 
of mental derangement us required hospital treatment, commits a 
crime against posterity. 

Five per cent, of the cases in the Gladesville and 4-8 percent, in 
the English table are stated to be congenital in origin. Among the 
causes of congenital mischief are said to be a condition of intoxi- 
cation or epilepsy on the part of parents during coition or concep- 
tion ; the marriage of near kin ; ill health, injuries, persistent 
sickness, emotion al tm the part of 

the mother during pregnancy ; injurious compression of the cranial 
bones and brain from contracted passage or protracted labour ; the 
misuse of forceps ; and suspt nded animation after birth, the latter 
considered by Dr. Langdon Down to be a frequent cause. As to 
drunkenness or epilepsy during coition or conception as a cause of 
congenital mental defect, I must confess that I am sceptical, and 
the truth must be difficult to prove. 

The effect of the marriage of near kin has been debated at very 
considerable length. Huth, whose elaborate work on this subject 
is well known, and whose opinions have been widely adopted out- 
side our profession, scouts the idea that consanguineous marriages 
are harmful, and answers the question whether consanguineous 
carriages give a greater proportion of unhealthy children than non- 
consanguineous marriages with a decided negative, stating that even 
where the marriages of blood ivla-|..i., ; ;■■ hi'i irual, deterioration 
even through the chance accumulation of an idiosyncrasy, practi- 
cally does not occur oftener than in other marriages. Other 
observers have, however, come to a different conclusion, and I 
would commend to your attention a thoughtful paper on the inter- 
marriage of relal a and arguments, by Dr 
Nathan Allen, and d in the Quarterly Journal 
°* Psychological Medicine for April, 1869, which to my mind 
anords conclusive evidence th result m ldloc y> 
epilepsy, deafmutism, and other forms of neurotic disease Dr. 
Mitchell, one of the Commissioners in Lunacy for Scotland, who 
8 P^Ps as well qualified to form an opinion on this subject as 
gy one in Groat I per cent, of the idiocy in 
^tland to consanguineous marriage. My own experience on the 
*<* is limited; but in the few cases in which two imbecile 
^Udren in one family have come under my observation the 
Penta have been always nearly related, and in the only instance 
^bich I W. re n in one family idiotic I 

'-nee that they were the offspring of the i 
^ of brother and sister. The conclusions I have arrived at, 
m which I think you will agree, a 

marriages have a tendency to strengthen and develop in the 
offspring individual peculiarities of the parents, both mental and 
physical, whether morbid or otherwise, and therefore in practice 
they do often induce degeneration ; and also that by means of a 
proper regard to known facts relating to hereditary transmission, 
a physician may predict with accuracy the probable result, as 
regards the health of the offspring, of a marriage of blood relations 
in any particular case, if he be only sufficiently acquainted with 
the hygienic history of the family. It is to be much regretted 
that medical a.hkpnn tin- sul.^.t 1-, not more often sought and 
more often acted on. It would be well in many cases if the 
family physician could forbid the banns. 

On the other causes of congenital defect which I have men- 
tioned it is not my intention to enlarge. 

The influence of modern ci action of insanity 

is an interesting question. There is little doubt, though infinity is 
of all times and all ages, that savage races are comparatively little 
liable to it, and that their mode of life, in which the survival of the 
fittest obtains to its fullest extent, prevents anything like hereditary 
transmission, or the increase of insanity or idiocy by accumulation. 
In the idyllic calm of life in Madagascar, and where, by the way, 
it appears that insane persons are not destroyed as among some 
savage races, there is no need for a lunatic asylum among a popu- 
lation estimated at upwards of 5,000,000. In the days of American 
slavery — when a I of the slave were attended 

to ; when there was no outlet for mental activity, or need for mental 

anxiety; when, indeed, the lives of these ; 

children— colour in the Southern States were 

few in number. In the States of Georgia and Virginia the 
number of insane among the coloured population was, it is statec 
by competent witnesses, at no time prior to emancipation, more 
than eighty out of a population of 800,000; whilst it , a PP eal * 
from recent asylum reports that there are now more than tiW 
insane persons of this race in these two States. It has been weU 
said that it is better to be civilized and free with even a ; larg 
chance of becoming insane than to be a savage or a slave .™^ 
this ; but the question remains whether the 

of insanity 
to a large 

extent preventive. Insani t v « -. -i t .- , i i , h v, ; „ well known m » 
past epochs of civilization, and ancient literature, sacred an 
profane, teems with mention of it and illustration of its P lias , 
but there is good reason to think that our civilization, m its vane 
and higher developments as well as in its manufacture of P*"^, 

uggling classes, and especially in its many 

those least 

rendering possible, and prolonging tlie existence ui « 
fitted to survive and multiply, has caused and is still 
higher percentage of insanity than was known in former times. 

; the 
1 makinj 

boyhood and girlhood one Ion 2 g for examina- 

tion. The examinations at the London and other Universities 
and for professions have become almost encyclopedic in their 
range. The whole system tends to confuse and distract the mind, 
to unfit it for the work of the world, to stunt originality, 
and to induce what has not inaptly been termed "brain-fog." 
Where there is no absolute break-down at the time, and instances 
of this are much more frequent than is commonly supposed, seeds 
are planted for the growth of mental disorder later in life, and 
many a brain is upset which had it been subjected to more moderate 
pressure would have escaped unharmed. I know no stronger 
evidence as to the evil done by overwork at schools and competitive 
examinations than that of Dr. Andrew Clarke, who states that he 
has discovered temporary albuminuria in 10 per cent, of the can- 
didates sent to him for examination as to physical health after 
Sen ice examination for India. 
Next comes the high pressure, the fever and fret of prof essional 
and business life, the haste, competition, and all-pervading dis- 
quiet, which has had no parallel in other times. The over-work 
connected with business, the severe mental labour of the profes- 
sions, the anxiety, excitement, and harass of the mercantile world, 
all these are taii»il.l.- f.-i.-iur, ..f mental disease, though in most 
^stances h is difficult to tabulate the cause. It behoves us, I 
think, as physicians, to inculcate some pause and leisure in life, and 
J the tendency which ha; .inly exists in this Colony to 
ut-d nn V sports and amusements of every kind. 

' "l the Gladesville table 
»W per cent, of the causes are set down as " unascertained." The 
g^ter percentage in the Gladesville table is due to the defective 
means we have for obtaining trustworthy information by ques- 
tioning relatives and friends, and to causes which I have already 
^cheated. The lar-e proportion in both is, I apprehend, due to 
" , ' 1 ' ,,,r 'l'.-'t the development of insanity generally requires a 
incurrence of several adverse incidents, and that many cases can- 
J*« attributed to any one Bpecial event. It is better, I think, 
"";-••■! ang for a solution of the problem than to set forth a 
■ lI ' lf 'l Wowlnl^ and it, need disturb our complacency but little 
n '' h11 ; 1 tlut the solution ot',one- of ill- most difficult questions in 
r,nd Philology is, as yet, beyond us. 


as««ss s-^s-Pzi-ii-3 





JANTTABY, 1880.— General Abstract. 

rometer Highest Eeading... 

1 32° Faht. Lowest Reading . . . 

Mean Height .., 

(Being 0-007 greater than that in the sar 

■ " 


Mean in the Shade 

Number of Dayt 
Greatest Eall 
Total Fall... 

ectricity ... Number of Daya Lightning 

^djSky... Mean Amount 

if . Number of Clear Days ... 

*"***■ ... n™w^o^ 

Sfew PlaceVo nt he t * 

I At Sydney the highest,-. 
.a *u« JL-J*. fall of rain n 


FEBKUAKY, 1880.— General Abstract. 

30-151 inches on the 2nd, at 10-20 wn. 
29-504 „ on the 13th, at 5 p.m. 

Number of Days Calm ... 1 

Prevailing Direction ... E.N.E. 

Highest in the Shade . . . 79"7 on the 

Lowest in the Shade ... 60-7 on the 

Greatest Range 146 on the 

Highest in the Sun ... 147'9 on the 

Lowest on the Grass ... 57"5 on the 

Mean Diurnal Range ... 91 

Mean in the Shade 

TotalEall... Z Z {«{ = g£ 

(Being 3-051 incl 

ies less than that of the same month on an average of the pr. 


Total Amount 3*492 inches. 

MeanAmouut 71 

(Being 2-0 gre 

ater than that in the same month on an average of the prece 

Electricity ... 
Cloudy Sky ... 

Number of Days Lightning 1 
Number of Clear Days "'. O 

Meteors ... 

Number observed ... 

nonth have been close to the averages. In ^ 
is been moderate for the season, a j 
t half the average, and generally over the ^ 
orth of the Lachlan River, and especiauy 
_ ^d abundant rains, reaching a ^xjmf ^ 
rl ing a maximum of 6i inches at Men»^^ 
xe rainfall was very light and at Goonoo Goonoo no t*» 
ions in tbftt district very little was recorded. 


MAECH, 18S0.— Geneeal Abstract. 

. Highest Reading 30065 inches on the 13th, i 

and on the 20th, a 
Lowest Reading 29'475 inches on the 25th, s 

(Being 0'4 

Mean in thTshad^ 

Humidity ., 
Bain ... 

,. Greatest Amount- 
Mean '.'.'. '.'.'. 

.. Number of Days... 
Greatest Fall .. 

Total Fall 

97-0 on the 30th. 

65 feet above ground. 

Electricity ... Number of Days Li 

ClOudy Sky... Mean Amount .. 

Number of Clear I 

Early this month floods were reported from several places At Iii 

■- -■'- ■ ■ -..■■ _■■ ■ • ■ ■' ■ - 

■■'•-■ - ■ .. ....:■: .■■_::■ < ' . 

.: ■'• ■■■•■ ■ ''. ■_.• ■ ' ' ' ' ' ■ 

-■'■■ :■:. ■ . ■ - N ■■ > ■ ^ ~ L ■" 

E»*M80hig] from the low country. On 

::- . ■,:::■• 

2Jmg steamers reports that, from the end of January . 

r;,: 1 ..!;'- ; ; • ' : - 1 \ , 

ana barometer are close to the average : 



APBIL, 1880. — General Abstract. 

. Highest Reading 30372 inches on tlie 11th at midni| 

Lowest Reading 29580 „ on the 5th., at 2"50 p 

Mean Height 29 940 

Number of Days Calm . 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 83 8 on the 5th. 
Lowest in the Shade ... 52-fci on the 26th. 
Greatest Range 201 on the 5th. 

Mean '.'.'. 

Number of Days 20 rain an 

Greatest Fall 1233 inch 

Total Fall f ?S - 

Electricity . . . Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days ... 
Meteors ... Number observed 

las been about the average and the weather seasonable. At 
raa less than the average°for this month, but still ' ^ u ^ 
l Districts especially, abundant rains have fallen j 9 mc 

a especially, abundai 

nearly 8 from the " 


MAT, 1880.— Genebal 

Barometer ••• Highest, Reading... 
it. Lowest Reading ... 

... 30-142 inches on the 
... 29367 „ on the J 

I 5th, at 10 a.m. 
26th, at 435 a.m 

Mean Height ... 

... 29779 

(Being 0134 less than that in the same mont 

h on an average of the prece. 

ling 21 years.) 

Wind Greatest Pressure 

... 31-2 lbs. on the 8th. 

... 91b. 

Number of Days Calm 

Prevailing Direction 

Temperature Highest in the Shade 

... 74-7 on the 2nd. 

Greatest Range ... 

... 22-7 on the 21st. 

... 116-6 on the 3rd. 

Lowest on the Grass 

Mean Diurnal Range 

... 145 

... 57-8 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 

980 on the 21st. 

Metn Z '.'.'. 

"... 500 on the 11th. 
... 705 

(Being 5-9 less than that of fee same montl 

i on an average of the precec 

ling 21 years.) 

Ra ia Number of Dajs... 

... 7 rain and 10 dew. 

i 26th. 
above ground. 

Total Fall 

{ 0586 ',', 15 in. 

above ground. 

(Being 4-887 inches less than that of the same month on an average of the p 

receding 21 years.) 

Evaporation Total Amount ... 

2328 inches 

fcone... ... Mean Amount ... 

... 71 

lt h on an average of the prec 

;e4 ing 20 years.) 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 8 

^dySky... Mean Amount ... 

... 50 

^^ertlusxnonthhas been fine and ^J^^l^Lr&^mS. 

T^t^TnZ S£wT and ShUEonl wtteS^Tnda preyed, and on 
^ the total miles recorded was 625. 



JUNE, 1880.— General Abstract. 

}0 169 on the 12th, at 10-15 a.m. 
29-569 on the 15th, at 3 "40 p.m. 

Greatest Pressure 15 -1 lbs. on the 17th. 

Mean Pressure 

Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 

Humidity ... Greatest^ 

Electricity . . . Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days . . . 
Meteors ... Number observed 

Sydney the temperature has been unusually low, the mean J 
ge, and the temperature upon the grass fell to 33 '8 on the ! 

vailed, and the rainfall has been very light, only 

below the average. In the country similar con r 

.:'.eratures have in nearly all cases been below 40, 
below 30". At seventy-nine stations th< 

no rain fell ; and at no place in the Colony has there been a - 
greatest fall recorded for the month being 335 inches at Kyamba. 
and other places the cold was so severe that jugs of water placed u 
were frozen hard during the night. 


Mean Pressure 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 

Temperature Highest in the shade 

38-8 on the 7th. 
26-1 on the 31st. 
110-0 on the 27th. 

43-0 on the 27th. 

0-255 inch on the 1 

Electricity . . . Number of Days Lightning 

^dy Sty... Mean Amount 

I-. Number of Clear Days ... 


The weather this month has been cold and dry generally °f ^JS^ the 
thia is a fair index of the rami 
■»]<*nty f Country Stations. 


AUGUST, 1880.— General Abstract. 

. Highest Reading ... 30-299 on the 16th, at 940 a.m 

Lowest Reading 29'433 on the 8th, at 2-2 p.m. 

Mean Height 29854 

Wind Greatest Pressure ... 423 lbs. on the 10th. 

Mean Pressure Tl lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 
Prevailing Direction ... "W.N.W. 
(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preced 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 79 3 on the 21st. 

Greatest Ranee 280 on the 1 7th. 

125 8 on the 20th. 

Mean Diurnal Range 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days ... 
Meteors ... Number observed 

The temperature this month has been high, 27 above the ave 
weather still continues and only 0612 was recorded at Sydney ; 
able fact that in the country districts only 19 stations out of 178 
of rain ; and the greatest fall was only 2910 inches at Orange. 


Highest Reading.. 
. Lowest Reading . . 
Mean Height 

Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 

Electricity . 
Cloudy Sky . 

Jhe temperature this month has heen slightly above tl 

■'.;-■■' ••■■■ •■-" i'. ■ ■■-■'--' "/ .' - ; 

Jfort Macquarie. The south-western districts however received little ram, ana iu 

OCTOBEE, 1880.— General Abstract. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading . . 
At 32° Eaht. Lowest Reading .. 
Mean Height 

Greatest Pressure 
Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm , 

Lowest in the Shade 
Highest in the Sun 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 

Greatest Fall 1022 inches on the 21st. 

Number of Days 16 rain and 3 dew. 

towm fSS!:* ",ft;S£E-i. 

Evaporation Total Amount 31 

Ozone Mean Amount 7'7 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 9 

Cloudy Sky ... Mean Amount 6\L 

Number of Clear Days ... 2 

Meteors ... Number observed ... 1 


1880. — General Abstract. 

Highest Reading 30042 inches on the 6th, at 11-35 

p.m., and 7th, at 10 a.m. 
Lowest Reading 29-291 inches on the 14th, at 323 p.n 

Wind Greatest Pressure 

Mean Pressure... 
Number of Days Calm . 
Prevailing Direction 

.. 231 lbs. on the 1, 
.. 09 lb. 
.. S. 

(Prevailing direction during the same n 

lonth for the preceding 2: 

Temperature Highest in the Shade . 

Greatest Range ... 
Highest in the Sun 

Mean Diurnal Range 
Mean in the Shade 

!! 533 on the 21st.' 
.. 32 2 on the 14th. 

'.'. 14-1 
,. 668 

(Being 0-2 greater than that of the same month on an average of the pi 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 

,. 99-0 on the 9th. 
. 330 on the 15th. 


Number of Days , 
Total Fall... 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days ... 
Meteors ... Number observed 

e preceding 20 years. 

been very dry, and at the great majority of 
much less than 1 inch. A part of the ^ 
Bodalla reports the greatest amount, v: 

DECEMBER, 1880.— General Abstract. 

Faht. Lowest Reading .'.'.' .'.'.' 29204 „ on the 15 

Wind Greatest Pressure ... 336 lbs. on the 31st. 

Mean Pressure 10 lb. 

Number of Days . 
Greatest Fall 
Total Fall 

Evaporation Total Amount 

Ozone Mean Amount 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 



its, economy, and geogra- > tterara i*.ren:r. 
o neighbourhood of Sydney Gerard Erefft. 

omer 1 Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

n'gons. Paper No. 2 J 

m ' ve3of l Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

the second degree. Paper No. 3 ) 

Eesearches concerning n'gons inscribed in surfaces ] Martin Gardiner] C .E. 

-ree. Paper No. 4 ) 

Southern > John Tebbutt, juur. 

Hemisphere J 

On the Comet of September, 1862. No. 1 John - 

On the Comet of September, 1862. No. 2 John j 

Remarks on the preceding Taper, made at thel Bev.W.TJ.< ! -^ ■" 

Meetiug of 7th September, 1861 ) B.G.^^.V-, 

iia Dr. Berncastle. 

and their antidotes Dr. Berncastle. 

On the Wambeyan Caves Dr. James Cox. 

Ou the Fibre Plants of New South Wales Charles Moore, P.L.b. 

OnOsmium and I; w South") . Leibius, Ph.D. 


On the Prospects of the Civil Service under the] Lieut -Colonel Ward. 
tion Act of 1864 5 


of New South Wales O.Bol 

On the Defences of Port Jackson <^ ; \. 

On the Transmutation of Eocks in Australasia ... | j-0 g ' frjj ■ - - 

On the Oology of Australia g. F 

The Theory of Encke's Comet G. E. Smaller. 

i between Geological] a E Snm Uey. 

Changes and Astronomical Observations ) 

Meteorological g d bearings > tx. Jt. omui*-,) . 

of those subjects > 

- and Customs of the Aborigines of } Q #rar a Erefft. 
the Lower Murray and Darling ) 

WALES, 1867. 

Vol. I. 

Cockle, F.E.S., President 

II.— Remarks on a paper by S. H. Wintle, ) Gerard Krefffc, Curator 
Esq., on the bones found in a care at [ of the 9 

Glenorchy, Tasmania ) seum. 

„ III.— On the Auriferous and other Metal- } ,, w „ „, , 
liierou^Di.ti iet< of Northern Queens- ( J A &c 

" IV '~° VtrXnTse^S 06 ^ ^^ ™ ^ } E " Bedford > M.R.C.S. 
V.— On the 1.' i'.. Pell, B.A., Pro- 

tion of Ed 
compared with England and other t 1 ies in the University 

Key. W. J 
M.A., &e. 

YL— Note on the Geology of the Mary River 
YIL— On the Mutual Influence of Clock Pen- 

WALES, 1868. 

Vol. II. 

Opening Address by George R. Smalley, B.A., F.R.A.S., Vice-President. 
bticle I.-On the value of Earth Temperatures ... [ ^'y^JS!^ 7 ' B ' A " 
II.— On the Improvements effected in M< 

Museums in Europe and Austral: 
III.— On the Hospital Requirements of") Alfred Roberts, 

Sydney / M.R.C.S. 

TV.— On the'Cau-es and Phenomena of) Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
Earth.,. «] ; t;>£ M.A., F.G.S., Ac., 

shocks felt in Australia ) V.-P. 

V.— On •',:• Wat rr Supply of Sydney ... Professor Smith, M.P. 
VI-lt--.l« ; - W;,-,. ('ulturein New South! Christ her R^ton. 

\V ales during the last ten years ... f r 

V1L— Beaux ben of ) Edward Bedford, 

, YIII.— On Pauperism in New South Wales— \ 


WALES, 1869. 

Vol. III. 

Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S.. Viee-Presdent. 

r&. K. Holden, Senior 
Article I.— On the operation of the Real Property Act J Examiner of Titles, 

Article II.— Analytical Solution of SirW. Hamilton's) 

Problem i " d £ Martm Gardiner, C.E. 

N'gons in any quadric ... • • • J 

„ III.— New Theorem in the Geometry of I : 

Divisions J 

„ IV.— Exposition of the American Method c 

Levelling for Sections. The sup. 

riority to th . Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

i, vV.i'od- s^v.z - tmllMd p.-a<- 

; . • \ : 

E C. Craebiell, Super- 
intendent of Tele- 

the Aus 

VI.— Notes on the Geology of the country ) A M Thompson, Sc. 

systems of EuropI and j graphs for N.S.W. 

,YIII._ hu]> vd s, .unions of Problems m ] Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

., IX.— On tii •. v trem \ Charles Maves. 

George's River and Cook's River ... j 
■» X.— On the i. \' im "^ f , «, hi M.D. 

p. B. Miller, F.C.S. 
» XIL-On^a^new Tpparatus "f or Reducing j A Le ibius, Phil. Doc. 
„ XIIL-Remarks" !m T:!hl' s for Calculating] H c . Eusse h\ B.A. 
the Humidify of the Air ... ■■■) 


WALES, 1870. 

Vol. IV. 


Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, MX, F.G-S., Vice-Prudent. 

Article I.-On Post-office Savings Banks, Friendly} c> Eolleston, Auditoi 

Sr«.i«t«« ivntl Government hue > General. 

[.— Eemarks on th V , t of t • \V ! r) 

r ) By Norman Taylor and 
. ) Prof. Thomson, Sc.D 

Vol. V. 


Opening Address by Professor Smith 

Li-th-Ie 1.— Kemarks on the Nebula aroun 


„ II.— Magnetic Variations at Sydney 
„ III.— Eemarks on the Botany of Lord 1 

Vol. VI. 

Opening Address by the Eev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., Vice-President. 
Article I. — On an - panting) 

Gold from Argentic Chloride, as ob- V Dr. Leibius. 

tained in gold-refining by chlorine gaa ) 
„ II.— Eemarks on the Fallacy of a certain) 

method of A ■ Dr. Leibius. 

given by some Manuals of Assaying ) 
„ IIL-Eemarks^onJin Ore, and what may j Dr ^^ 

TT r nT",' 6 ^ ( George Milner Stephen, 

„ IV. — On Australian Gems j F G- S. 

„ V.— Astronomical Notices .. ... ... IT. C. Eussell, BA. 

„ VI.— On the Coloured Cluster Stars about") w n -R. liaHA n. b.A. 

„ VII. — On the DenUicunn Meteorite \ 

n VIII.— Statistical Eeriew of the Progress of) 

New South Wales in tho last ten £ 

years, 1862-71 J 



WALES, 1873. 
Vol. VII. 

fc I—Anniversary Address, by the Rot. W. B. Clarke, MA., Tice 
II.- A;-' ' lixr 1 ,,"!! Anniversary Address, by the Eev. W. B. Clarke 

i III O, , ~ ] U dPcrfs June Manning. 

J ia " ' .J 

X.— On Geodesic Investigate no Ma 


WALES, 1874. 
Vol. VIII. 

Article I.— Duplex Telegraphy „.*.'.. ... E. C. Craeinell, Esq. 

III.— Iron Ore and < 


Vol. IX. 

list or run. 

ddress, by the Rev. W. 
, Vice-President 
Sea Soundings. By I 

By S. H. Wintle, Hobarfc Town . 
.'III.— L\ i." n. t \\ it v Supply to Sydn, 

L\.— AE.1i | 1: \\ ater Supply. By J 

By James Manning 

XI.— Scientific Notes 
XII.— Examples of Pseud- M 

t Wales. By Professor 

. - ■, . i ■ ■ ■■- . 

- H. C. Russell, B.A., Sydney Observatory ... 

Vol. X. 

(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 

Article I.— List of Officers. 

List of Members 

IL— Anniversary Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 

M.A, F.R.S., Yice-President 

„ III.— Notes on some Remarkable Errors shoi 

)n the Origin and Migrati >n> f lh< IV 

Nation. By Rev. Dr. Lang ... 
tathe Deep Oceanic Depressioi oi More 

By Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A, F.R.S. . 
ome Notes on Jupiter during his Opposi' 



i Liversidge, Professor of Mineralogy 
liversity of Sy ' 
-Recent Copper Extractor 

-On someTertiary 

ByRev. J. E.Teni<on-Woo<k 

\u.>t -ali i! I'oh , 
Tenison-W ' 
Russell, B.A., 

. I' ! .--. 


- v _ ■ i . . < < t Ei \: 

W. B. Clarke, M. A., F.E.S 


the Richmond River. By Professor Liver-;.; 
„ XIV. — Remarkable Example of Contorted slate. (1 

n XY.— Proceedings 

„ XVI.— Additions to Library 

„ XVII.— Donations 

„ XVIII.— Keports from the Sections 

Papers read before Sections. 

1. Macrozamia spiralis. By F. Milford, M, 

{Two plates.) 

2. Transverse Section of Fang of Human Too 

showing Exostosis. By Hugh Paterson 

4. Etchin ^ " 

H. C. 

„ XX.— Index 329 


Vol. XI. 

(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 

II.— Anniversary Address, bv H. C. B 

HI.— The Forest Vegetation of Central v 

New Iv tth Geological 

Influences. Ly W. Christie, Li,- 

IV.— On Dromoni/s J'>7;W/.v, a ne-,\ i 

Bv the Rev. W. 13. 'Clarke, 

Bird of Aust 

, Vice-President 

Ear-Bones of Ctenodus. On the 
iiila, (Joracoid, Ribs, 
By W. J. Barkus, M.R.C 

l, Coracoid, \ 
iCM, I 

VIL— On 
Tin.-On & 1 

oie-.ur Liversidge, F.C.S.,F.G.S 


r Method of exfcr 

' . - -■ . ' 

fciary F .1. E. Tenison- 
Woods, F.G-.S., F.E.G-.S 

113 to 128 

XL— ASynopd yPolyzoa. By 
R. Etheridge, junr., F.G.S 

129 to 143 

XII.— Ctenacanthus, a Spine of Hybodus. By W. J. 
Barkas, M.R.C.S 

145 to 155 

OIL— A System of Notation adapted to ea 

157 to 163 

on the Meteorology, Natural 1 

of a Gu do and other 

Phospk ; -hind. Bv W. 
A. Dixon, F.C.S " ... 

1G5 to 181 

XY.— On some Australian Tertiary Corals. {Two 
plates.) By the Eev. J. E- Tenison- Woods, 

F.G.S., F.E^G.S 

183 to 195 

XVI.— On a new and remarkable Variable Star in the 

Constellation Ara. By J. Tebbutt, F.E.A.S. . . . 

197 to 202 

. XVII.— On a Bent id pwuliiml'v of the Lrpido.stcidiO. 

Bv W.J. Hi".:. 
, XVIII.— A New F,.-il Kxlih.-t l-n.ries of Kam~— 

By* the Eev. W. 

, XIX. — Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances. 

By H. C. Eussell, B.A., F.E.A.S 213 to 218 

XX. -Proceedings 219 to 235 

. XXI.— Adddioi- to the Library 236 to 244 

. XXIL— LUt of Exelwnnes and Pre.-entations 245 to 251 

, XXIIL— Beports from the Sections 253 to 278 

Papers bead befobe Sections. 

Coccus of the Cape Mul- 

„ XXVL- 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge and Dr. Leibiu 


iry Address, by Christopher Rolleston, 

lForeats; their Botany an 1 E n. i '1 
By Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, F.G.S., 

Polyzoa. (One plate.) By the IN v. J. K. 

Tenison-Woods, F.G-.S., F.L.S 

' ! ■ • 
of the Sydney Observatory. By John Tebbutt, 


)n the Meteorology of the Coast of New South 
\\ s durnu tin- \\ .M - « i tli-, \ itli L . 
<}< sii; 1 iht\ < I — i . i irySt nn Wam- 

of the ship " T. L. Hall" 

torms on the Coast of New South Walvs. 

' J. P. Joseph- 

C. Russ.ll. i;. \.. i'.i;..\.>. I' M>, \- - 
XL— On ti; I Cobalt. By 

VV. A. l>ix<m, F.C.S., F.l.C 

XII.— The Deep Well Waters of Sydney. By W. A. 

■» XIV.— The Rise and Progress of I 

L-'<. ■ . ■■■ V. . ; : . : 

«• XV. — Proceedings 

■ .. 

■ ■ 
»XvHI. — List of stations 

1. Note on the Planet Uranus. By John Tebbutt, 


2. On the Longitude of Sydney Observatory. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S ... ... 

3. Note on the Transit of Mercury. (One 

<li<t<ir f n,i.) livJolm Tebbutt, I-MI.A.S. ... 

4. Note mi the Star " I'.i -iMnuie 6183." By John 

Tebbutt, F.R.A.S . ••• 

5. Notes on the Observatories in the United 

States. By W. J. M.-u-P imell. F.J', V.-. 

6. Clark's Co,n|'.aninnoi Sinus. By H. C. Russell, 

B.A., F.R.A.S. 


7. The Triangle Micrometer. By H. C. Russell, 

B.A., F.R.A.S. ... _ _••• 

I iter during h 

On' >t.»-,l - v. .it-. 1 the separating power of 


Abstract of the Results of the Transit of 
Venus. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S... 

Notes on the Geocentric Conjunction of Mars 
and Saturn, 1879. By John Tebbutt, 

H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 

14. Note on the Boorook Silver Mine. By A. W . 

Dixon, F.C.S 

15. Notes on the Incrustation of the Sydney 

\\ at. i Main B\ Di Morris 

16. An Apology for the Introduction of the Study 

of Photography in our Schools of Art and 
S« nee. Bj Ludovico Hart 

17. On Mi; uilhan 

XX.— Appendix :< .logical Obser- 

vatioi . rratory. By 

Vol. XIII. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge.) 

Article I.— List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, _ 

and List of Members x t0 xl 

II.— Anniversary Address, by the Hon. Professor 

Smith, ; ••■ ••" lt0 

III.— The "Gem" Cluster in Argo. By H. C. Russell, 
B.A., F.R./ " 
1878. By Professor 1 
V.— The Water of' Sydney Harbour. By the Rev. W. 

Hey Sharp, M.A ••• 

VI.— On the A • w-ith a Mono- 

graph of the Genus. By the Rev. J. &■ 

Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S •■• 

VII.— On the Geological Formations of New Zealand 
compared with those of Australia. By James 
Hector, M.D.. C.M.G., K.H.S. .. ... ••• 

VIII.— On u 

those of the M( 

ozambique and of the South c 
■ ' Clarke, V.P.A.I., London 

Article IX.— Photography, its relation to Popul 

By L. Hart 

X.— Ottelia prseterita, F. v. M. By Baron von Mueller, 

K.< MLS 

„ XI.— Compiled Catalogue of Latitude Stars, Epoch 

1880. By H. S. Hawkins, M. A 

„ XII.— Notes on the occurrence of remarkable Boulders in 
the llawkesbury Rocks. By C. S. 

L.S., F.G.S ] 

„ XIII.— The Wentworth Hurricane. By H. C. Russell, 



-Additions to the Librar; 


and Presentations 150 to 157 

Papers read before the Sections. 
XVII. — Report f t e Sections ... ... 

1. On a new method of printing Star Maps. 

H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. ... 

2. Occultation of 64 Aquarii by Jupiter, b< 

14th. By John Tebbutt, F. R . A. S . . 

trial of the s 

one-eighth (No. 18), by h 

central light. By H. Shart 

7. An improved Dissecting Microscope. 

8. Art Criticism. By E. L.Montefiore .. 

Forest. From i ot tk 

11. Ten i 

Manning, M.D 

,, XVIII.— Appendix : Abstract of the 
Observations taken at the Sydr 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.o. ... - - to 251 
„ XIX.— List of Publications ... ••• - " - osq 
„ XX.-Index - - 


Vol. XIV. 


f John Tebbutt, F.I 
V —Some new Double Stars, with remarks upon 


YI.-TheV i. 1880* (Great 

Southern Comet). By John Tebbutt, 

VIL — A j Barometer and 

other Curves. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 


ings. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 

IX.-On'Tliumiu ami'lLufstorms.' By" H. C. 
Russell, ] 1 V s J> ,/, mi) 

X.— On - : the surface of 

Jupiter. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 

XL -Renirks 'oftTe Colours' of Jupiter's Belts; 

and some changes observed thereon during 

t , Opposii onoi 1880. I'\ G. P. Hirst ... 

XII.— A Catalogue of Plants collected during -Mr. 

Alexr. Forrest's Geographical Exploratioi 

1879. By Baron 

Ferdinand von Mueller, K.C.M.C 
Ph.D., F.R.S. (Map) 
XIII.— On Ringbarking and its 

XV.— On the Aru Xative ( urrant. By E. 

II. Bonnie, M.A., B.Sc 

XVI.— On Piturie. !'\ Vv< • -or Liversidge 
XV3X-— On Sal ler Plants. By 

W. A. Dixon, F.C.S 

XVIII.— W»1 jw Britain. By 

Professor Liversidge 

XIX. — \\ at. r from a Hot Spring, Fiji Islands. By 

XX.- -Tlr- I acted upon by 

" ' >r Liversidge 

:ome Wood enclosed 
r Liversidge 
XXII. —The Composition of Coral Limestone. By 

Professor Liversidge 

XX1IL— 'Ii. lm.r_ni.ic < ..n>titu< nts of the Coals of 

New South Wales. By W. A. Dixon, F. 0. 8. 

XXIV.— On the Composition of some New South Wales 

'oals. By Professor Liversidge 

some New South Wales Minerals. By 

XXVI.— Notes on some Minerals from New Cale- 
donia. By Professor Liversidge 

Notea on a Collection of Fossil 
Paleozoic Rocks of New Si. nth \\ ;iks. 
By R. Etheridge, junr., F.G.S. [Plate.) 

, P.M. (Map).. 

„ XXX.— Proceedings 

XXXI— Additions to the Library ... 

Society of New South Wale 

Reports from the Sections 

Papek bead befobjs the Medic- 
The Causation and Prevent; 

.. , on Ringbarking and 

■ 07 

Lains 281 

Leteorological Observa- 
tions at Sydney 350 

E.H. Rennie, M.A.,B.Se. .. 119 

Address, Anniversary ; by Charles 

'■".-w Brunswick, analysis 
of: Liversidge..... 210 

Allophane from New < 'aii-'doii'ia "..'.'.'.'. 2 16 
Alumina, large amount of, in kero- 
sene shale ash 208 

Alunogen, analysis of, Wallerawang 213 

Amarantaceaj, N. W. Australia 85 

Analysis of cast-iron acted upon by 

aea-water: Liversidge 150 

fossil-wood: Liversidge 156 

Analyses of ashes from New 

coals 164 

of New South Wales Coals... 

Analysis of Minerals from New 

Caledonia 23:5 24(3 

Analysis of Waters from Hot Springs, 

■ . . .. 
Andradite— common garnet of Wal- 
lerawang ......... 213 

Anodontopsis, neti- 1 u'mbala' *'.['. '. '. '.'.'. '. 249 

Anthocercis Hopwoodii . . 123 

Antimony in New Caledonia 230 

aatuaonite from New Caled 

AphanaiafromWHllon^m^ 251 

aSi?' N " w " Australi * 5 1 

Aaclepiadeas N. W. Ai Alalia 'ill 

%enffoli^, N. W. Australia 92 

^yiums, English lunatic 355 

Jj^of 214 

JJypafromBomhala 25(! 


Barometer and other Curves, a new 
tiag; by H. C. 

i;,.VL C. \\. F.R.A.S 4 

Barometer Reading. - 

correcting ; by H. C. Russell, B. A., 

F.R.A.S 4 

Barratta and Bingera Meteorites ; by 

i%» ■■ ;: W 

Basalt containg fossil wood, Inverell H 
Bedgery or Fitune M 

Binaries— Remarks upon several ; by 

H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 5 

B:-n:v -rar. /. Eridam - 

Biu_^ M L -t. .rite; by Professor 

Liversidge . ..... ■•• — * 

BiSi® ofN.W. Australia .•■•-•••••• ! 

Bog butter New South ^ ales, 

analysis ot * 

Books purchased in 1880 <* 

Bornite from New Caledonia 2 


Cacholong, Tumut River, analysis of 2 

Caledonia-New-On a collection i ot 

Minerals received from the Balade 

and other Mines in; by Professor 

Liversidge •■•••• - ., 

ot Aew oouin 


Cannel coal, Wigan, England, an- 

alysisof, Liversidge 


Capparideae, Ord River 

Carboniferous beds of Vijtoria^^ 

Cassiterite, Vegetable LreeK, an<uv»" 

; i)on by Sea-water; 

bv Professor Liv 

Chaiopyrites from New Caledonia... 

s analysis ot 

Chert from New « 

SLylite from New Caledonia 

Chlorite from New &&*>**"£;'£ 
Chloropal, near Mudgee, analysis of 

Chromite, analyse 

aXMemoSi awards'of... 

-.-. W.B..F.R.S., on ring- 
1 mrkin^ 

Clay Land iron oiv ■, V. 

Jamberoo, analysis of '. 

Coal ashes, copper in ] 

Coal cannel, Wigan, England, an- 
alysis of : Liversidge 2 

Coal from Allora, Queensland, an- 


. ... ! 


Coals of New South Wales, Inorganic 
tentaof; by W. A. Dixon, 

F.C.S 1 

Coals of New South Wales 

tion of some; by Professor Liver- 

Western District ] 

Cobalt ores in New Caledonia, analy- 
ses of £ 

Cocoa-nut tree in Queensland 

Collection of Fossils from the Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks of New Soul 
Notes on a; by R. I 
junr., F.C.S. ....... . .2 

f N.W. Australia 

Cometl, 1880(GreatSouthernComet), 

: Elements of ; by John 

Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

Comet of 1680, perihelion distance... 

Commelyneaj of N.W. Australia 

Composite of N.W. Au stralia 

Composition and micros. 
ture of some New South Wales 
Rocks ; by Professor Li 

Composition of Coral Limestone ; by 

Composition of some New South 
Walus Coals; by Professor Liver- 


Conocardium, Bungaralaby, lake 
Bathurst 2 

Copper gossan from New Cal 

ashes 185 

Copper, metallic, in porphyrytic 

- una '215 

Copper ores, New Caledonia 227 

bone— The composition 

of : 1 \ l\ . . - . ! sidg l.">9 

Jew Hebrides 159 

Correcting Barometer Readings— 
lefortbyH. C.Russell, 

B.A., F.R.A.S. ... 47 

ing Members, new ...295, 301 

I Biver 83 

New Caledonia 228 

itive— On the Acids of 

Curves— A new method of printing 
Barometer and otlur ; by 11. 0. 

Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 43 

KT.W. Australia M 

Cyperidium phosphorescens, new 
species, Hewett on 337 


Daniell, Professor, experiments with 

Darwin, onlns^ti i, - . Ii :- ]'\ 

Devonian beds of Victoria > W 

Diallage from New Caledonia '-+•> 

':s 12 ^ 

ipula, near Sydney 17 


The Inorganic Consi 

of the Coals of New South 
Dolomite from New Caledonia 241 


■ ?? 

Duboisia Hopwoodii l -'l 

Pituri 123 

Effects of Ringbarking ; by W. E. 

Abbott Jo 

m Bombala ~_; 

\lnm-, ;:.,.> 

Engravings purchased in 1880 

Eridani, p., diagram showing ob- 

ESdge!°E. '"junior; ' F. G.'s! -On a 
Collection of New South Wales 

Euphorbiacca* of N. Wi 1 Ai tralia 

Wales coals ° 

Exploration, Geographical, of North- 
west Australia in 1879 ; by Mr. 
Alexander Forrest 


Feistmantel, Dr. Ottaker, on Geolo- 
gical Obsen tions made in New 

1876 ..'. ! 

Ficoidea of X. W. Australia 

Fiji— Hot Spring Waters from ; by 

Filaria in tlie ik-sh \.f the bullock, 

Richmond River, N. S. W. ; by 

Fdicos'ofX.V.' Australia"! '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. 

fishes, fossil, of Tasmania 

Flagdlarie, „t X. W. Ai.-ti.ilia ... . 
* odder Plants- Composition of Euro- 

Exploration of North! v.Ct ' Au>- 

Gi Jet from New Ca 

Wt;''co'ram' n''';' 
^Ueraw™ n .. (! 

nickel in New Caledonia by 

oloration of North- 
in 1879 ; by Mr. 

Geological Observations made in l^Tti 
in Eastern Australia a nil Tasmania ; 
by Dr. Ottaker Feistmantel.. 

(t( loglstS. ( > '_ I" . t. 1' I' II - 

Geology of New South Wales 

Gipps— F.B., A Comparison U two n 
the Prospect and Kenny Hill 

.; New Caledonia, 

(bdd, Diahot 1 r, New < >ia 

Goodenough, R.N., the late Comnio- 

(;o<Kle^ioviace!cof X'.W. Australia.. 

adgee, analysis of ... 

.. • F.R.A.S 51 

■evded in Xew South 


New Caledonia 246 

22 2 

Hawkesbury beds •••■ 106 

W. .l.M.pL... U.A. on the 7 

.own, Jamberoo, ana- 

hsisof ■ 217 



i^o ■■_■ <; 


. v'caipdonia !!!!!!!!■ 2« 


lysis of " l 

afieldfor 82 

Inorganic Constituents of the Coals 
of New South Wales ; by W. A. 

Dixon. F.C.S 163 

i win on ... 16 
Insane, Hospital for the, at Glades- 

vill. 340 

Insanity— The Causation and Pre- 
vention of; by Dr. F. Norton 

Manning 340 

Insanity, Table showing causes of... 354 
Iron, cast, Dr. Percy, F.R.S., on 

effects of sea-water upon 151 

Professor Daniell, experi- 

Iron, Robert Mallet, "fIs.' p on 

effects of sea-water upon 152 

Iron ores in New Caledonia 238 


Jupiter— On the Opposition and Mag- 
nitudes of Uranus and ; by John 

Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 23 

Jupiter— On some recent changes on 
of ; by H. C. Russell, 

B.A., F.R.A.S 63 

Jupiter's Belts — Remarks on the 
Colours of, during the Opposition 

of 1880 ; by G. D. Hirst 77 

atonal belts of 63 

clouds of 64 

colour of 65 

measures of the red spot on. . . 69 


Kaolin from New Caledonia 245 

Kenny Hill and Prospect Schemes 

of Water Supply for Sydney— A 

comparison between the ; by F. B. 

Gipps 259 

le 206 

Kerosene shale ash, analysis of 208 

large amount of alun 

Kerosene shale from New Caledonia, 

analysis of 240 

Kerosene shales compared with otht r 

hydro-carbons 210 

Kiandra Meteorological Stati on 49 

Kochia pyramidata, analysis of 137 

Kykockodilla tribe of Australian 

Blacks 123 

Ladenburg on Piturine 1 

Lead, native, Gnnda-ai. N.S.W. 2 

Lead ore in New Caledonia 2 

Leguminoseaj, N.W. Australia 

Lentibulaneas, N.W. Australia 

Library — Additions to the 3 

Limestone Coral, the Composition of ; 

by Professor Li versidge 1 

Limestone from Minumurra Creek, 

N.S.W., analysis of 2 

Limonite, clay band iron ore, Waller- 

Limonite, concretions from Bingera 
Diamond Fields, analysis of 2 

Literature and Fine Arts, including 
Architecture, Section G 3 

Liverpool Plains— On Wells in the ; 
byT. K. Abbott, P.M......... T 

■ on 'Hot Spring Water from 

on Hot Spri 

Fiji Islands 

on the Composition of Cast- 
iron acted upon by Sea-water . I 

on a Specimen of fossilized 

Wood ] 

on the Composition of Coral 

Limestone and other Rocks .. 

■ Vies Coals 

— on some New South Wau» ^ 

on a "Collection of" Minerals 

from New Caledonia 2 

on some New South Wales 

and other Rocks a 

on the Barratta and Bingera 

Meteorites A 

Lobeliaceti •, N. W. Australia 

Longitude of the Sydney Observa- 
tory ; by John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 

LoxonemainN.S.W. Pakeozoic rocks 2 

Lythraceee, N.W. Australia 


Madras Star Catalogue 

Magnesite, New Caledonia * 

Magnetite from Wallerawang, an- 

Magnitudes and Opposition of Uranus 

aVt Jupiter; by John Tebbutt, 

F.R.A.S 2 

Malachite from New Caledonia 22 

New South Wales 12 

Malvaceae of N. W. Australia 8 

lington district, analysis of 22 

Marcasite, New Caledonia 23 

Marraolite, New Caledonia 24 

Medical Science. Section H 33 

Meerschaum in New Caledonia 23 

Meliacea} of N. W. Australia 6 

Members— List of xx: 

Menaccanite, titaniferous iron ore, 

Uralla, analysis of 25 

Menispermeee, Hooker's Creek, Ter- 
mination Lake 8 

Meaozoic beds of New South W-ik s . . 1 1 
Mesozoic Upper (Bellarine beds) of 

Victoria 1C 

Mesozoic, Lower, of Victoria 1C 

Meteorological Observations at the 

Sydney Observatory 3E 

Meteorological Station, Kiandra 4 

Microscopical Science. Section K... Sc 
Microscopical Cabinet— Donations to 

the Society's 3S 

Microscopic Structure of some New 
South Wales Rocks ; by Professor 

Liversidge 3< 

Minerals— On someNew SouthWales ; 

by Professor Liversidge 2 

Minerals— On a CoUection of, from 
New Caledonia; by Professor 

Moore, aSrles," F.L.'s.'," ' Vice-Presi- 
dent— Anniversary Address by ... 

Mueller, Baron Ferdinand von, 
K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
A Catalogue of Plants collected 
during Mr. Alexander Forrest's 
^eographicalExploration of North- 
west Australia in 1879 

fcP or in« of N. W., !a 

Myrtacea of N. W. Australia 

Ni S\T C ° Pper ' New South W;iles 
Jew Caledonia, goldi.nd . .,.,.. ..,-, : 
«ew Caledonia- On a Collection of 
Minerals from ; by Professor Liver- 

New Britain, Hot Spring Waters 
from ; by Professor Liversidge ... 14 

New South Wales Coals, Inorganic 
Constituents of ; by W. A. DlZOO, 
F.C.S 16 

>\-w Smith Wales Coals-On the 
Composition of some ; b\ Professor 

New South Wales, Geo<rrai-hiral <>!,. 
serrations ; by Dr. Ottaker Feist- 
mantel ........ ic 

New South Wales, Geology of IC 

-v of IC 

New South Wales Minerals— On 
some; by Professor Liversidge ... 21 

New South Waes Palaeozoic Rocks, 
on Fossils from ; by R. Etheridge 
jun.,F.G.S 2j 

Nickel in New Caledonia 2c 

North-west Australia, Mr. Alexr. 
Forrest's Geograpk 
of, in 1879 »..» t 

Noumeaite, analysis of, from New 
Caledonia • 2. 

Nyctagineas of N. W. Austraha i 

Nvmphaeacea? near Mount Whitte- 
noom, N. W. Australia I 

Observatory, Sydney ,..«.... 3 

Observations, Meteorological, at 


Officers— List of s 

Onaare of N. W. Australia 

Opal from New Caledonia - 

Opposition and Magnitudes of Uranus 
and Jupiter; by John Tebbutt, 

F.R.A.S •■ 

Orehidea of N. W Australia ...^ 

Orbit Elements of Comet I, 1880 

(Great Southern Comet) ; by John 

Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

Paleontology of New South Wales 105 
Paleozoic Rocks of New South 
Wales, Fossils from; by K. 

Etheridge, junr., F< i.S. ■■-•"• - T i 

I Lower, ditto, ditto, 

Percy, Dr., F.R.S., on effects of sea- 
water upon cast-iron 1 

Pittirie— On ; by Professor Liversidge ] 

Piturie plant, description of ] 

Piturine, F. von Mueller on 1 

Ladenburg on ] 

Liversidge on preparation of 1 

composition of 1 

Plants collected during Mr. Alexr. 
Forrest's Geographical Exploration 
of North-west Australia in LS70; 
by Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, 
K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.... 

Plants, Native Fodder and Salt- 
bush ; by W. A. Dixon, F.C.S. ... ] 

Darwin on Insectivorous 

composition of European fod- 

Pleurophorus from Wollongong i 

Portulace^e of N. W. Australia 
Positions of p. Eridani ; Diagram 
showing observed 

Society of New South Wales ...... ', 

Proceedings 5 

Proteaceseof N. W. Australia 

Protorotopora, from Singleton ! 

Prospect and Kenny Hill Schemes of 
Water Supply for Sydney— Com- 
parison between ; byF. B. Gipps... ! 
Pryor, Mr., on Geology of Diahot 

River, New Caledonia ! 

Publications—List of I 

Pyroxene, Oberon, N.S.W., analysis 

Pyrrhotine, Balade Mine, New Cale- 

Pyroxene, augite, New Caledonia . . . ! 


Queensland, cocoa-nut tree in 

in ; by Dr.°Ottaker Feistmantel ... 


Rainfall at Sydney, from 1840 to 1879. 


Red reef coral, New llduides 
Redrutbite from New Caledonia 

e, E. H., M.A., B.Sc, on the 

ds of the Native Currant 1 

Report, Annual, of tlie Council .... 2 

! . ' v.;.', : --. ■ ..■•■ •■ ... '. • : •• : :: 


>f N. W. Australia ' 

In — t -ll. 1!. C.B.A., F.K.A.S.Tsome " 
new Double Stars, with remarks 
upon several Binaries 

A new method of printing 

Barometer and other Curves 

Note upon a Sliding-scale for 

correcting Barometer Readings to 
32" Fah. and Mean Sea Level ■ 

on Thunder and Hail Storms. 

on some recent changes on the 

surface of Jupiter 

Rutile from N ew Caledonia 2 


[aceag of N. W. Australia 

Fodder Plants ; 

, W. A. Dixon, F.C.S 1 

Salt-bush, Dixon on analy 

v-mdu-i a Islands, New Hebrides 

kiit; laeea of X. \V. Australia 

Sapindacese of N. W. Australia 

~ ivu Savu, boiling springs at 1 

iheelite, Adelong, analysis of 

(Helms) I 

iaend, analysis of... - 
Sea- water, cast-iron acted upon by ; 

by Professor Liversidge ■ • ■ l 

Sections, Reports from the (in ab- 

stract) : i 

Serpentine from New Caledonia I 

Shale, kerosene ; ' 

Shale, kerosene, ash, large amount 

of alumina in • \ 

.. analysis of •« 

Silurian, Lower Paheozoic beds ot 

N,;\\ South Wales ■- ' 

Sliding-scale for co it 
Readings to 32' Falit. and Mean 
Sea Level; by H. C. Russell, B.A., 

F.R.A.S .• 

Solanaeeie of N. W. Australia.... -.- 
Southern Comet (Great), Orbit ce- 
ments of Comet I, 1880 ; by J. 
Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 


.1 Fiji; by Professor 

new Double ; by H. C. 

Russell, B. A., F.R.A.S 25 

nia 245 

. M.A, : On the Haw- 

kesbury Rocks 7 

if N T . W. Australia 83 

Storms, Hail, recorded in New South 

I I 52 

Storms, Thunder and Hail ; by H. C. 

Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 51 

Sttophomenafr..!.. B 

Sulphur present in coal 202 

Sydney, Bioncea mmcipula near 17 

Drosera dkhotoma near 17 

Sydney Observatory— Longitude of 

the ; by John TeU.utt, V. U.A.S... 19 
Sydney-Rainfall at, from 1840 to 


Table of New Double Stars in the 

Southern Cross 29 

Talc from New Caledonia 245 

made in; by Dr. Ottaker Feist- 
mantel 103 

Tasmania, Geology of 110 

Tebbutt, John, F.R,A.S., on the 
Longitude of the Sydney Observa- 
tory * ^ 19 

- — ' — ■ on the Opposition and Magni- 
tudes of Uranus and Jupiter 23 

— ; The Orbit Elements of Comet 


Tenorite from New Caledonia 22; 


Ihunder and Hail Storms ; by H. C. 
Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 51 

Thunderstorms and Hailstorms at 
South Head. Table II 5J 

Tde ore from New Caledonia 22* 

lihaceje from East of Connaught 
Ranges & 

Im-stone, or cassiterite, Vegetable 

S\w Caledonia 23( 

maniferoua iron ore, Uralla, analysis 

Torbanite, from New Caledonia, ana- 

_— - Tni-hau "itiii," Edinburgh, an- 
alysis of; Liversidge 2( 

Tuff rock from New Hebrides— On 
Composition of ; Liversidge 1 ( 


Uranus and Jupiter-Opposition and 
Magnitude of; by John Tebbutt, 
F.R.A.S ' 

Urticere of N.W. Australia ! 


Vati, Island of, New Hebrides Group 1 

Verbenaceffi of N. W. Austraha 

Victoria, Geological Observations 
made in; by Dr. Ottaker Feist- 
mantel ..'... ;■•"■—":";■- I 

Water Supply for Sydney : a com- 
parison between the Prospect and 
Kenny Hill Schemes; by F. B. ^ 

U U'V< H >t Spi .14. II" 111 N V 

Britain and Fiji; by Professor ^ 

Dr. Schomberg on •••■••■•■■:■•"-:" 
Wells in the Liverpool Plains; by 

T. K. Abbott, p.m. -,;r le * 

Wells on Liverpool piains-behtduie ^ 
v , L . join ot j 

analysis of